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While you are waiting


What do you KNOW about accommodations and modifications? ... by a general education teacher and a special education teacher. Modifications and accommodations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: While you are waiting

While you are waiting
  • Please complete the
  • K-W-L chart in your
  • Packet (pg. 4).
  • What do you KNOW about accommodations and
  • What do you WANT to know about accommodations and

Accommodations Modifications
  • Presented by Beverly Bryant
  • LaToya Lawrence
  • Krista McAtee
  • Department of Special Education

Ground rules
  • Please silence your cell phones
  • We have scheduled breaks, but please take one if
  • Please use the Parking Lot for questions, we will
    try to get to all of them during the breaks.

Activity 1
  • Find the index card in your packet
  • Each card belongs to 1 of 4 categories
  • Sort yourselves by category
  • Be prepared to report the following
  • - Category
  • - Items in your category
  • - How you determined your category

What is the purpose of this workshop?
  • To assist both general and special educators
    in developing, implementing and sustaining
    appropriate accommodations and modifications to
    meet the needs of students with disabilities

  • Participants will be able to
  • Compare and contrast laws
  • Explain the difference between accommodations and
  • Apply appropriate accommodations and
    modifications to specific student needs

What is People First Language?
  • People First Language puts the person
  • before the disability, and describes
  • what a person has, not who
  • a person is.
  • Kathie Snow

Old Language People First Language
Downs Child
Autistic boy
CP kid
MIP student
Normal Kid
Regular Education
A child with Down Syndrome
Boy who has autism
Child with cerebral palsy
Student who receives behavioral services
Typical kid
General Education
Why should we use PFL?
  • People with disabilities are
  • Disability is a natural part of the human
  • 1 in 5 people have a disability.

Activity 2
  • Find the clothespin in your packet.
  • Attach the clothespin to your person.
  • Until the next break, listen to your peers and
    presenters for People First Language.
  • When you hear someone use language that is NOT
    People First, you may take their pin.
  • The person with most pins wins!!!

What Does the Law Say?
  • Federal and state laws and regulations require
    schools to provide accommodations and
    modifications to make sure that students with
    disabilities have access to an appropriate
    education program.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEIA 2004) requires that
students with disabilities have the
opportunity to be involved and make progress in
the general curriculum.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
requires that accommodations be provided to
students with disabilities, even if they dont
have an IEP.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
prohibits discrimination
against any people with disabilities.
Federal Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Requirements 34 C.F.R. Section 300.114
  • Each public agency shall ensure
  • (i) That to the maximum extent
  • appropriate, children with disabilities,
  • are educated with children who are
  • nondisabled
  • and

Federal LRE Requirements
  • (ii) That special classes, separate schooling or
    other removal of children with disabilities from
    the general educational environment occurs only
    if the nature or severity of the disability is
    such that education in general classes with the
    use of supplementary aids and services cannot be
    achieved satisfactorily.

Federal LRE Requirements 34 C.F.R. 300.116
  • (e) A child with a disability is not
  • removed from education in age-appropriate
  • general classrooms solely because of
  • needed modifications in the general
  • curriculum.
  • (Authority 20 U.S.C. 1412 (a)(5))

Continuum of LRE Options
  • ...a continuum of alternative placements is
    available to meet the needs of children with
    disabilities... including instruction in general
    classes, special classes, special schools, home
    instruction, and instruction in hospitals.
    (Federal Register, 1977).

Continuum of Alternative Placements
includes instruction in
childs home
special classes
regular classes
hospitals or institutions
special schools
More gtgt
ltlt Less
(No Transcript)
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
  • calls for participation of students with
    disabilities in high quality, yearly, academic
  • increases accountability for academic standards,
    academic achievement, and the inclusion of all
  • requires that all students be assessed at his/her
    assigned grade level

Provisions of both NCLB and IDEIA 2004 include
  • the use of scientifically based instructional
    methods, curricular materials, and intervention
  • early identification of learning problems
  • ongoing monitoring to determine the impact of the
    instruction and curriculum
  • the design and implementation of individualized
    interventions for students who do not respond to
    the general curriculum and instruction
  • the inclusion of ALL students in one
    accountability system
  • documentation of student outcomes through
    Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) measures

