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Adult Stem Cells Stem Cells, Bone Marrow and Blood

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Adult Stem Cells Stem Cells, Bone Marrow and Blood Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning and Regeneration July 10-13, 2007 Stem Cells Embryonic undifferentiated ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adult Stem Cells Stem Cells, Bone Marrow and Blood


1
Adult Stem CellsStem Cells, Bone Marrow and Blood
  • Potent Biology Stem Cells, Cloning and
    Regeneration
  • July 10-13, 2007

2
Stem Cells
  • Embryonic undifferentiated cells from the
    embryo that have the potential to become a wide
    variety of specialized cell types
  • Zygote (totipotent)
  • Morula (totipotent-pluripotent)
  • Blastocyst (pluripotent)
  • Inner Cell Mass (ICM) (pluripotent)
  • Gastrula (multipotent)

3
Adult Stem Cells
  • What are adult stem cells?
  • Somatic cells that are unspecialized
  • Depending on the tissue, the cells have different
    properties.
  • What is the role of adult stem cells?
  • Maintain and repair the bodies tissue
  • Stem cells share 2 characteristics
  • Proliferate - capable of long-term self-renewal
  • Differentiate into mature cells
  • Progenitor cells
  • Precursor cells

4
Stem Cells
  • Where are they found?
  • Infants
  • Adults
  • Bone marrow (BM)

5
Bone Marrow, Stem Cells and Blood
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1943
  • Radiation
  • Compromised hematopoietic system
  • Couldnt produce white blood cells (WBCs)
  • Couldnt produce platelets
  • Mouse studies
  • Irradiation to whole body resulted in death of
    the mice
  • BM cells from normal mouse
  • injected into lethally irradiated
  • mice
  • Prevented death from
  • bone marrow failure

McColloch and Till Radiation Research 13,
115-125 1960
6
Why Did This Bone Marrow Transplant Work?
  • Bone Marrow is the site of blood cell (red blood
    cells, white blood cells, and platelets)
    production Hematopoiesis.

7
Hematopoiesis Stem Cell Hierarchy
  • Process begins with Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    (HSCs) capable of
  • Proliferation
  • Differentiation
  • Differentiation of HSCs follows 2 cell lines.
  • Myeloid
  • Lymphoid

Hematopoietic Stem Cell
8
Hematopoiesis Stem Cell Hierarchy
  • Cells in either line differentiate along an
    irreversible succession or hierarchy of precursor
    cells
  • Each descendent cell has progressively limited
    potential.

9
Hematopoiesis Stem Cell Hierarchy
  • How do HSCs know which pathway to follow or
    which cell to become?
  • Differentiation is directed by signal molecules
    (growth factors known as cytokines and
    interleukins)
  • Bone marrow stromal cells are the major source of
    these growth factors.

10
Hematopoiesis Stem Cell Hierarchy
  • Cytokines are a family of proteins that direct
    differentiation of a particular lineage.
  • Combinations of cytokines can stimulate
  • Proliferation and/or
  • Differentiation

11
Hematopoiesis Stem Cell Hierarchy
http//www.biocarta.com/pathfiles/h_stemPathway.as
p
12
Summary
  • The development of different blood cell types
    from bone marrow stem cells is an example of how
    the body uses adult stem cells.
  • Different types of blood cells (RBC, WBC,
    platelets) have very different functions.
  • All types of human blood cells differentiate from
    bone marrow stem cells.
  • The differentiation of human blood cells is
    hierarchical and irreversible.
  • An early division in the differentiation of human
    blood cells is along two (myeloid and lymphoid)
    precursor stem cell lines.
  • Differentiation is directed by signaling
    molecules
  • The signaling molecule(s) to which a stem cell is
    exposed determines which blood cell it becomes.
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