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Erik Erikson: The Father of Psychosocial Development

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Erik Erikson: The Father of Psychosocial Development Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Erik Erikson: The Father of Psychosocial Development


1
Erik Erikson The Father of Psychosocial
Development
  • Children love and want to be loved and they very
    much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the
    triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a
    child for his symptom
  • -Erik Erikson

2
Who was Erik Erikson?
  • Born in Germany on June 15th 1902.
  • He was an artist and a teacher in the late 1920s
    when he met Anna Freud, an Austrian
    psychoanalyst. With Annas encouragement, he
    began to study child psychoanalysis at the Vienna
    Psychoanalytic Institute.

3
Who was Erik Erikson?
  • He immigrated to the US in 1933 and taught at
    Yale and Harvard University.
  • It was at this point in his life that he became
    interested in the influence of society and
    culture on child development.
  • He studied groups of American Indian Children to
    help formulate his theories. Studying these
    children enabled him to correlate personality
    growth with parental and societal values.

4
Field of Research
  • He studied groups of children to learn about the
    influence of society and culture on child
    development.
  • He believed that humans have to resolve different
    conflicts as they progress through each stage of
    development in the life cycle.

5
Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Stages of Development
  • Eriksons theory consists of eight stages of
    development. Each stage is characterized by a
    different conflict that must be resolved by the
    individual. If a person is unable to resolve a
    conflict at a particular stage, they will be
    confront and struggle with it later in life.

6
Crisis
  • Crisis must adaptively or maladaptive cope with
    task in each developmental stage
  • Respond adaptively acquire strengths needed for
    next developmental stage
  • Respond maladaptive less likely to be able to
    adapt to later problems
  • Basic strengths Motivating characteristics and
    beliefs that derive from successful resolution of
    crisis in each stage.

7
Infancy Stage 1 year old
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Caregiver meets needs child develops trust.
  • Caregiver does not meet needs child develops
    mistrust
  • Hope
  • Belief our desires will be satisfied
  • Feeling of confidence
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Maternal/caregivers

8
Early Childhood Stage 2-3
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Autonomy
  • Child able to exercise some degree of choice
  • Vs.
  • Shame Doubt
  • Childs independence is thwarted child develops
    feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with
    others
  • Will
  • Determination to exercise freedom of choice in
    face of societys demands
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Both parents adult
  • substitutes

9
Preschool Stage 4-5 years
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Initiative
  • Child expresses desire to take initiative in
    activities
  • Vs.
  • Guilt
  • Parents punish child for initiative child
    develops feelings of guilt that will affect
    self-directed activity throughout life
  • Purpose
  • Courage to envision and pursue goals
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Parents, family and friends

10
Middle Childhood Stage 6-11
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Industry
  • Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in
    task completion (school work, play)
  • Vs.
  • Inferiority
  • Parents/teachers do not support childs efforts
    child develops feelings of inferiority and
    inadequacy
  • Competence
  • Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing
    and completing tasks
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • School

11
Adolescence Stage 12-18
  • Psychosocial crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Identity
  • Form ego identity self-image
  • Strong sense of identity face adulthood with
    certainty and confidence
  • Vs.
  • Role Confusion
  • confusion of ego identity
  • Fidelity
  • Emerges from cohesive ego identity
  • Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in
    relationships with others
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Peers

12
Young Adulthood Stage 18-35
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Intimacy
  • Undertake productive work and establish intimate
    relationships.
  • Isolation
  • Inability to establish intimacy leads to social
    isolation
  • Love
  • Mutual devotion in a shared identity
  • Fusing of oneself with another person
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Spouse, lover, friends

13
Middle Age Stage 35-65
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Generativity
  • Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next
    generation
  • Vs.
  • Stagnation
  • involves not seeking outlets for generativity
  • Care
  • Broad concern for others
  • Need to teach others
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Family Society

14
Old Age Stage Over 65 years
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Integrity
  • Look back with satisfaction
  • Vs.
  • Despair
  • Review with anger, frustration
  • Wisdom
  • Detached concern with the whole of life
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • All Humans

15
Eriksons Psychosocial Development
Age (Years) Stage Psychosocial Crisis Psychosocial Strength Environmental Influence
1 Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust Hope Maternal
2-3 Early childhood Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Willpower Both parents or adult substitutes
4-5 Preschool Initiative vs. Guilt Purpose Parents, family and friends
6-11 Middle Childhood Industry vs. Inferiority Competence School
12-18 Adolescence Identity vs. Role confusion Fidelity Peers
18-35 Young adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Love Spouse, lover, friends
35-65 Middle age Generativity vs. Stagnation Care Family, society
Over 65 Old age Integrity vs. Despair Wisdom All humans
16
Eriksons Contributions
  • He made major contributions in the area of child
    development by studying groups of Native American
    children and developed the concept of identity
    crisis.
  • He was concerned with the relationship between
    society/culture and child development, which he
    termed psychosocial development.
  • This interest led him to develop the Eight Stages
    of Development.
  • In each stage, the individual encounters a
    developmental crisis.
  • In order to move on to the next stage, the
    individual must resolve the crisis.

17
THE END
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