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Macronutrients and Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals

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Title: Vitamins Author: IT Last modified by: Portland Public Schools Created Date: 11/22/2004 8:44:16 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Macronutrients and Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals


1
Macronutrients and Micronutrients Vitamins and
Minerals
  • L. Scheffler

1
2
Micronutrients and Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients are substances required in very
    small amounts (mg or µg) and that mainly function
    as co-factors of enzymes ( lt 0.005 body
    weight).
  • Examples include
  • Vitamins
  • Trace minerals (Fe, Cu, F, Zn, I, Se, Mn, Mo,
    Cr,
  • Co and B).
  • Macronutrients are chemical substances that are
    required in relatively large amounts (gt 0.005
    body weight).
  • Examples include proteins, fats,
    carbohydrates and minerals (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S,
    and Cl). 

2
3
Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals
  • Vitamins and minerals are essential for the
    maintenance of good health and the prevention of
    a number of diseases.
  • Vitamins are generally organic molecules
  • Minerals are inorganic substances usually in ion
    form

3
4
Micronutrients Vitamins
  • Vitamins are naturally occurring organic
    compounds that are essential to metabolic or
    other functions in the body.
  • Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body.
    They must be supplied in the diet.
  • Vitamins are usually classified as water soluble
    or fat soluble
  •  

4
5
Micronutrients Minerals
  • Minerals are inorganic and are found in the soil
    and water absorbed by plants or eaten by animals.
  • The human body requires substantial amounts of
    minerals on a daily basis to ensure proper
    functioning of the organs, bones, tissue and
    immune system.
  • Minerals may be classified as macro-minerals or
    trace minerals

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Minerals
  • Macro-minerals
  • Trace Minerals

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Minerals
  • Trace Minerals
  • Macro-minerals

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8
Minerals
Mineral Mineral What the mineral does Food sources
Sodium Sodium Fluid and electrolyte balance, supports muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmissions salt, soy sauce, bread, milk, meats
Chloride Chloride Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, aids in digestion salt, soy sauce, milk, eggs, meats
Potassium Potassium Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, cell integrity, muscle contractions and nerve impulse transmission potatoes, vegetables, banana, strawberries, cod, milk
Calcium Calcium Formation of bones and teeth, supports blood clotting milk, yogurt, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese, tofu, sardines, green beans, spinach, broccoli
Phosphorus Phosphorus Formation of cells, bones and teeth, maintains acid-base balance all animal foods (meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk)
Magnesium Magnesium Supports bone mineralization, protein building, muscular contraction, nerve impulse transmission, immunity Green vegetables, tomato juice, beans, cashews, halibut
Iron Iron Part of the protein hemoglobin (carries oxygen throughout body's cells) spinach, broccoli, green beans, tomato juice, beef liver

8
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Minerals
Mineral Function Food sources
Zinc Enzymes production of genetic material/proteins, vitamin A transport, wound healing, sperm production and the normal development of the fetus  Green vegetables, tomato juice ,lentils, oysters, shrimp, crab, meats yoghurt, cheese
Selenium Antioxidant,  works with vitamin E to protect body from oxidation seafood, meats and grains
Iodine Thyroid hormones regulate growth, development and metabolic rate salt, seafood, bread, milk, cheese
Copper Absorption/utilization of iron, formation of hemoglobin , enzymes meats, water
Manganese Facilitates many cell processes widespread in foods
Fluoride formation of bones and teeth, helps to make teeth resistant to decay fluoridated drinking water, tea, seafood
Chromium Associated with insulin and is required for the release of energy from glucose vegetable oils, liver, whole grains, cheese, nuts
Molybdenum Facilitates many cell processes legumes, organ meats
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Vitamin Characteristics
  • Each vitamin has one or more specific purposes.
  • Vitamins are essential to life processes.
  • Vitamins are generally used by the body with very
    minimal changes
  • Vitamins are usually required in only small
    amounts
  • Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body
    directly

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Important Vitamins
Vitamin Function Source
A Retinol Supports vision, skin, bone and tooth growth, immunity and reproduction mango, broccoli, butternut squash, carrots, tomato juice, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, beef liver
C Ascorbic Acid Collagen synthesis, amino acid metabolism, helps iron absorption, antioxidant Fruits and vegetables
D Promotes bone mineralization Self-synthesis milk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish
B12 New cell synthesis, Breaking down fatty acids / amino acids, nerve cell maintenance Meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs
E Antioxidant, regulation of oxidation reactions, supports cell membrane stabilization Shrimp, cod, wheat germ, tofu, polyunsaturated vegetable oils, sweet potatoes,
K Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins, regulates blood calcium Liver, leafy green vegetables, spinach, broccoli, cabbage,
11
12
Classification of Vitamins
  • Vitamins can be classified as either
  • Water soluble
  • Fat soluble.
  • Water soluble vitamins are generally involved in
    the cellular metabolism of energy supplying
    nutrients.
  • Fat soluble vitamins often have very specialized
    functions

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13
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Water soluble vitamins usually contain hydrogen
    attached to electronegative atoms such as oxygen
    or nitrogen.
  • They easily form hydrogen bonds with water
    molecules.
  • Water soluble vitamins do not accumulate in the
    body, so regular supplies are necessary

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Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Examples of water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
14
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Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Fat soluble vitamins have long nonpolar
    hydrocarbon chains or rings.
  • Common fat soluble vitamins include
  • A,
  • D,
  • E,
  • F
  • K.

