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Educating Language Minority Learners in the U.S.


Title: H-810W: Models of Bilingual Education and Literacy Instruction Author: lesauxno Last modified by: lesauxjm Created Date: 9/14/2003 7:47:41 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Educating Language Minority Learners in the U.S.

Educating Language Minority Learners in the U.S.
  • Seminar 1
  • February 4, 2008
  • Jeannette Mancilla-Martinez
  • Harvard Graduate School of Education
  • Gutman 303

Seminar 1 Educating L2 Learners in the U.S.
Seminar 2 Pedagogical Models
Seminar 6 Disability vs. Exposure
Seminar 3 Reading Words Comprehending Text
Seminar 5 Spelling, Grammar, Writing
Seminar 4 Vocabulary Academic Language
Language Minority (LM) Learners
  • Refers to individuals from homes where a
    language other than a societal language is
    actively used, who therefore have had the
    opportunity to develop some level of proficiency
    in a language other than a societal language. A
    language-minority student may be of limited
    second-language proficiency, bilingual, or
    essentially monolingual in the second language.

August Hakuta, 1997
  • Societal/national/official language
  • ESL English as a Second Language
  • EFL English as a Foreign Language
  • ELL English Language Learners
  • LEP Limited English Proficient
  • L1 First Language
  • L2 Second Language

Societal/national/official language
  • Societal language
  • One, often one of several, of the languages used
    in a country
  • National language
  • A language considered to be the chief language in
    a country
  • Official language
  • A language mandated for use in official
    government transactions and communications, in
    courts of law, and in laws and regulations
    governing the nation as a whole

August Shanahan, 2006
English as a Second Language (ESL)
  • Students whose native language is not English and
    are learning English as a second language in an
    English speaking country

English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
  • Students whose native language is not English and
    are learning English in a non-English speaking

English-language Learners (ELL)
  • Students whose native language is not English

Limited English Proficient (LEP)
  • Term often used in state and federal regulations
    to refer to English Language Learners (ELLs)

Background Characteristics
  • Some have strong academic preparation others
    arrive with limited formal schooling
  • 20 of all ELLs at the high school level and 12
    at the middle school level have missed 2 or more
    years of schooling since age 6 (Ruiz deValesco
    Fix, 2000)
  • Not necessarily literate in their first language
  • Gaps in educational background school routines,

Immigrant Children vs. Children of Immigrants
  • Immigrant Children
  • Born outside the U.S.
  • Children of Immigrants
  • U.S.-born to immigrant parents
  • 61 live in households where one or both parents
    are non-citizens

Growing Population of Immigrant Families
  • 5 states with most rapid growth between
  • North Carolina (270)
  • Nebraska (269)
  • Arkansas (244)
  • Nevada (236)
  • Georgia (210)

4th Grade Reading Non-ELLs vs. ELLs
50th ile
18th ile
8th Grade Reading Non-ELLs vs. ELLs
50th ile
14th ile
  • BICS Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
    (2 years)
  • CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
    (at least 5 years)
  • Essentially underscoring the distinction between
    conversational fluency and grade-appropriate
    academic proficiency

Cummins, 1979
(No Transcript)
Threshold Hypothesis
  • Aspects of bilingualism which might positively
    influence cognitive growth are unlikely to come
    into effect until the child has attained a
    certain minimum (or threshold) level of
    competence in the L2

Cummins, 1978
Developmental Linguistic Interdependence
  • A childs L2 competence is partly dependent on
    the level of competence already achieved in the
    L1 at the time when intensive exposure to L2
  • Believes there is a common underlying
    cognitive/academic proficiency which is common
    across languages, and which makes transfer of
    literacy-related skills from L1 to L2 possible
  • Experience with EITHER can promote development of
    the other, given adequate motivation and exposure

