DISSEMINATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: DISSEMINATION


1
DISSEMINATION How to Disseminate the Teaching
American History Grant Lessons and Content
Training Recommendations Dr. Steven C.
McNeel American Institute for History
Education version 2007-02
2
Three phases to creating and disseminatinglearnin
g materials1. ORGANIZE to know what you are
doing and how2. STANDARDIZE to make what you
are doingeasier to be done3. PUBLICIZE what
you have done, and how you havedone it, to your
fellow teachers
3
1.ORGANIZE YOUR PEOPLE
4
DEVELOPING DISTRICT-WIDEVERTICAL TEAMS
  • Vertical Team Teachers
  • Five Elementary
  • Five Middle
  • Three High School
  • Full vertical team meetings are held to plan,
    develop lessons, and articulate curricula as a
    turnkey package for non-fellow teachers

5
INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Who Will Develop the Turnkey Package?
  • Teachers
  • Project Director

When Will the Turnkey Package be Developed?
  • During the Colloquia
  • Vertical Team Meetings on School Days
  • After School or Saturdays

6
Two approaches for turnkey training to take
place?
IN-DISTRICT CONFERENCES OR MEETINGS Teams of TAH
Fellows create turnkey lessons and content
training for other district teachers.
MULTIPLE-DISTRICT LOCAL STATE NATIONAL SOCIAL
STUDIES CONFERENCES Teams of TAH Fellows travel
to conferences and present lessons and content to
workshop participants.
7
IN-DISTRICT
Specific Grade Level or Multiple
Grades Curriculum-Based Content Training
Is this About Pedagogy?
Content Training?
Should the Training Vary Dependent Upon
Audience? Elementary Middle - Secondary
Should Turnkey Trainers be On the Same Grade
Level as the Audience?
8
IN-DISTRICT
District In-service Days and Conferences
Grade Level Meetings
Using the TAH Grant Develop a PowerPoint and
Additional Materials that Train a Specific Group
of Teachers in the Content of the Curriculum at
that Grade Level Then, send them out
  • Mixed Grade Levels
  • Historical Dialogues occur
  • and Content Focus emerges,
  • for example, 18th-20th Century Themes
  • Present Lessons
  • Discuss content and research that supports the
    lesson

9
MULTI-DISTRICT CONFERENCESParticipants will
receive 2-3 tested quality lessons that connect a
particular historical focus through one century
of time. Focus is on the historical content of
the period as researched by the lesson
development teams under the guidance of
university scholars of American history. The
lessons serve as a content guide for the
workshop. Beginning teachers learn history.
Veteran teachers add to the historical dialogue.

10
2.STANDARDIZE (within limits)YOUR
APPROACHThe Binary Paideia Method
Disseminating a Methodologyalong with History
Content
11
What Forms the Binary Paideia Method?
paideia (Greek)
educating, or raising, of a child
(socializing
relationships). binary opposite forces, or
opposing opinions, attitudes, interests, or
actions, concerning the resulting taught
relationships.
BINARY TENSION or
BALANCE 
12
Developing and Disseminating United States
History at a Particular Grade Level
13
The Binary Paideia Method IntegratesThree
Initial Themes for StudyingUnited States History
at Grade Level Politeia How were the
government, economic systems, religions, society,
and the underlying culture organized during this
period of history? The politeia describes the
institutions, formal and informal, structuring
lives of our historical actors.
14
Politeuma Who were the historical actors, what
characterized their thinking, and what were the
critical turning points in this period? The
politeuma describes the particular people, ideas,
and events that were involved in the specific
period of United States History under
study.The historical PIE
15
Paideia What was the interaction between
people, ideas, events, or resulting institutions
that characterized this period in United States
History? The paideia merges the politeia and
politeuma and describes both fundamental and
transitory relationships, cooperative or
conflicting, during the period being studied.
16
GRADE-LEVEL LESSON DEVELOPMENT HELPS STUDENTS
UNDERSTAND THE PARTS OF UNITED STATES
HISTORYWhat were this societys
institutions?Who were the people, ideas,and
events involved?What relationships existed
between them?THEN, FILL IN THE DETAIL.
17
SALUTARY NEGLECT--IDEA Even though England
believed in a system of Mercantilism, Sir Robert
Walpole espoused a view of "salutary neglect".
This is a system whereby the actual enforcement
of external trade relations was lax. He believed
that this enhanced freedom for the colonists
would stimulate commerce.ON-GOING EVENT The
American Colonies were isolated from the Mother
country. The commercial center of New York was
located approximately 3400 miles from England's
center of power, London. This distance created an
independence of thinking from the Mother country
that was encroached upon when England decided to
become more involved in colonial affairs.
18
INSTITUTIONS (Politeia)
19
  • GEORGE III
  • AMERICAS LAST KING
  • By all accounts, George III was a good king who
    tried to rule wisely, but by 1776 many Americans
    viewed him as a bloody and corrupt tyrant.
  • ENCOURAGES
  • THE RISE OF
  • REPUBLICANISM

