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Social Contract Theories

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Soazig Le Bihan - University of Montana * Introduction Reminder on Kant: What is morality? Social Contract Theories: Foundation of morality Legitimacy of government ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Contract Theories


1
  • Social Contract Theories

2
  • Introduction

Reminder on Kant What is morality?
  • Social Contract Theories
  • Foundation of morality
  • Legitimacy of government in the modern Western
    world

Hobbes, Kant and Rawls
  • Hobbes Morality based on self-interest!

3
  • Outline

From the state of nature to the social contract
Morality and self-interest the prisoners
dilemma
Advantages
Objections and Answers
Conclusion
4
  • The State of Nature

State of nature state of war of every man
against every man
Why? 1- equality of need 2- scarcity of resources
3- equality of power 4- self interest
Why is it bad? and the life of man, solitary,
poor, nasty, brutish and short
  • The state of nature is to be avoided!

5
  • The Social Contract

Foundation Rational, self-interested people
Components 1st law each one protects oneself
2nd law give up the liberties when the others
do too, in order to guarantee peaceful social
living 3 Establishment of government necessary
receives the liberties that the citizen have
given up
  • Entering the Social Contract is the best strategy
    to satisfy our own interests
  • Is it true?

6
  • Outline

From the state of nature to the social contract
Morality and self-interest the prisoners
dilemma
Advantages
Objections and Answers
Conclusion
7
  • The Prisoner Dilemma
  • (Flood and Mesmer 1950)

Game Theory
The game
Jones accuses S. Jones does not
Smith accuses J. 5/5 10/0
Smith does not 0/10 1/1
Rational answer for each prisoner To accuse the
other Result worse for both than cooperation
  • Cooperation is the best rational choice in cases
    of inter-related interests

8
  • Outline

From the state of nature to the social contract
Morality and self-interest the prisoners
dilemma
Advantages
Objections and Answers
Conclusion
9
  • Advantages of Social Contract Theories

1. Foundation of moral social behavior where the
rules come from and why we follow them
  • 2. Bounds on morality
  • Private vs public life
  • Civil disobedience
  • No moral favors required
  • SCT restrict morality to the necessary rules for
    peaceful social living
  • Foundation of Democratic Governement

10
  • Outline

From the state of nature to the social contract
Morality and self-interest the prisoners
dilemma
Advantages
Objections and Answers
Conclusion
11
  • Objections and Answers

Objections
Answers
Egoism (Hobbes)
Impartiality (Kant, Rawls)
Actual Contract (Hobbes)
Implicit Contract (Kant, Rawls)
No responsibility outside of contract (Hobbes)
12
  • Outline

From the state of nature to the social contract
Morality and self-interest the prisoners
dilemma
Advantages
Objections and Answers
Conclusion
13
  • Social Contract Theories
  • Conclusion
  • Deficient as a foundation of morality
  • Moral behavior is more than rational behavior
    between rational agents
  • Successful as a foundation of political authority
  • Reminder legal vs moral
  • Obligations and Rights of citizens in modern
    democracies
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