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Pre-Orientation/Entry Issues, Orientation


Title: Entry, Orientation & Training Subject: 2BC3 Author: Dr. McAteer Last modified by: TEAL McAteer-Early Created Date: 7/13/1997 9:07:06 PM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pre-Orientation/Entry Issues, Orientation

Pre-Orientation/Entry Issues, Orientation
Training Week 6 8 ______________________ Dr.
Teal McAteer
  • 2BC3

Please review Website for the following
  • Spreadsheets with assignment 1 grades posted
  • Mid-term Exam information

Pre- Orientation Entry Issues
  • Realistic Job Preview (RJP) and The Psychological
  • Developing commitment in the new recruit
  • Understanding Culture/Climate
  • Orientation
  • Socialization

What is Socialization?
  • Process by which an employee begins to adapt to
    the values, norms, and beliefs of the
    organization and its members (culture)
  • Involves learning the organizations climate and
    learning to fit in
  • Climate
  • members shared perceptions of the contingencies
    between behaviours that occur in the work
    environment and their consequences
  • Learning what behaviours are expected,
    acceptable, unacceptable

Strategic Importance of Socialization
  • Sets the tone of employment relationship
  • Clarifies expectations / how things are done
  • Reduces anxiety for new employees
  • Will I fit in? Will I enjoy the
  • Effects employee attitudes and behaviour
  • Job satisfaction, commitment
  • Job performance

Socialization vs Orientation
  • Socialization
  • Process of employees adapting to organization
  • Long-term process, often informal
  • Orientation
  • Program that informs new employees about their
    job and company
  • Short-term, often formal

Stages of Socialization
  • Anticipatory (Pre-Arrival)
  • Employees begin with certain expectations about
    organization and job
  • May be unrealistic if unmet, result in
    dissatisfaction, turnover, etc.
  • Realistic Job Preview (RJP) may be helpful
  • Info about job demands and working conditions
    both positive and negative aspects

Stages of Socialization
  • Encounter
  • Employee has started new job
  • Inconsistencies between expectations and reality
  • Needs info re policies, procedures, etc.
  • E.g., via Orientation program
  • Organizational issues, policies, etc.
  • Benefits
  • Introductions
  • Job Duties

Stages of Socialization
  • Encounter (contd)
  • Benefits of a good orientation program
  • Shows organization values to employee
  • Reduces employee anxiety and turnover
  • Reduces start-up costs
  • Clarifies job and organizational expectations
  • Improves job performance

Stages of Socialization
  • Change (Settling in)
  • Inconsistencies start to get worked out
  • Employee begins to identify with organization
  • Transition from being an outsider to feeling
    like an insider
  • Often involves taking on new attitudes, values,
    and behaviours to align with organizations
  • Misalignment dissatisfaction and turnover

Comments / Questions ??
  • Training vs Development
  • Both refer to the learning of job-related
  • Training
  • Focuses on job performance
  • Emphasis is on acquisition of specific KSAs
    needed for present job
  • Development
  • Focuses on personal growth, longer-term
  • Emphasis is on acquiring KSAs needed for future
    job or organizational need

Trends Affecting Training
  • Training and development activities have been
  • Low unemployment tight labour market
  • Organizations compete to attract retain
    employees, by offering better TD opportunities
  • New and changing technology new KSAs
  • Globalization training for employees with
    international assignments
  • Mergers, acquisitions, restructuring
  • Jobs change, employees need new KSAs

Training Process Model
  1. Needs assessment
  2. Design training objectives
  3. Develop program content
  4. Implement training program
  5. Evaluate effectiveness of training program

Step 1 Needs Assessment
  • Needs Analysis
  • Diagnosis of problems and future challenges that
    can be met through training development
  • Organizational analysis
  • Culture, values, mission, goals, strategy
  • Job / task analysis
  • KSA requirements
  • Person analysis
  • Gaps between employee KSAs and KSAs required by
  • E.g., performance evaluations, self- or
    supervisor identification

Step 2 Develop Training Objectives
  • Must include
  • The desired behaviour
  • The conditions under which it is to occur
  • Performance criteria
  • E.g., By the end of this week, you will be able
    to list and define the 5 main steps involved in
    the development of a training program, without
    referring to your notes

Step 3 Develop Program Content and Learning
  • Issues to consider
  • Needs assessment
  • Training objectives
  • Audience
  • Class size
  • Time availability
  • Cost
  • Training format
  • Learning principles

Learning Principles
  • How do people learn most effectively?
  • Participation
  • Participants are actively involved
  • Repetition
  • Repeated review of material
  • Relevance
  • Material is meaningful
  • Transference
  • Application of training to actual job situations
  • Feedback
  • Information given to learners re their progress

Banduras Social Learning Theory
  • High self-efficacy
  • Belief one can achieve a
  • behaviour
  • High outcome expectancy
  • Belief that behaviour will lead
  • to an outcome of value

Higher level of learning
Organizational Influences on Transfer of Training
  • Relates to trainees outcome expectancies
  • Will the behaviour lead to desired outcomes?
  • Rewards, pay, promotion
  • Are there rewards for demonstrating the new
  • Environmental constraints / obstacles
  • Lack of equipment, information, time, etc.
  • Supervisory and peer support
  • Reinforce training provide opportunities, reward
  • Train coworkers together reinforce each other
  • Organizations learning climate
  • Learning is encouraged, supported, rewarded, etc.