20
King-in-Parliamentvs.Colonial
AssembliesCOMPETING INSTITUTIONS
(conflicting)Monarchy and RepublicanismWhat
institutions were cooperating on either side?
21
PEOPLE, IDEAS, EVENTS(Politeuma)
22
Individuals or Groupsconflicting and
cooperatingpeopleideaseventsinstitutions
23
THE CAUSES OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1763-1775
New England militiamen prepare to meet the
oncoming British regulars at the Battle of
Breeds Hill, just outside Boston, Massachusetts,
June 17, 1775.
24
LEARNING FROM THE RANGERSA British officer (in
red at left) assigned to Rogers Rangers learns
about wilderness warfare from his Provincial
allies. The dog is Sergeant Beaubien, which
belonged to Captain John Stark, was listed on the
rolls as a duly enlisted Ranger.
25
THE BRITISH ADAPT TO INDIAN WARFAREBy combining
light infantry tactics with their traditional
discipline, British Redcoats learned to master
Indians in wilderness warfare. Here the 42nd
Black Watch Highland Regiment drives home an
attack at Bushy Run, Pennsylvania, August 5, 1763.
26
RELATIONSHIPS (Paideia)Integrates POLITEUMA
and POLITEIA into a meaningful understanding for
students
27
WHAT RELATIONSHIPS EXISTED?
THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN NORTH AMERICA, 1763-1775
(Right) A private or fusilier of the 23rd
Regiment of Foot (Royal Welch Fusiliers), circa
1768.
28
RELATIONSHIP Freedom to settle where we
wish.What idea from England, early in the
1760s, caused an event that retarded this freedom?
29
Proclamation of 1763 Created a boundary that
prohibited any non-Indians from settling west of
the Appalachian Mountains or from trading in this
area out of sight of established British forts,
such as Ft. Pitt.
30
RELATIONSHIP Freedom to accumulate wealth and
propertyWhat group of people in Englanddid
things to block this freedomin the Americas?
31
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
Proclamation of 1763British Parliament Taking
Action Paying for Protection of British America
and Reaction          1. Sugar Act of
1764          2. Currency Act of
1764          3. Quartering Act of
1765          4. Stamp Act of 1765              
       a. Stamp Act Congress                    
b. Sons of Liberty          5. Townshend
Acts                     a. Boston
Massacre                    b. Committees of
Correspondence          6. Tea Act of
1773                     a. Boston Tea
Party          7. Intolerable Acts of 1774
32
RELATIONSHIP Freedom to Protestand to be
SecureWhat people proclaimed and acted outthis
idea and what particular events occurred?
33
PATRIOTS REACT WITH THE STAMP ACT RIOTS
Englands rulers were unprepared for the
vehemence and the violence with which Americans
would protest taxes not approved by their own
colonial legislatures. Colonial mobs intimidated
royal officials and destroyed public and private
property.
34
THE SONS OF LIBERTY TAR AND FEATHER AN AMERICAN
LOYALIST
  • Beginning with the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765,
    colonial opponents of British tax policy used
    intimidation and mob violence to nullify British
    authority.

35
Developing and DisseminatingUnited States
History in aMultiple Grade Level Environment
36
PUTTING TOGETHERDIRECTED THEMATIC
CONTENT,RATHER THAN FOCUSING ON THE PARTS OF
UNITED STATES HISTORY
37
The Binary Paideia Method AddsThree Subsequent
Themes for StudyingUnited States History
Virtues What were the dominant moral and
ethical values (concepts) that influenced the
people, government, economic systems, religions,
society, or underlying culture of the period
under study? The virtues describe the dominant,
or majority, values and ethics that result from
paideia relationships for the period of United
States History being studied.
38
Contrasts How did people formulate ideas and
act upon them, either in personal expression or
as public events, during this particular
historical period? Within the moral and ethical
structure described by the virtues, the contrasts
suggest whether the period being studied is in
progress or regress in terms of dealing with
minority beliefs and actions.
39
Lessons How might we more fully understand what
this period of United States History meant to our
historical actors and fits into our larger
appreciation of how history relates to our lives
today? The role of lessons in the Binary
Paideia Method addresses what our historical
actors have learned and is used to help us better
understand what we are studying.
40
Dominant ethical or moral valuesof
concepts(Virtues)What negotiating virtue
helped reconcilediffering interests during
theearly 19th century?
41
COMPROMISE
  • HAMILTONIAN
  • vs.
  • JEFFERSONIAN
  • VIEWS

