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Biofuels:

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Biofuels: Issues at stake PFSA, Namur, 21/12/06 Biofuels Liquid and gaseous fuels derived from biological material Sugar/cellulose ethanol (corn, sugar cane, ...) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biofuels:


1
-
  • Biofuels
  • Issues at stake
  • PFSA, Namur, 21/12/06

2
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3
Biofuels
  • Liquid and gaseous fuels derived from biological
    material
  • Sugar/cellulose ? ethanol (corn, sugar cane, ...)
  • Oil ? biodiesel (rapeseed, soy, oil palm, ...)
  • Pure oil
  • Driver liquid fuel for transport
  • Target Europe
  • 2 mixture 2005, 5,75 mixture in 2010 (17 mln
    ha 20 arable land EU)

4
Why? Arguments pro
  • Ecological arguments
  • Climate change
  • Air pollution
  • Economic arguments
  • Oil stocks reduction
  • Energy independence (corn in the US)
  • Alternative for farmers, also in EU
  • Export oportunities

5
Why not? Arguments contra
  • Monocultures ( gt related envir. damages)
  • Introduction of GE
  • Huge subsidies (prod. and cons. side)
  • Affected local communities
  • Quantity and quality of jobs created?
  • Diverting efforts from real solutions
  • Other biomass energy uses more efficient
  • Extremely land consuming, conflict with other
    uses

6
The right bio-energy option?
7
The right biofuel option?
8
Models of agriculture
9
Brasil 'oligarchic ethanol' vs. 'social
biodiesel'
10
North/South oportunity our threat?
11
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12
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13
Food or fuel?
  • Food, feed, fuel, fibre
  • Increasing car use
  • Ambitious future targets for biofuels
  • Increasing meat consumption
  • Increasing demand for raw material for emerging
    bio-industry
  • - Markets (not needs) determine crop choice
  • gt Increasing demand for agricultural land
  • gt Locally increasing pressure on natural high
    value ecosystems and food production likely
  • gtSustainability criteria needed
  • gtLooking for synergies important (byproducts,..)

14
Environmental and social criteria
15
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16
Criteria Greenpeace
  • bioenergy is used in conjunction with other
    measures to reduce GHG emissions,
  • the energy balance of any bioenergy project is
    considerably positive
  • bioenergy maximises the reduction of greenhouse
    gas emissions
  • biomass from natural ecosystems is sustainably
    harvested.
  • social conflicts are avoided, in particular,
    those caused by trade.
  • Production and use of bioenergy should not widen
    social inequities, especially between developing
    and developed countries.
  • Local needs should take priority over global
    trade. Trade in bioenergy must not result in
    negative social and environmental impacts, nor
    undermine food security or sovereignty.
  • crops and plantations for bioenergy are produced
    within the framework of sustainable agriculture
  • does not cause inversion of intact ecosystems
  • does not hinder food security or sovereingty
  • doen't release GE organisms in the environment
  • Minimises use of agrochemicals
  • Does not use invasive species
  • Promotes conservation of water and soil fertility

17
Criteria in the Belgian law
  • B

18
Criteria in the Belgian law
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