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Erik Erikson: The Father of Psychosocial Development


Erik Erikson: The Father of Psychosocial Development Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Erik Erikson: The Father of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson The Father of Psychosocial
  • Children love and want to be loved and they very
    much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the
    triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a
    child for his symptom
  • -Erik Erikson

Who was Erik Erikson?
  • Born in Germany on June 15th 1902.
  • He was an artist and a teacher in the late 1920s
    when he met Anna Freud, an Austrian
    psychoanalyst. With Annas encouragement, he
    began to study child psychoanalysis at the Vienna
    Psychoanalytic Institute.

Who was Erik Erikson?
  • He immigrated to the US in 1933 and taught at
    Yale and Harvard University.
  • It was at this point in his life that he became
    interested in the influence of society and
    culture on child development.
  • He studied groups of American Indian Children to
    help formulate his theories. Studying these
    children enabled him to correlate personality
    growth with parental and societal values.

Field of Research
  • He studied groups of children to learn about the
    influence of society and culture on child
  • He believed that humans have to resolve different
    conflicts as they progress through each stage of
    development in the life cycle.

Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Stages of Development
  • Eriksons theory consists of eight stages of
    development. Each stage is characterized by a
    different conflict that must be resolved by the
    individual. If a person is unable to resolve a
    conflict at a particular stage, they will be
    confront and struggle with it later in life.

  • Crisis must adaptively or maladaptive cope with
    task in each developmental stage
  • Respond adaptively acquire strengths needed for
    next developmental stage
  • Respond maladaptive less likely to be able to
    adapt to later problems
  • Basic strengths Motivating characteristics and
    beliefs that derive from successful resolution of
    crisis in each stage.

Infancy Stage 1 year old
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Caregiver meets needs child develops trust.
  • Caregiver does not meet needs child develops
  • Hope
  • Belief our desires will be satisfied
  • Feeling of confidence
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Maternal/caregivers

Early Childhood Stage 2-3
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Autonomy
  • Child able to exercise some degree of choice
  • Vs.
  • Shame Doubt
  • Childs independence is thwarted child develops
    feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with
  • Will
  • Determination to exercise freedom of choice in
    face of societys demands
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Both parents adult
  • substitutes

Preschool Stage 4-5 years
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Initiative
  • Child expresses desire to take initiative in
  • Vs.
  • Guilt
  • Parents punish child for initiative child
    develops feelings of guilt that will affect
    self-directed activity throughout life
  • Purpose
  • Courage to envision and pursue goals
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Parents, family and friends

Middle Childhood Stage 6-11
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Industry
  • Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in
    task completion (school work, play)
  • Vs.
  • Inferiority
  • Parents/teachers do not support childs efforts
    child develops feelings of inferiority and
  • Competence
  • Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing
    and completing tasks
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • School

Adolescence Stage 12-18
  • Psychosocial crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Identity
  • Form ego identity self-image
  • Strong sense of identity face adulthood with
    certainty and confidence
  • Vs.
  • Role Confusion
  • confusion of ego identity
  • Fidelity
  • Emerges from cohesive ego identity
  • Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in
    relationships with others
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Peers

Young Adulthood Stage 18-35
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Intimacy
  • Undertake productive work and establish intimate
  • Isolation
  • Inability to establish intimacy leads to social
  • Love
  • Mutual devotion in a shared identity
  • Fusing of oneself with another person
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Spouse, lover, friends

Middle Age Stage 35-65
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Generativity
  • Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next
  • Vs.
  • Stagnation
  • involves not seeking outlets for generativity
  • Care
  • Broad concern for others
  • Need to teach others
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • Family Society

Old Age Stage Over 65 years
  • Psychosocial Crisis
  • Psychosocial Strength
  • Integrity
  • Look back with satisfaction
  • Vs.
  • Despair
  • Review with anger, frustration
  • Wisdom
  • Detached concern with the whole of life
  • Psychosocial Influence
  • All Humans

Eriksons Psychosocial Development
Age (Years) Stage Psychosocial Crisis Psychosocial Strength Environmental Influence
1 Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust Hope Maternal
2-3 Early childhood Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Willpower Both parents or adult substitutes
4-5 Preschool Initiative vs. Guilt Purpose Parents, family and friends
6-11 Middle Childhood Industry vs. Inferiority Competence School
12-18 Adolescence Identity vs. Role confusion Fidelity Peers
18-35 Young adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Love Spouse, lover, friends
35-65 Middle age Generativity vs. Stagnation Care Family, society
Over 65 Old age Integrity vs. Despair Wisdom All humans
Eriksons Contributions
  • He made major contributions in the area of child
    development by studying groups of Native American
    children and developed the concept of identity
  • He was concerned with the relationship between
    society/culture and child development, which he
    termed psychosocial development.
  • This interest led him to develop the Eight Stages
    of Development.
  • In each stage, the individual encounters a
    developmental crisis.
  • In order to move on to the next stage, the
    individual must resolve the crisis.