42
IS COMPROMISE A GOOD THING?
  • YES
  • ABLE TO SATISFY BOTH SIDES TO SOME DEGREE
  • AVOID IMMEDIATE CONFLICT OR WAR
  • NO
  • NEITHER SIDE TO THE CONFLICT IS FULLY SATISFIED
  • CIVIL WAR RESULTS ANYWAY

43
Whether good or bad,compromise was a
political,social, and economic virtue in a
democratic society
44
Constitutional Convention
  • Despite beliefs of unalienable rights for all
    men, the founders had to compromise their views
    when it came to the slavery issue.

A COLONIAL SLAVE-MARKET IN THE SEVENTEENTH
CENTURY
45
Dominant compromise (VIRTUE) most ofteninvolves
some degree of dissentingconflict
(CONTRAST)Dissenting attitudes, opinions,and
behaviors (Contrasts)
46
Hamiltons Financial Plan(VIRTUES)laws passed
  • EXCISE TAX ON WHISKEY
  • PROTECTIVE TARIFF- To protect American industry
    from British competition, hurting agriculture
  • ASSUMPTION OF REMAINING STATE DEBTS
  • NATIONAL BANK
  • ALIEN SEDITION ACTS

47
Jeffersons View (CONTRASTS)
  • STATES RIGHTS- Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    (civil rights)
  • FARMERS (tariffs)
  • FRENCH REVOLUTION (promotion of democracy and
    anti-British)
  • COMMON MAN (anti-Bank)
  • AGRARIAN SOCIETY (held captive by
    industrialization) based on slavery

48
Compromise (maintaining the existing VIRTUES)
often leads to more conflict SLAVERY AND THE
WESTERN LANDS
49
(No Transcript)
50
Conflict (CONTRASTS) continues
51
NULLIFICATION CRISIS
  • 1827 (Missouri Compromise in 1820)
  • Protect American industry from British
    competition
  • High tariff bill .37 on the dollar
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Henry Clay

52
Within the same VIRTUE (compromise) there existed
CONTRASTS(conflict between states rights and
federal authority)
53
JOHN C. CALHOUN DEFENDING STATES RIGHTS
54
HENRY CLAY, PROMOTING THE AMERICAN PLAN
55
ANDREW JACKSON, BACK AND FORTH
56
Gradually elevating differing CONTRASTS to
conflicting VIRTUES within the United States
57
Northern View
  • Need an American Policy that will support our
    UNITED States of America
  • Stimulate our industry and protect our factories
  • We cannot support foreign trade
  • Better to buy American- will keep money in
    America
  • Protect against a dependence on foreign goods by
    a tariff

58
Southern View
  • Foreign cotton is serving as a major competition
    to our domestic cotton
  • It is British policy to buy cotton that buys the
    most manufactured goods from them
  • The protective tariff will destroy our cotton
    economy as it will result in ending trade
    between the British and the United States
  • American System favors the interests of the
    northern factory system, not agricultural regions

59
Continuing conflict led to morecompromise
60
Reactions and Resolutionin conflict and
compromise
  • South Carolinas Exposition and Protest
  • Force Bill of 1832
  • Compromise of 1833

61
Does compromise necessarilyresolve the issues?
Despite the resolution of the Tariff of 1833 and
the nullification of the Force Act, Calhoun
states his fear that, the struggle, so far from
being over, had just begun. But, compromise
continued to over-shadow conflictit remained the
VIRTUE.
62

Though the wedge between the North and South was
deepening and conflict was worsening
63
a new opportunity for compromise came
alongstatehood forCalifornia.
64
COMPROMISE OF 1850
  • New land after war with Mexico
  • Clay is back in the picture
  • California admitted as free state
  • Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
    Territories
  • Slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.
  • Congress would not interfere with interstate
    slave trade
  • Strict Fugitive Slave Act

65
(No Transcript)
66
Fugitive Slave Act 1850conflict within
compromise
Passage of this law was so hated by most
abolitionists that its existence played a role in
the end of slavery a little more than a dozen
years later. This law also spurred the continued
operation of the fabled Underground Railroad.
67
SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That any
person who shall knowingly and willingly
obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant, his
agent or attorney, or any person or persons
lawfully assisting him, her, or them, from
arresting such a fugitive from service or labor,
shall, for either of said offences, be subject
to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and
imprisonment not exceeding six months
68
a law which no man can obey without the loss of
self respect -Ralph Waldo Emerson
69
All followed by the ultimate compromise popular
sovereignty.Washington D.C. powers-that-be
washed their hands of the conflict of slavery
70
KANSAS- NEBRASKA ACT
Opening new territories to slavery by popular
sovereignty offset the balance between slave and
free states. The abolitionists would not stand
for it. How can you compromise a moral issue?
71
Popular sovereignty forced compromise ultimately
to yield to conflictthe Civil War had begun but
where?
72
BLEEDING KANSAS (1855)
  • Free Soilers anti-slavery settlers who moved
    into the area to vote against slavery
  • Pro-slavery forces from Missouri went across the
    border to vote in Kansas
  • Both sides resort to violence over the issue of
    slavery