No Child Left Behind!
What is an Individualized Education Program (IEP)?
  • A legally binding document that states what
    services a student will receive and why
  • Includes the students placement, services,
    academic and behavioral goals, a behavior plan
    (if needed), and progress reports from teachers
    and therapists
  • Planned at an IEP meeting
  • The IEP team looks at the students needs and
    decides what kind of accommodations and
    modifications are needed

IEPs . . .
  • Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) are not
    only legally required but also considered
    essential to the educational successes of
    students who are eligible for special education
    services. IEP development involves teams
    conducting, summarizing, and integrating results
    from a variety of assessment instruments.
  • All IEP goals must be measurable and, as such,
    must be behaviorally clear and specific. In
    addition, goals must be aligned to the TN
    Curriculum Standards while meaningful to
  • (Partnerships for EdExcellence)

  • Closing the gap
  • between research and
  • practice has always
  • been best practice,
  • now it is required by
  • the law!!!

Accommodations and Modifications
  • What are accommodations and modifications?
  • Are they the same thing?
  • When do you use them?
  • Who determines when and what to use?

  • the actual teaching supports and services that
    the student may require to successfully
    demonstrate learning
  • Accommodations should not change
  • expectations to the curriculum grade levels.

  • Changes in how a student accesses information and
    demonstrates learning
  • Do not substantially change the instructional
    level, content, or standard
  • Changes made in order to provide a student with
    equal access to learning and equal opportunity to
    show what he or she knows and can do

  • Under NCLB, accommodations are defined as
    changes in testing materials or procedures that
    ensure that an assessment measures the student's
    knowledge rather than the student's disability.

The standard is not negotiable, but the road to
it is.
What does research say?
  • Accommodation policies vary considerably
  • from state to state. Interestingly, 12 states
  • even extend eligibility for accommodations
  • to all students (Clapper, Morse, Lazarus,
  • Thompson, Thurlow, 2005).
  • Approximately two-thirds of special
  • education students have been afforded
  • accommodations in statewide assessments,
  • the most common being extended time,
  • alternative setting, and/or read-aloud
  • accommodations (Bolt Thurlow, 2004).

National Dissemination Center for Children with
Disabilities (NICHCY)
What does research say?
  • Accommodations affect test scores for students
    with disabilities, lowering scores in some
    cases, raising scores in most others
  • (Chiu Pearson, 1999 Elliott et al., 1999
    Elliott, Kratochwill, McKevitt,
  • 2001 Kettler et al., 2005 McKevitt, 2000
    Koenig Bachman, 2004
  • Schulte, Elliott, Kratochwill, 2001 Tindal,
    Heath, Hollenbeck,
  • Almond, Harniss, 1998).

National Dissemination Center for Children with
Disabilities (NICHCY)
What does research say?
  • The use of read-aloud accommodations on
    assessments of mathematics for students with low
    reading skills and the use of Braille for blind
    students were found to be the most effective
    accommodations in a meta-analytic synthesis by
    Tindal Fuchs (1999).

National Dissemination Center for Children with
Disabilities (NICHCY)
What does research say?
  • Lowered scores appear to result when
    accommodations are poorly matched to student need
    or when the student has not had sufficient
    opportunity to practice using an accommodation in
    day-to-day settings prior to the testing

National Dissemination Center for Children with
Disabilities (NICHCY)
Who can receive accommodations?
Accommodations are for
  • Students with a disability who have an IEP or 504
  • Students without a disability who have barriers
    to learning
  • Students who receive ELL services
  • Students who are at risk of failure

  • changes made to curriculum expectations in
    order to meet the needs of the student
  • Modifications are changes in what
  • the student is expected to learn
  • and demonstrate in the content area.

  • Made when the expectations are beyond the
    students level of ability
  • Alter the standard or what the test or assignment
    is supposed to measure
  • May be minimal or very complex depending on the
    students performance
  • Must be clearly acknowledged in the IEP

Differences between the two
Accommodations (can apply to all students) Modifications (apply to students with disabilities)

  • Do fundamentally change
  • standards in terms of instructional level,
    content, or performance criteria
  • Do not fundamentally change
  • standards in terms of instructional
  • level, content, or performance
  • criteria

Changes are made to provide student meaningful
productive learning experiences based on
individual needs abilities
  • Changes are made in order to
  • provide equal access to
  • learning and equal opportunity
  • to demonstrate what is known
  • Grading is same.
  • Grading is different.