Cummins, 1978
Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
Cummins, 1984
Political Issues
  • Demographic change
  • immigration, ethnicity, language
  • shift in political power
  • Increasing enrollment of ELLs
  • More than doubled in the past decade
  • Power relations Societal languages, colonial
    languages, indigenous languages
  • Finances
  • Quality of education
  • literacy of the population

Policy and Practice
  • Influencing Factors
  • Political leadership
  • Immigration patterns
  • Supreme court rulings
  • Language debates
  • Research

1850-99 1900-09 1920-29 1940-49
1960-69 1970-79
Bilingual Education state laws
German Bilingual Education from 1910-1919
anti-German sentiment language restrictions
Lau v. Nichols Office of Civil Rights Task
Force Visits
Adult/child ESL classes
English only laws in 15 states after the war
Bilingual Research Bilingual Education Act
signed into law
1980s 1984
1990-99 2000-present day
Demographic shifts Population of L2 speakers
40 in US
English-only programs accepted under mandate of
bilingual education U.S. English English First
Prop 203 Question 2 NCLB
Ron Unz Prop 227
Policy Practice Today
  • Phase of English-only activism
  • e.g. English for the Children
  • Based on concerns about bilingual education
  • Rights of children associated with English
  • Length of time vs. quality of English learning

Policy Practice Today
  • Class sizes
  • Native language proficiency
  • Shortages of bilingual teachers
  • Overall academic performance
  • Demographics
  • Community goals
  • Resources

Banning Bilingual Education
  • California (1998)
  • Arizona (2000)
  • Massachusetts (2002)
  • These states account for more than one-half of
    non-native English speakers

  • The way it was
  • Bilingual education implemented for nearly 30
    years in CA

  • The battle begins
  • The 1990s
  • 1992 Governor Wilson vetoes new bilingual
    education bill, arguing it would limit the
    flexibility of local school boards
  • 1996 Four school districts granted waivers by
    State Board of Education exempting them from
    compliance with the provisions of the Bilingual
    Education Act

  • 1998
  • English for the Children (Proposition 227) wins
    with 61 of vote
  • All children in CA public schools to be taught in
    English to learn English
  • Sheltered English immersion for English learners
    should not exceed 1 year during the transitional

  • Most recently
  • 1999 State Board of Education eliminates the
    redesignation criteria so each of the 1,000
    districts required to set own criteria for
    classifying students as Fluent English Proficient
  • Proportion of ELLs receiving bilingual
    instruction dropped from 30 to 8, proportion
    receiving SDAIE increased
  • Little or no evidence of differences in EL
    performance by model of instruction across all
    analyses in 2003-2004
  • Likelihood of ELL meeting linguistic and academic
    criteria needed to reclassify them to fluent
    English proficient status after 10 years is less
    than 40

  • The way it was
  • 16 ELLs
  • Only 30 of students eligible for language
    services were involved in true bilingual
    education programs

  • 2000
  • English for the Children (Proposition 203) wins
    with 63 of vote
  • One year of English immersion instruction

  • The way it was
  • MA first state in nation to enact bilingual
    education (1971)
  • 3 of ELLs in K-12 students served by bilingual
  • Bilingual program trigger 20 students of a
    single language group district-wide

  • 2002
  • English Immersion- English only (Question 2) wins
    with 68 of vote
  • Non-English speakers in English immersion classes
    for 1 year, then mainstreams
  • Teachers can use minimal amount of students
    native language
  • Teacher can be sued for willfully and
    repeatedly violating Question 2
  • Students can sign waivers if they are 10 years or
    older or for other academic needs

  • Most recently
  • MA Legislature voted to allow two-way bilingual
    programs to continue under English immersion
  • Two-way immersion classes allow English and
    non-English speaking children to learn each
    others languages simultaneously.
  • Program popular, but serve a very small fraction
    of the 51,000 ELL in the state.
  • Gov. Romney vetoed this legislation, but House
    and Senate overrode his vetoes.
  • This legislation counters Question 2s intention
    of limiting bilingual ed to older students.