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Secondary School Teaching A Guide To Methods and Resources


Secondary School TeachingA Guide To Methods and Resources. Chapter One . Secondary School . Teaching Today: Recognizing and Understanding the Challenge – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Secondary School Teaching A Guide To Methods and Resources

Secondary School TeachingA Guide To Methods and
  • Chapter One
  • Secondary School
  • Teaching Today
  • Recognizing and Understanding the Challenge

9 Key Points- of chapter 1
  1. Define differentiation between a middle
    school, junior high school and a high school
  2. Key characteristics of a exemplary school
  3. Small learning community concept
  4. Key developmental characteristics of 10-18 year
  5. Quality education for each student
  6. Teacher as a reflective decision maker
  7. Trends, problems, issues
  8. N.C.L.B
  9. Parents, guardians and the community

  • Secondary School combination of grades 7-12
  • Middle School usually grades 6-8
  • High School combination of grades 9-12

Multi Cultural Education
  • As a teacher today you must be knowledgeable and
    skilled in using teaching strategies that
    recognize, celebrate, and build upon the cultural
    diversity in your classroom
  • One out of every six students age 5-7 speaks a
    language other than English at home
  • English language learners-
  • 5.5 ELLs in the U.S. public schools
  • 80 speak Spanish
  • 400 different languages

How Effective Teachers Accommodate Differences
  • Establish a classroom climate in which all
    students feel welcome, can learn, and are
    supported in doing so
  • Use techniques that emphasize cooperative
    social-interactive learning
  • Building upon students learning styles,
    capacities and modalities
  • Used strategies and techniques that have proven
    successful for students of specific special
    characteristics and differences

To Become and Remain an Exemplary School/Teacher
  • The school/teacher must be in a continual mode of
    inquiry, reflection, and change the advantage of
    utilizing a combination of practices concurrently
    is usually greater in helping all students
    succeed in school.
  • Schools and the teacher must constantly change
    there is no single shoe that fits all children in
    all neighborhoods. America is too large and too
    diverse fro that to ever be the case.

Teaching Teams
  • Collaborative Teaching Teams several teachers
    work together to reflect, plan and implement a
    curriculum for a common cohort of students.
  • Team Teaching two or more teachers
    simultaneously providing instruction to students
    in the same classroom
  • Teaching Teams can be all teachers from one
    grade level, subject, or interdisciplinary

Community of Learners
  • An interdisciplinary teaching team and its common
    cohort of students can be referred to as a
    community of learners, where each team of
    teachers is assigned each day to the same cohort
    of students for a common block of time. Within
    this block of time.
  • Teachers on the team are responsible for
    building the curriculum and instruction around
    their students interests, perspectives, and

Advantages of a Community of Learners
  • Within a community of learners students are able
    to make important and meaningful connections
    among disciplines
  • It also provides both peer and adult group
    identification, which provides a very important
    sense of identity and belonging.

Block Scheduling
  • Block scheduling for at least a portion of the
    school day or week , blocks of time ranging from
    70-140 minutes or more replace the traditional 50
    minute period. Alternate day block planning is
    also know as A-B planning
  • Advantages greater satisfaction among teachers
    and admin.
  • Improvement in behavior and learning of all
  • Students do more writing , peruse issues in
    greater depth, enjoy school more
  • Teachers get to know their students better and
    are able to respond to the students needs better

  • Disadvantages of block scheduling
  • Possible mismatch between content actually
    covered and that expected by state mandate
  • Content in course may be less than traditionally
  • If teachers do not use a variety of teaching
    techniques students tend to get bored and become
  • Alternatives
  • Modified block or Split block
  • Flexible block

Responsive Practices for Helping Each Student
  • Perception that all students can learn when given
    adequate support, although not all students need
    the same amount of time to learn the same thing
  • Attention to coping skills and the emotional
    development of each child
  • Engagement of parents/guardians as partners in
    their child's education
  • High, although not necessarily identical,
    expectations for all students
  • Highly qualified teachers, specialist teachers,
    and smaller schools with smaller classes

