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INTRODUCTION OF STEM CELL TECHNOLOGY

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Hariom Yadav Stem cell and cloning Immune rejection Somatic cell ... because undifferentiated embryonic stem cells can form tumors after transplantation in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCTION OF STEM CELL TECHNOLOGY


1
INTRODUCTION OF STEM CELL TECHNOLOGY
2
Importance of Stem Cell Research
3
Stem Cell History
1998 - Researchers first extract stem cells from
human embryos 1999 - First Successful human
transplant of insulin-making cells from
cadavers 2001 - President Bush restricts federal
funding for embryonic stem-cell research 2002 -
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
International creates 20 million fund-raising
effort to support stem-cell research 2002 -
California ok stem cell research 2004 - Harvard
researchers grow stem cells from embryos using
private funding 2004 - Ballot measure for 3
Billion bond for stem cells
4
Stem Cell Definition
  • A cell that has the ability to continuously
    divide and differentiate (develop) into various
    other kind(s) of cells/tissues

5
Stem Cell Characteristics
  • Blank cells (unspecialized)
  • Capable of dividing and renewing themselves for
    long periods of time (proliferation and renewal)
  • Have the potential to give rise to specialized
    cell types (differentiation)

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Kinds of Stem Cells
Stem cell type Description Examples
Totipotent Each cell can develop into a new individual Cells from early (1-3 days) embryos
Pluripotent Cells can form any (over 200) cell types Some cells of blastocyst (5 to 14 days)
Multipotent Cells differentiated, but can form a number of other tissues Fetal tissue, cord blood, and adult stem cells
8
Stem Cell Differentiation
Princeton University
9
Kinds of Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells come from a five to
six-day-old embryo. They have the ability to form
virtually any type of cell found in the human
body. Embryonic germ cells are derived from the
part of a human embryo or foetus that will
ultimately produce eggs or sperm (gametes).
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells
found among specialised or differentiated cells
in a tissue or organ after birth. Based on
current research they appear to have a more
restricted ability to produce different cell
types and to self-renew.
10
Blastocyst Diagram
Princeton University
11
Sexual Reproduction
The Association of Reproductive Health
Professionals
12
Stages of Embryogenesis
13
Derivation and Use of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines
Special sauce(largely unknown)
Heart muscle
Kidney
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Embryonic stem cells
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Adult stem cells
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Applications
  • Disease
  • Diabetes, Spinal cord injury, Parkinsons
    disease, heart disease
  • Genetic based Disease
  • Cystic fibrosis, Huntingtons

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Unknowns in Stem Cell/Cloning Research
  • It is uncertain that human embryonic stem cells
    in vitro can give rise to all the different cell
    types of the adult body.
  • It is unknown if stem cells cultured in vitro
    (apart from the embryo) will function as the
    cells do when they are part of the developing
    embryo

?
35
Challenges to Stem Cell/Cloning Research
  • Stem cells need to be differentiated to the
    appropriate cell type(s) before they can be used
    clinically.
  • Recently, abnormalities in chromosome number and
    structure were found in three human ESC lines.

36
Challenges to Stem Cell/Cloning Research
  • Stem cell development or proliferation must be
    controlled once placed into patients.
  • Possibility of rejection of stem cell transplants
    as foreign tissues is very high.

37
Challenges to Stem Cell/Cloning Research
  • Contamination by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and
    Mycoplasma possible.
  • The use of mouse feeder cells to grow ESC could
    result in problems due to xenotransplantation
    (complicating FDA requirements for clinical use).

38
Stem cell and cloning
Immune rejection
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
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Thanks
(Time 2.19.01)
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