73
CONFLICT
Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should
forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends
of justice, and mingle my blood further with
the blood of my children and with the blood of
millions in this slave country whose rights are
disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust
enactments - I submit - so let it be done!
74
CALL FOR COMPROMISE
A house divided against itself cannot stand. I
believe that this government cannot endure
permanently half slave and half free. I do not
expect the Union to be dissolved I do not
expect the house to fall but I do expect it
will cease to be divided. It will become either
all one thing or another.
75
Leading the United Statesto the ultimate
conflictSecession
76
Union
Seceded States
Border States
77
The underlying dilemma forAfrican Americans in
1860and afterward was
78
WHY FIGHT?
79
Viewed as a chance to achieve equality
Financial opportunity.
80
Frederick
Douglass
Once let the black man get upon his person the
brass letter,U.S., let him get an eagle on his
button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets
in his pocket, there is no power on earth that
can deny that he has earned the right to
citizenship
81
Reflective thoughtson Abraham LincolnHe was
preeminently the white mans Presidentready and
willing at any time to deny, postpone, and
sacrifice the rights of humanity in the colored
people to promote the welfare of the white people
of this country. Frederick Douglass
(1876)
82
Pre-Emancipation Proclamation
Abraham
Lincoln
I will say then that I am not, nor ever have
been, in favor of bringing about in any way the
social and political equality of the white and
black races.
83
The need to preserve the UnionMy paramount
object in this struggle is to save the Union, and
is not either to save or destroy Slavery. If I
could save the Union without freeing any slave, I
would do it and if I could save it by freeing
all the slaves I would do it and if I could do
it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I
would also do that. Abraham Lincoln
(August 1862)
84
Frederick
Abraham
Lincoln
Douglass
85
Frederick
Abraham
Lincoln
Douglass
Douglass once referred to Lincoln as a genuine
representative of American prejudice and Negro
hatred But, Lincoln changed.
86
An issue that initially separated them now served
to bring themtogetherLincoln changedIn
giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to
the freehonorable alike in what we give, and
what we preserve. We shall nobly save or meanly
lose the last, best hope of earth.Abraham
Lincoln (December 1862)
87
The underlying VIRTUE (moral and ethical value)
of the Civil War changed for Lincoln.From
Union to Slaverywhy?
88
Benefits of using Black Soliders
89
Freedom
Protection
Pay
Call To Military
Duty
90
The event (POLITEUMA) that changed an institution
(POLITEIA) in certain states,leading to
different relationships (PAIDEIA) in the
slave-holding South,and creating a new moral and
ethical value for the Civil War (CONTRAST became
the VIRTUE).What event?
91
(No Transcript)
92
But, Lincoln avoided conflict in the Union with a
continuing element of compromise.
93
The Proclamation freed all slaves in the
Confederate States of America. Those slaves in
the border states still remained the property of
their owners.
94
Lincolns justification for the Proclamation was
that in times of war the President has the
Constitutional right to confiscate the assets and
property being used by the enemy.
95
With the Proclamation Blacks were now allowed to
enlist into combat units.
96
The most famous of these units was the
Massachusetts 54th Regiment, consisting of
Douglass son, whose daring attack on Fort Wagner
in 1863 changed sentiment in the North regarding
the use of blacks in combat.
97
So, with the compromise of the Emancipation
Proclamation, creating a new VIRTUE as moral or
ethical value, was all conflict, as CONTRAST or
dissenting opinion, now gone?
98
Was there equality?
Units were racially segregated
99
Was there equality?
100
Was there equality?
10
13
101
Was there equality?
Black units were given less food and supplies
along with having to pay for them
10
7
102
The new VIRTUE for the Civil War was the
abolition of slavery the new emerging CONTRAST
for the Reconstruction Era that followed was
equality.Again, compromise and conflictwere
in tension.
103
3.PUBLICIZE WHAT YOU HAVE DONE
104
  • Web Site http//techtrain.org/tool

105
Blog http//toolfellowship.blogspot.com
106
Podcasts http//techtrain.org/tool/lessons/mp3/po
dcasts_audio.htm
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Title: DISSEMINATION