Responsive Practices for- cont
  • Peer tutoring and cross-age coaching
  • Personal attention, adult advocacy, scheduling,
    and learning plans to help students learn in a
    manner by which they best learn
  • Time and guided attention to basic
    skills-especially those of literacy, thinking,
    and social-rather than solely on rote memory

Junior High School Middle School
Most common grade span organization Traditional 50 min. periods 6 per day Flexible usually block
Subject organization Departmentalized Integrated Interdisciplinary
Guidance / Counseling Separate session w/ counselor as needed Full time counselor Advisor/Advisee relationship between student Teacher in homeroom
Exploratory curriculum Electives by choice Common wheel of experiences for all
Teachers Subject centered Grades 7-12 Interdisciplinary teams- student centered k-8 or 6-8
Instruction Traditional lecture Skills and repetition Thematic units Discovery techniques and study skills
Athletics Interscholastic- Competition focused Intramural- Participation focused
Middle-Level Education
  • Are school based on a philosophy that
    incorporates curricula and instructional
    practices specifically designed to developmental
    needs of young adolescent students (students
    between the age of 10-15).

Common Traits of Committed Teachers
  • Knowledgeable about the developmental
    characteristics of the age of students the teach
  • Understand and committed to the schools
    philosophy or mission statement
  • Know the curriculum and how best to teach it
  • Are enthusiastic, motivated, and well organized
  • Demonstrate effective communication and
    interpersonal skills
  • Are willing to listen to the students and risk
    trying their ideas (French fry story)
  • Acknowledge students strengths, not their
  • Are reflective and responsible decision makers

N.C.L.B. Act of 2001
  • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)Executive
  • http//

Home and School Connections
  • Although not all schools have a parent/guardian
    organization, many have adopted formal policies
    about home and community connections.
  • Enrollment of entire families as members of a
    learning team
  • Home visitation programs
  • Homework hotlines
  • Involvement of students in community service
  • Parents/guardians volunteer to co-teach in the

Community Service Learning
  • Through community service learning students learn
    and develop during active participation in
    thoughtfully organized and curriculum-connected
    experiences that meet community needs.

Current Actions
  • Changes in standards for teacher certification
  • Emphasis on education for cultural diversity and
    ways of teaching and working with E.L.L
  • Helping students make connections between what is
    being learned and the real world
  • Connections between subjects in the curriculum
    and between academics and vocations
  • Emphasis on standards based education
  • Improving test scores
  • Improving home, school and community connections

Key Trends and Practices
  • Continuing influx of immigrant and language
    minority students throughout the U.S
  • Smaller cohorts of students
  • Reflective thinking and self discipline
  • Holding high but not always identical
    expectations for all students
  • Movement to grades K-8 9-12
  • Personalized instruction
  • Providing students with time and opportunity
    think and be creative, rather than simply
    memorizing and repeating information

Major Problems and Issues
  • Controversy over the value of N.C.L.B
  • Funding gaps- state budgets
  • Deteriorating schools
  • Recruiting and retaining the best teachers and
  • Scarcity of the male/ 2 out of 10
  • Scarcity of minority role models
  • Increasing youth at risk dropping out
  • Using standardized test scores to judge and
    reward the performance of schools and teachers
  • Resegregatiom that is occurring in schools

Meeting the Challenge Recognizing and Providing
for Student Differences
  • Communicate with students in a clear, direct,
    respectful, and consistent manner
  • Maintain high expectations, although not
    necessarily identical, for every student
    establish high standards and teach toward them
    without wavering
  • Provide tiered assignment, with optional due
    dates that are based on individual student
    abilities and interests
  • Use interdisciplinary thematic instruction
  • Use multilevel instruction
  • Use reciprocal peer coaching cross age tutoring