Step 4 Deliver Training
  • Numerous methods to choose from
  • On-the-job techniques
  • E.g., job rotation, apprenticeship, etc.
  • Off-the-job techniques
  • Lectures
  • Role playing
  • Case studies
  • Simulations
  • Computer-based training
  • Virtual reality

Strengths and Weaknesses of various Methods
Method Knowledge Skills Attitudes Transfer
Lecture Yes No No Low
Video Yes No Yes Med
Role play No Yes Yes High
Simulation Yes Yes No High
Case study Yes Med Yes Med
Step 5 Evaluating Training Effectiveness
  • 5 Criteria - Kirkpatricks 4 levels plus 1
  • Reaction
  • Are participants satisfied with training?
  • Learning
  • How much has been learned?
  • Attitude Change (not 1 of Kirkpatricks 4
  • Did training result in attitude change?
  • Behaviour change
  • Did the learning transfer to the job?
  • Results criteria
  • Was the training worth the cost to the company?

Evaluating Training
  • If possible, use an evaluation method that will
    allow you to draw accurate conclusions about the
    programs effectiveness
  • Reaction measures
  • Important, but dont refer to effectiveness
  • Measure behaviour post-training
  • Cant determine whether change occurred

Pre-test Post-test Design
  • Measure ? Training ? Measure
  • Allows you to see if change has occurred
  • E.g., of items produced before training
  • produced after training 16/minute
  • But, what if other employees who did not receive
    training average 15 items/minute?
  • Is training effective?
  • Should also use a control group
  • Employees who did not receive training

Example of Evaluating Training Effectiveness
  • Allied Signal Corp. - Garrett Engine Division
  • Manufactures jet engines
  • 2-day training program
  • Team building, communication, problem-solving,
  • For maintenance teams (that repair the
    manufacturing machines)

Evaluation Design
  • Evaluated 4 levels (Kirkpatricks levels) using
    pre-test post-test design with a control group
  • Reaction to training
  • Participants learning of training content
  • Paper-and-pencil test pre- and post-training for
    both trainee and control group
  • Participants on-the-job use of the new skills
  • Trainee and control groups rated team members
    behaviours before and after training
  • Relevant organizational outcomes
  • Equipment downtime job response time job
    completion time

  • Reaction high ratings of program
  • Learning
  • Post-test scores higher than pre-test scores and
    control group
  • Behaviour change
  • Better communication, problem-solving, etc. after
    training and compared to control group

Response time Completion time Down time Cost / job
Training pre- 4.8 hrs 13.6 hrs 18.4 hrs 1,341
Training post- 4.1 hrs 11.7 hrs 15.8 hrs 1,156
Control pre- 4.4 hrs 11.6 hrs 16.0 hrs 1,165
Control post- 4.4 hrs 11.7 hrs 16.1 hrs 1,211
Cost-benefit Analysis
  • ROI estimate (for 1 month time period)
  • Based on training vs control group post-tests
  • 1156 vs 1211 (difference of 55 / job savings)
  • Avg of 55 jobs / wk (x 4 weeks) 12,100 benefit
  • Cost of training 5,355
  • Net benefit 6,745
  • 6,745 (Net benefit) / 5,355 (Cost) 1.25
  • 125 ROI

Does training increase turnover?
  • Debate Do employers see a return on investment
    in tuition reimbursement?
  • 2 sides of the debate
  • Employee development leads to positive employee
    attitudes and motivates them to stay
  • Employee development increases employees
    employment options outside the organization and
    results in increased voluntary turnover
  • Which do you think is true?

Does training increase turnover?
  • Study Benson et al. (2004) AMJ, 47(3), 315-331.
  • In this study, 9543 workers whose company
    provided full tuition reimbursement were studied
  • Results
  • Turnover is very low while participants are
    taking classes or pursuing a degree
  • When participants complete advanced/graduate
    degrees, turnover increases dramatically
  • However

Does training increase turnover?
  • When these participants (who completed advanced
    degrees) were promoted, turnover was less
  • 56 less than participants who earned degrees but
    were not promoted
  • 55 less than participants who were promoted but
    did not take part in tuition reimbursement
  • Conclusion tuition reimbursement can be an
    effective retention strategy, provided attention
    is paid to job-skill match after someone has
    received an advanced degree

Comments / Questions