More differences.
  • Accommodations focus on removing barriers and
    providing access to the general curriculum.
  • Accommodations are designed for students who have
    barriers that can be removed to help them
    demonstrate what they know.
  • Modifications focus on insuring meaningful
    participation in the general curriculum.
  • Modifications are designed for students who would
    benefit from participation in the general
    curriculum even though it is above their ability

The game of school
Activity 3
  • Return to your subject group
  • Using the chart paper and cards, decide whether
    the items are accommodations or modifications.
  • You have 1 minute to get to your group and 1
    minute to sort.

Here are the correct answers
  • Accommodations
  • A multiple choice test on identical facts is
    provided while other students "fill in the blank
  • Student receives 10 math problems instead of 20
  • Homework limited to a certain number of
    minutes/hours instead amount of work to be
  • Limit information presented on page, large print,
    and more space between lines.
  • Highlight important text.
  • Students respond verbally instead of writing
  • Modifications
  • Learning letters and letter sounds while
    classmates read chapter books.
  • Using blocks to build structures while other
    children do science experiments.
  • Testing on continents while classmates are tested
    on countries of Europe.
  • Completing assembly tasks while classmates
    complete independent work.
  • Matching numerals to quantities while classmates
    put items in sets.
  • Extending a 2 part pattern while classmates
    identify the unit of a 3 part pattern.

(Leveling the playing field)
(Everyone plays)
Accommodations (Leveling the playing field)
  • Knowledge of addition is demonstrated by
    manipulating blocks instead of through writing
  • Extra textbooks are provided for home when a
    child has great organizational difficulties
  • A scribe is provided to take notes for a child
  • A multiple choice test on individual facts is
    provided while other students fill in the blank

EP_ accommodations_modifications_sec_contents.htm
Accommodations do not change knowledge content.
Modifications (everyone plays)
  • A child works on addition while classmates work
    on multiplication
  • A child learns letters and letter sounds while
    classmates read chapter books
  • A child uses blocks to build structures while
    other students do science experiments
  • A child is given a test on continents while
    classmates are tested on countries in Europe

EP_ accommodations_modifications_sec_contents.htm
Modifications do change knowledge content and/or
the standard.
Who is Responsible?
An Accommodation is the HOW of the curriculum.
How are we going to get the information to the
child and how are we going to test the
students knowledge?
A Modification is the WHAT of the curriculum.
What part of the general curriculum does the
student need to know to reach his or her fullest
Both the general education teacher and special
education teacher are responsible for making
accommodations and modifications. It is a
collaborative effort.
Who can receive modifications?
Modifications are for
  • Students who would have been traditionally pulled
    out to a separate program
  • Students who may have a low incidence disability
  • Students for whom accommodations have been
    implemented to the fullest extent and still have
    difficulty succeeding

  • The IEP or 504 team determines how a student
    will participate, not whether a student will

Frequently Asked Questions
  • 1. Who determines modifications?
  • The IEP team, including the Local Education
    Agency (LEA
  • representative, Special Educator, General
    Educator, parent/legal
  • guardian, the student)
  • 2. Who gets accommodations and modifications?
  • Accommodations can be made for any student.
    Students with an IEP or 504 plan get
    accommodations that are required. Students with
    an IEP can receive modifications if needed.
  • 3. Do I have to accommodate?
  • If a student has an IEP or a 504 plan, you
    must provide the accommodations and modifications
    that are part of the plan. If a student does not
    have an IEP or 504 plan, you are not required to
    accommodate, but it is considered best practice.
  • 4. What do I say when students say, Its not
  • Fair means that everyone gets what they
    need to succeed. Fair does not mean same or

Activity 4
  • Group yourselves by tier (Elementary, Middle,
  • Read case study.
  • Come up with a list of appropriate accommodations
    and modifications for your student.
  • Be prepared to share.