Developmental Characteristics of Young
Adolescents 9-14
  • Physical Development-young adolescents tend to
  • Be self conscious and concerned about their
    physical appearance, especially increases in
    acne, height, and weight
  • Be physically at risk homicide, suicide,
    accidents and leukemia
  • Experience fluctuations in basal metabolism that
    can result in a lack of energy or spurts of
  • Face responsibility of sexual behavior before
    full emotional and social maturity has occurred
  • Have ravenous appetites and particular tastes
  • Mature at varying rates

Developmental Characteristics of Young
Adolescents 9-14
  • Social Development-young adolescents tend to
  • Be vain and want to show off
  • Be self-conscious about social behaviors
  • Want social acceptance. They can be fiercely
    loyal to peer group values and sometimes cruel or
    insensitive to those outside the peer group
  • Strive to define sex role characteristics and
    search to set up positive social relationships
    with members of the same and opposite sex
  • Challenge authority figures and test the limits
    of acceptable behaviors
  • Be rebellious towards parents but will be
    strongly dependant on parental values

Developmental Characteristics of Young
Adolescents 9-14
  • Cognitive Development-young adolescents tend to
  • Be egocentric, display and increased ability to
    convince others, and exhibit independent critical
  • Display increased imaginative powers
  • Be interested in primarily in activities outside
    of school
  • Be able to reason, judge, and apply experiences
  • Exhibit strong willingness to learn what they
    consider to be useful and to enjoy using skill to
    solve real life problems
  • Prefer active to passive learning experiences and
    favor interaction with peers during learning

Developmental Characteristics of Young
Adolescents 9-14
  • Cognitive Development-young adolescents tend to
  • Sulk and show anger
  • Fall in and out of love frequently
  • Be psychologically at risk. At no other point in
    human development is an individual likely to meet
    so much diversity in relation to one's self and
  • Want to be popular and have friends
  • Want interdependence from adult control but
    return to caring adults for help and reassurance
  • Be optimistic, hopeful, and sensitive to what
    others think

Developmental Characteristics of Older
Adolescents 15-19
  • Physical Development-older adolescents tend to
  • Be concerned about their physical appearance but
    with increasing self-confidence
  • Need extended periods of rest, perhaps more than
    at any time since infancy
  • Sometimes display annoying physical habits, which
    are age-normal displays of their attempt to
    become independent

Developmental Characteristics of Older
Adolescents 15-19
  • Social Development-older adolescents tend to
  • Be socially at risk, tend to have a naïve but it
    wont happen to me attitude. Adult values are
    largely shaped conceptually during adolescence,
    and their negative interactions with peers,
    parents and teachers may compromise their ideals
    and commitments.
  • Refer to peers as sources for standards and
    models of behavior. Media heroes are singularly
    important in shaping both behavior and fashion.
  • Search to set up positive social relationships
    with members of the same and opposite sex

Developmental Characteristics of Older
Adolescents 15-19
  • Emotional Development-older adolescents tend to
  • Have few close friendships
  • Have a sense of humor based on increased
    intellectual ability to see abstract
  • Want greater independence from adult control
  • Want to be seen as an original or unique person
  • Work well with teachers they admire and respect
    and who treat them with respect
  • Have a sense of humor based on increased
    intellectual ability to see abstract

Developmental Characteristics of Older
Adolescents 15-19
  • Cognitive Development-older adolescents tend to
  • Be able to reason, judge, and apply experiences
    with a greater degree of maturity
  • Give increased thought to their lives after high
  • Be interested in activities outside of school
  • Display increased imaginative powers
  • Exhibit a strong willingness to learn what they
    consider to be useful and enjoy using those
    skills in their lives
  • Have a greater degree of responsibilities outside
    of school

  • Regardless of all the legislation and other
    responsive school practices, in the end it is the
    dedication, commitment , and understanding of the
    involved adults- the teacher, administrator, bus
    driver etc. that remain the incisive in
    childrens learning.
  • Marzano Marzano, 2003 have concluded that it
    has been made clear that teachers actions in
    their classrooms can have a far greater impact on
    student achievement than school matters of
    curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and
    community involvement.