1
DISSEMINATION How to Disseminate the Teaching
American History Grant Lessons and Content
Training Recommendations Dr. Steven C.
McNeel American Institute for History
Education version 2007-02
2
Three phases to creating and disseminatinglearnin
g materials1. ORGANIZE to know what you are
doing and how2. STANDARDIZE to make what you
are doingeasier to be done3. PUBLICIZE what
you have done, and how you havedone it, to your
fellow teachers
3
1.ORGANIZE YOUR PEOPLE
4
DEVELOPING DISTRICT-WIDEVERTICAL TEAMS
  • Vertical Team Teachers
  • Five Elementary
  • Five Middle
  • Three High School
  • Full vertical team meetings are held to plan,
    develop lessons, and articulate curricula as a
    turnkey package for non-fellow teachers

5
INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Who Will Develop the Turnkey Package?
  • Teachers
  • Project Director

When Will the Turnkey Package be Developed?
  • During the Colloquia
  • Vertical Team Meetings on School Days
  • After School or Saturdays

6
Two approaches for turnkey training to take
place?
IN-DISTRICT CONFERENCES OR MEETINGS Teams of TAH
Fellows create turnkey lessons and content
training for other district teachers.
MULTIPLE-DISTRICT LOCAL STATE NATIONAL SOCIAL
STUDIES CONFERENCES Teams of TAH Fellows travel
to conferences and present lessons and content to
workshop participants.
7
IN-DISTRICT
Specific Grade Level or Multiple
Grades Curriculum-Based Content Training
Is this About Pedagogy?
Content Training?
Should the Training Vary Dependent Upon
Audience? Elementary Middle - Secondary
Should Turnkey Trainers be On the Same Grade
Level as the Audience?
8
IN-DISTRICT
District In-service Days and Conferences
Grade Level Meetings
Using the TAH Grant Develop a PowerPoint and
Additional Materials that Train a Specific Group
of Teachers in the Content of the Curriculum at
that Grade Level Then, send them out
  • Mixed Grade Levels
  • Historical Dialogues occur
  • and Content Focus emerges,
  • for example, 18th-20th Century Themes
  • Present Lessons
  • Discuss content and research that supports the
    lesson

9
MULTI-DISTRICT CONFERENCESParticipants will
receive 2-3 tested quality lessons that connect a
particular historical focus through one century
of time. Focus is on the historical content of
the period as researched by the lesson
development teams under the guidance of
university scholars of American history. The
lessons serve as a content guide for the
workshop. Beginning teachers learn history.
Veteran teachers add to the historical dialogue.

10
2.STANDARDIZE (within limits)YOUR
APPROACHThe Binary Paideia Method
Disseminating a Methodologyalong with History
Content
11
What Forms the Binary Paideia Method?
paideia (Greek)
educating, or raising, of a child
(socializing
relationships). binary opposite forces, or
opposing opinions, attitudes, interests, or
actions, concerning the resulting taught
relationships.
BINARY TENSION or
BALANCE 
12
Developing and Disseminating United States
History at a Particular Grade Level
13
The Binary Paideia Method IntegratesThree
Initial Themes for StudyingUnited States History
at Grade Level Politeia How were the
government, economic systems, religions, society,
and the underlying culture organized during this
period of history? The politeia describes the
institutions, formal and informal, structuring
lives of our historical actors.
14
Politeuma Who were the historical actors, what
characterized their thinking, and what were the
critical turning points in this period? The
politeuma describes the particular people, ideas,
and events that were involved in the specific
period of United States History under
study.The historical PIE
15
Paideia What was the interaction between
people, ideas, events, or resulting institutions
that characterized this period in United States
History? The paideia merges the politeia and
politeuma and describes both fundamental and
transitory relationships, cooperative or
conflicting, during the period being studied.
16
GRADE-LEVEL LESSON DEVELOPMENT HELPS STUDENTS
UNDERSTAND THE PARTS OF UNITED STATES
HISTORYWhat were this societys
institutions?Who were the people, ideas,and
events involved?What relationships existed
between them?THEN, FILL IN THE DETAIL.
17
SALUTARY NEGLECT--IDEA Even though England
believed in a system of Mercantilism, Sir Robert
Walpole espoused a view of "salutary neglect".
This is a system whereby the actual enforcement
of external trade relations was lax. He believed
that this enhanced freedom for the colonists
would stimulate commerce.ON-GOING EVENT The
American Colonies were isolated from the Mother
country. The commercial center of New York was
located approximately 3400 miles from England's
center of power, London. This distance created an
independence of thinking from the Mother country
that was encroached upon when England decided to
become more involved in colonial affairs.
18
INSTITUTIONS (Politeia)
19
  • GEORGE III
  • AMERICAS LAST KING
  • By all accounts, George III was a good king who
    tried to rule wisely, but by 1776 many Americans
    viewed him as a bloody and corrupt tyrant.
  • ENCOURAGES
  • THE RISE OF
  • REPUBLICANISM