Accommodations and modifications are most often
made in the following areas
  • Scheduling/Timing
  • Setting
  • Materials
  • Instruction
  • Student Response
  • Presentation

  • Give extra time to complete assignments or tests
  • Break up testing over several days
  • Give multiple or frequent breaks
  • Change testing schedule or order of subtests
  • Vary activities every 10-30 minutes
  • Alert students several minutes before a
    transition time, then give reminders

  • Change the location of instruction or testing
  • Seat student in front, next to teacher, or study
  • Reduce fluorescent lighting and increase natural
  • Seat student away from windows or other students
  • Instruct or test in small group or individual

  • Audio tape lectures or books
  • Provide copies of teachers lecture notes
  • Supply large print books, Braille, or books on CD
    (digital text)
  • Offer manipulatives
  • Use visual cues charts, pictures, graphs
  • Utilize graphic organizers to demonstrate how
    concepts and ideas are related

  • Reduce the difficulty of assignments
  • Reduce the reading level
  • Use a student/peer tutor
  • Simplify multi-step directions
  • Provide a partially completed outline during
  • Preteach vocabulary

Student response
  • Allow answers to be given orally or dictated
  • Use a word processor for written work
  • Use sign language, a communication device,
    Braille, or native language if it is not English
  • Replace summative assessment with oral reports
    and projects
  • Give credit for participation
  • Use recognition tests instead of essay tests
    example T/F, multiple choice, matching

  • Increase white space on page
  • Use symbols on the test or answer form that help
    the student follow directions, such as an arrow
    or stop sign
  • Give extra examples for practice to make sure the
    student knows what to do.
  • Require fewer questions, but select ones that
    measure all required content.
  • Eliminate one of the choices in multiple-choice

Activity 5
  • Group yourselves by tier.
  • No more than 5 people in a group. This will be
    your group for the remainder of the activities.
  • Read through the standards provided
  • Use consensus to determine what you will teach.

(No Transcript)
  • Jack is an 8th grade student who has learning
    disabilities in reading and writing. He is in a
    general education 8th grade class that is
    team-taught by a general education teacher and a
    special education teacher. Modifications and
    accommodations provided for Jacks daily school
    routine (and when he takes state or district-wide
    tests) include the following
  • Jack will have shorter reading and writing
  • Jacks textbooks will be based on the 8th grade
    curriculum, but at his independent reading level
    (4th grade).
  • Jack will have test questions read/explained to
    him, when he asks.
  • Jack will respond orally, rather than in writing,
    to essay questions.

  • Jill is a third grade student with a cognitive
    disability. She spends part of her day in a
    Resource class and part of her day in a general
    education 3rd grade class. She is a beginning
    reader, can recognize letters and sounds and
    knows 10 sight words. Modifications and
    accommodations provided for Jills daily school
    routine could include the following
  • Jill will have a reading partner during Social
    Studies and Science.
  • Jill will be graded on a rubric created by the
    special and general education teachers on
  • Jill will participate in shared reading and
    literacy centers in her 3rd grade class.
  • Jill will take breaks as needed throughout the

Activity 6
  • Return to your group from 5.
  • Write a Differentiated Lesson Plan for your
    lesson, using the form provided.
  • Plan for only one lesson, not whole week.

Do accommodations look the same from year to
individual needs
strategies and skills
How might accommodations look different from tier
to tier?
Testing Accommodations
  • Allowable Accommodations
  • For any student who needs it
  • Special Accommodations
  • Must be in the IEP
  • Must have been used during the year
  • Other assessments
  • Think Link
  • End of course exams
  • Math benchmarks

Activity 7
  • Return to your lesson plan group.
  • Determine Accommodations and Modifications for
    your lesson for the student on the card.
  • Be prepared to share with the whole group.
  • Grade level
  • Lesson/Standard
  • Accommodations and Modifications

Outcomes of Education
Lifelong Learners
LRE for LIFE Project
Activity 8
  • Take out your KWL chart
  • Review what you KNOW, WANT to know
  • And finally, what did you LEARN about
    Accommodations and Modifications?

Putting it all Together
  • Goal To remove barriers to learning and
    demonstrate mastery.
  • Accommodations will keep standards substantially
    the same for all outcomes may vary.
  • Modifications may fundamentally change the
    standard instructional level or content may
  • Expectations remain high for ALL students.

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