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Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Fat soluble vitamins usually accumulate in
    tissues and are not leached out quickly.
  • Unlike water soluble vitamins, an excess of a
    fat soluble vitamin can be just as harmful as a
    deficiency

16
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Examples of Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Vitamin D

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Examples of Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Vitamin K

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Vitamin C- Sources
  • Vitamin C is found in many fresh fruits and
    vegetables.
  • It contains several polar groups, making it very
    water soluble.
  • Cooking vegetables in water tends to leach the
    vitamin from the food.
  • Cooked foods also contain less vitamin C, since
    it is also easily oxidized and hence destroyed in
    the cooking process.

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Vitamin Functions
  • Involved in the biosynthesis of the protein,
    collagen, found in connective tissues such as
    cartilage, ligaments, and tendons
  • Aid in healing wounds and helping to prevent
    bacterial infections.
  •  

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Vitamin C Functions
  • Massive doses of vitamin C have often been
    thought to help in the prevention of the common
    cold,
  • There is NO reliable evidence to show that this
    is true
  •  

21
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Vitamin C Deficiencies
  • Scurvy or Scorbutus.
  • Symptoms include
  • swollen legs,
  • rotting gums,
  • and bloody lesions.
  • Common among sailors in the 18th and 19th
    centuries who spent a long time at sea without
    fresh fruits and vegetables

22
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Vitamin A
  • Vitamin A is also known as retinol

The long chain hydrocarbon structure of vitamin A
means that the vitamin is essentially non-polar.
Hence it is fat soluble rather than water soluble.
23
24
Vitamin A Sources
  • Commonly found in cod liver oil, green
    vegetables, and fruit.
  • Carrots indirectly serve as a source of vitamin A
    since they contain b carotene which the body
    readily converts to vitamin A

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Vitamin A Functions
  • Vitamin A is fat soluble.
  • It is not readily broken down by cooking.
  •  Role in aiding in night vision.

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Vitamin A Functions
  • Retinol is oxidized to retinal, which combines
    with the protein opsin to form rhodopsin.
  • Rhodopsin is the active agent which converts
    light signals to electrical impulses that the
    optic nerve transmits to the brain

Retinol
Retinal
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Vitamin A Deficiencies
  • A deficiency in vitamin A results in night
    blindness.
  • The most serious deficiency results in a
    condition known as Xeropthalmia, a severe form of
    conjunctivitius or blindness.

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Vitamin D - Sources
  • Vitamin D is commonly found in fish liver oil as
    well as egg yokes.
  • Unlike other vitamins, the body synthesizes
    vitamin D in the skin through the action of
    ultraviolet light on 7-dehydrochlosterol

Like vitamin A, the long chain Hydrocarbon
structure makes vitamin D fat soluble
28
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Vitamin D Functions
  • Vitamin D is an important regulator of calcium
    metabolism.
  • It is involved in the uptake of calcium and
    phosphate ions from food into the body.
  • It is necessary for the proper formation of bone
    structures and teeth.

29
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Vitamin D
  • A serious deficiency in vitamin D results in a
    condition known as Ricketts.
  • Ricketts is characterized by bone softening an
    malformation.

Child with Ricketts and two years after treatment
?
30
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Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D is destroyed by bleaching agents that
    are often used in the manufacture of purified
    white flour

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Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Vitamin Deficiency Diseases
  • Retinol (Vitamin A) ? xerophthalmia / night
    blindness
  • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) ? scurvy or scorbutus
  • Calciferol (Vitamin D) ? rickets.
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3) ? pellagra
  • Thiamin (Vitamin B1) ? beriberi

Pellegra
Beriberi
  • Mineral Deficiency Diseases
  • Iron anemia
  • Iodine goiter

Goiter
32
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Macro-nutrient Deficiencies
  • Macronutrient deficiencies diseases in chlidren
    often result from a lack of protein

Kwashiorkor is a specific wasting away often
occurring in infants at weaning. It results from
a lack of protein in the diet
Marasmus is a wasting away of the body tissues
from the lack of calories as well as protein in
the diet. The child is fretful rather than
apathetic and is skinny rather than swollen with
edema.
Kwashiorkor
Marasmus
33
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Nutritional Deficiencies
  • Proposed approaches to combating nutritional
    deficiencies world-wide include
  • Providing food rations that are composed of
    fresh and vitamin- and mineral-rich foods.
  • Adding nutrients missing in commonly consumed
    foods.
  • Genetic modification of food.
  • Providing nutritional supplements.
  • Providing selenium supplements to people
    eating foods grown in selenium-poor soil.

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