20
King-in-Parliamentvs.Colonial
AssembliesCOMPETING INSTITUTIONS
(conflicting)Monarchy and RepublicanismWhat
institutions were cooperating on either side?
21
PEOPLE, IDEAS, EVENTS(Politeuma)
22
Individuals or Groupsconflicting and
cooperatingpeopleideaseventsinstitutions
23
THE CAUSES OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1763-1775
New England militiamen prepare to meet the
oncoming British regulars at the Battle of
Breeds Hill, just outside Boston, Massachusetts,
June 17, 1775.
24
LEARNING FROM THE RANGERSA British officer (in
red at left) assigned to Rogers Rangers learns
about wilderness warfare from his Provincial
allies. The dog is Sergeant Beaubien, which
belonged to Captain John Stark, was listed on the
rolls as a duly enlisted Ranger.
25
THE BRITISH ADAPT TO INDIAN WARFAREBy combining
light infantry tactics with their traditional
discipline, British Redcoats learned to master
Indians in wilderness warfare. Here the 42nd
Black Watch Highland Regiment drives home an
attack at Bushy Run, Pennsylvania, August 5, 1763.
26
RELATIONSHIPS (Paideia)Integrates POLITEUMA
and POLITEIA into a meaningful understanding for
students
27
WHAT RELATIONSHIPS EXISTED?
THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN NORTH AMERICA, 1763-1775
(Right) A private or fusilier of the 23rd
Regiment of Foot (Royal Welch Fusiliers), circa
1768.
28
RELATIONSHIP Freedom to settle where we
wish.What idea from England, early in the
1760s, caused an event that retarded this freedom?
29
Proclamation of 1763 Created a boundary that
prohibited any non-Indians from settling west of
the Appalachian Mountains or from trading in this
area out of sight of established British forts,
such as Ft. Pitt.
30
RELATIONSHIP Freedom to accumulate wealth and
propertyWhat group of people in Englanddid
things to block this freedomin the Americas?
31
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
Proclamation of 1763British Parliament Taking
Action Paying for Protection of British America
and Reaction          1. Sugar Act of
1764          2. Currency Act of
1764          3. Quartering Act of
1765          4. Stamp Act of 1765              
       a. Stamp Act Congress                    
b. Sons of Liberty          5. Townshend
Acts                     a. Boston
Massacre                    b. Committees of
Correspondence          6. Tea Act of
1773                     a. Boston Tea
Party          7. Intolerable Acts of 1774
32
RELATIONSHIP Freedom to Protestand to be
SecureWhat people proclaimed and acted outthis
idea and what particular events occurred?
33
PATRIOTS REACT WITH THE STAMP ACT RIOTS
Englands rulers were unprepared for the
vehemence and the violence with which Americans
would protest taxes not approved by their own
colonial legislatures. Colonial mobs intimidated
royal officials and destroyed public and private
property.
34
THE SONS OF LIBERTY TAR AND FEATHER AN AMERICAN
LOYALIST
  • Beginning with the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765,
    colonial opponents of British tax policy used
    intimidation and mob violence to nullify British
    authority.

35
Developing and DisseminatingUnited States
History in aMultiple Grade Level Environment
36
PUTTING TOGETHERDIRECTED THEMATIC
CONTENT,RATHER THAN FOCUSING ON THE PARTS OF
UNITED STATES HISTORY
37
The Binary Paideia Method AddsThree Subsequent
Themes for StudyingUnited States History
Virtues What were the dominant moral and
ethical values (concepts) that influenced the
people, government, economic systems, religions,
society, or underlying culture of the period
under study? The virtues describe the dominant,
or majority, values and ethics that result from
paideia relationships for the period of United
States History being studied.
38
Contrasts How did people formulate ideas and
act upon them, either in personal expression or
as public events, during this particular
historical period? Within the moral and ethical
structure described by the virtues, the contrasts
suggest whether the period being studied is in
progress or regress in terms of dealing with
minority beliefs and actions.
39
Lessons How might we more fully understand what
this period of United States History meant to our
historical actors and fits into our larger
appreciation of how history relates to our lives
today? The role of lessons in the Binary
Paideia Method addresses what our historical
actors have learned and is used to help us better
understand what we are studying.
40
Dominant ethical or moral valuesof
concepts(Virtues)What negotiating virtue
helped reconcilediffering interests during
theearly 19th century?
41
COMPROMISE
  • HAMILTONIAN
  • vs.
  • JEFFERSONIAN
  • VIEWS

42
IS COMPROMISE A GOOD THING?
  • YES
  • ABLE TO SATISFY BOTH SIDES TO SOME DEGREE
  • AVOID IMMEDIATE CONFLICT OR WAR
  • NO
  • NEITHER SIDE TO THE CONFLICT IS FULLY SATISFIED
  • CIVIL WAR RESULTS ANYWAY

43
Whether good or bad,compromise was a
political,social, and economic virtue in a
democratic society
44
Constitutional Convention
  • Despite beliefs of unalienable rights for all
    men, the founders had to compromise their views
    when it came to the slavery issue.

A COLONIAL SLAVE-MARKET IN THE SEVENTEENTH
CENTURY
45
Dominant compromise (VIRTUE) most ofteninvolves
some degree of dissentingconflict
(CONTRAST)Dissenting attitudes, opinions,and
behaviors (Contrasts)
46
Hamiltons Financial Plan(VIRTUES)laws passed
  • EXCISE TAX ON WHISKEY
  • PROTECTIVE TARIFF- To protect American industry
    from British competition, hurting agriculture
  • ASSUMPTION OF REMAINING STATE DEBTS
  • NATIONAL BANK
  • ALIEN SEDITION ACTS

47
Jeffersons View (CONTRASTS)
  • STATES RIGHTS- Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    (civil rights)
  • FARMERS (tariffs)
  • FRENCH REVOLUTION (promotion of democracy and
    anti-British)
  • COMMON MAN (anti-Bank)
  • AGRARIAN SOCIETY (held captive by
    industrialization) based on slavery

48
Compromise (maintaining the existing VIRTUES)
often leads to more conflict SLAVERY AND THE
WESTERN LANDS
49
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50
Conflict (CONTRASTS) continues
51
NULLIFICATION CRISIS
  • 1827 (Missouri Compromise in 1820)
  • Protect American industry from British
    competition
  • High tariff bill .37 on the dollar
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Henry Clay

52
Within the same VIRTUE (compromise) there existed
CONTRASTS(conflict between states rights and
federal authority)
53
JOHN C. CALHOUN DEFENDING STATES RIGHTS
54
HENRY CLAY, PROMOTING THE AMERICAN PLAN
55
ANDREW JACKSON, BACK AND FORTH
56
Gradually elevating differing CONTRASTS to
conflicting VIRTUES within the United States
57
Northern View
  • Need an American Policy that will support our
    UNITED States of America
  • Stimulate our industry and protect our factories
  • We cannot support foreign trade
  • Better to buy American- will keep money in
    America
  • Protect against a dependence on foreign goods by
    a tariff

58
Southern View
  • Foreign cotton is serving as a major competition
    to our domestic cotton
  • It is British policy to buy cotton that buys the
    most manufactured goods from them
  • The protective tariff will destroy our cotton
    economy as it will result in ending trade
    between the British and the United States
  • American System favors the interests of the
    northern factory system, not agricultural regions

59
Continuing conflict led to morecompromise
60
Reactions and Resolutionin conflict and
compromise
  • South Carolinas Exposition and Protest
  • Force Bill of 1832
  • Compromise of 1833

61
Does compromise necessarilyresolve the issues?
Despite the resolution of the Tariff of 1833 and
the nullification of the Force Act, Calhoun
states his fear that, the struggle, so far from
being over, had just begun. But, compromise
continued to over-shadow conflictit remained the
VIRTUE.
62

Though the wedge between the North and South was
deepening and conflict was worsening
63
a new opportunity for compromise came
alongstatehood forCalifornia.
64
COMPROMISE OF 1850
  • New land after war with Mexico
  • Clay is back in the picture
  • California admitted as free state
  • Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
    Territories
  • Slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.
  • Congress would not interfere with interstate
    slave trade
  • Strict Fugitive Slave Act

65
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66
Fugitive Slave Act 1850conflict within
compromise
Passage of this law was so hated by most
abolitionists that its existence played a role in
the end of slavery a little more than a dozen
years later. This law also spurred the continued
operation of the fabled Underground Railroad.
67
SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That any
person who shall knowingly and willingly
obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant, his
agent or attorney, or any person or persons
lawfully assisting him, her, or them, from
arresting such a fugitive from service or labor,
shall, for either of said offences, be subject
to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and
imprisonment not exceeding six months
68
a law which no man can obey without the loss of
self respect -Ralph Waldo Emerson
69
All followed by the ultimate compromise popular
sovereignty.Washington D.C. powers-that-be
washed their hands of the conflict of slavery
70
KANSAS- NEBRASKA ACT
Opening new territories to slavery by popular
sovereignty offset the balance between slave and
free states. The abolitionists would not stand
for it. How can you compromise a moral issue?
71
Popular sovereignty forced compromise ultimately
to yield to conflictthe Civil War had begun but
where?
72
BLEEDING KANSAS (1855)
  • Free Soilers anti-slavery settlers who moved
    into the area to vote against slavery
  • Pro-slavery forces from Missouri went across the
    border to vote in Kansas
  • Both sides resort to violence over the issue of
    slavery

73
CONFLICT
Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should
forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends
of justice, and mingle my blood further with
the blood of my children and with the blood of
millions in this slave country whose rights are
disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust
enactments - I submit - so let it be done!
74
CALL FOR COMPROMISE
A house divided against itself cannot stand. I
believe that this government cannot endure
permanently half slave and half free. I do not
expect the Union to be dissolved I do not
expect the house to fall but I do expect it
will cease to be divided. It will become either
all one thing or another.
75
Leading the United Statesto the ultimate
conflictSecession
76
Union
Seceded States
Border States
77
The underlying dilemma forAfrican Americans in
1860and afterward was
78
WHY FIGHT?
79
Viewed as a chance to achieve equality
Financial opportunity.
80
Frederick
Douglass
Once let the black man get upon his person the
brass letter,U.S., let him get an eagle on his
button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets
in his pocket, there is no power on earth that
can deny that he has earned the right to
citizenship
81
Reflective thoughtson Abraham LincolnHe was
preeminently the white mans Presidentready and
willing at any time to deny, postpone, and
sacrifice the rights of humanity in the colored
people to promote the welfare of the white people
of this country. Frederick Douglass
(1876)
82
Pre-Emancipation Proclamation
Abraham
Lincoln
I will say then that I am not, nor ever have
been, in favor of bringing about in any way the
social and political equality of the white and
black races.
83
The need to preserve the UnionMy paramount
object in this struggle is to save the Union, and
is not either to save or destroy Slavery. If I
could save the Union without freeing any slave, I
would do it and if I could save it by freeing
all the slaves I would do it and if I could do
it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I
would also do that. Abraham Lincoln
(August 1862)
84
Frederick
Abraham
Lincoln
Douglass
85
Frederick
Abraham
Lincoln
Douglass
Douglass once referred to Lincoln as a genuine
representative of American prejudice and Negro
hatred But, Lincoln changed.
86
An issue that initially separated them now served
to bring themtogetherLincoln changedIn
giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to
the freehonorable alike in what we give, and
what we preserve. We shall nobly save or meanly
lose the last, best hope of earth.Abraham
Lincoln (December 1862)
87
The underlying VIRTUE (moral and ethical value)
of the Civil War changed for Lincoln.From
Union to Slaverywhy?
88
Benefits of using Black Soliders
89
Freedom
Protection
Pay
Call To Military
Duty
90
The event (POLITEUMA) that changed an institution
(POLITEIA) in certain states,leading to
different relationships (PAIDEIA) in the
slave-holding South,and creating a new moral and
ethical value for the Civil War (CONTRAST became
the VIRTUE).What event?
91
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92
But, Lincoln avoided conflict in the Union with a
continuing element of compromise.
93
The Proclamation freed all slaves in the
Confederate States of America. Those slaves in
the border states still remained the property of
their owners.
94
Lincolns justification for the Proclamation was
that in times of war the President has the
Constitutional right to confiscate the assets and
property being used by the enemy.
95
With the Proclamation Blacks were now allowed to
enlist into combat units.
96
The most famous of these units was the
Massachusetts 54th Regiment, consisting of
Douglass son, whose daring attack on Fort Wagner
in 1863 changed sentiment in the North regarding
the use of blacks in combat.
97
So, with the compromise of the Emancipation
Proclamation, creating a new VIRTUE as moral or
ethical value, was all conflict, as CONTRAST or
dissenting opinion, now gone?
98
Was there equality?
Units were racially segregated
99
Was there equality?
100
Was there equality?
10
13
101
Was there equality?
Black units were given less food and supplies
along with having to pay for them
10
7
102
The new VIRTUE for the Civil War was the
abolition of slavery the new emerging CONTRAST
for the Reconstruction Era that followed was
equality.Again, compromise and conflictwere
in tension.
103
3.PUBLICIZE WHAT YOU HAVE DONE
104
  • Web Site http//techtrain.org/tool

105
Blog http//toolfellowship.blogspot.com
106
Podcasts http//techtrain.org/tool/lessons/mp3/po
dcasts_audio.htm
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