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ETHICS for TEACHERS

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Title: ETHICS for TEACHERS


1
ETHICS for TEACHERS
2
It is essential that educators recognize their
unique and influential role in society by
honoring the standards established for their
profession.
3
Think About Your
  • Interactions with students
  • Knowledge of school policies and procedures
  • Reputation in the community

4
What is your role and responsibility in
maintaining the high ethical standards that
define our profession?
5
  • Parents are the first teachers of their children,
    but teachers are the 2nd most influential in the
    lives of children.
  • -- Author unknown

6
So,What Are Ethics Anyway?
7
To answer that question, we have to begin by
looking at
  • Values
  • Morality
  • Professional Core Values
  • Ethics
  • Professional Ethics
  • Ethical Responsi-bilities Dilemmas

8
VALUES
  • Values are things that an individual believes to
    be intrinsically worthwhile or desirable, that
    are prized for themselves (e.g., truth, beauty,
    honesty justice, respect for people and for the
    environment).

9
MORALITY
  • Morality involves peoples' views of what is good,
    right, or proper their beliefs about their
    obligations and their ideas about how they
    should behave.
  • Morality concerns duties and obligations to one
    another and is characterized by words such as
    right, ought, just and fair.

10
ETHICS
  • Ethics is the study of right and wrong, duties
    and obligations.
  • Ethics involves critical reflection on morality,
    including the ability to make choices between
    values and the examination of the moral
    dimensions of relationships.

11
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
  • The moral commitments of a profession that
  • involve moral reflection that extends and
    enhances the personal morality practitioners
    bring to their work,
  • concern actions of right and wrong in the
    workplace, and
  • help individuals resolve moral dilemmas they
    encounter in their work.

12
Ethical Responsibilities Ethical Dilemmas
  • Ethical Responsibilities
  • --clear-cut, spelled out
  • Ethical Dilemma
  • --conflicting professional values
    responsibilities

13
What Does a Code of Ethics Do?
  • Creates a professions sense of identity
  • Identifies the issues the profession cares about
    and wants new members to care about
  • Communicates with those outside the profession
    what they can expect from its members

14
What do we do?
ID Problem ?
No Seek solution Involves ethics? ? Yes (issues of right, wrong)
Responsibility Do what is right Dilemma or responsibility? ? Dilemma You have a choice
Yes Solve it! Can it be solved with ethical finesse? ? No


15
What do we do?
Look for guidance in Code, get more info ?
Yes Seek legal advice! Legal dimension? ? No
Decide on a course of action ?
Issue resolved!


16
  • In all our actions we should be guided by the
  • The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
  • Dual Roles as
  • Educator
  • Parent

17
Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers adopted
and promulgated by the Board for Professional
Teachers through Board Resolution No. 435, series
of 1997, pursuant to the provisions of paragraph
(e), Article II of RA No. 7836, otherwise known
as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization
Act of 1994
18
TEACHERS AS PROFESSIONALS
Duly licensed professionals who possess dignity
and reputation with high moral values as well as
technical and professional competence. In the
practice of their noble profession, they strictly
adhere to observe, and practice this set of
ethical and moral principles, standard and values.
(Preamble, Code of Ethics for Professional
Teachers)
19
Every teacher shall merit reasonable social
recognition for which purpose he shall behave
with honor and dignity at all times and refrain
from such activities as gambling, smoking,
drunkenness and other excesses, much less illicit
relations. (Code of Ethics, Article III, Section
3)
A teacher shall place premium upon self-respect
and self-discipline as the principle of personal
behavior in all relationships with others and in
all situations. (Code of Ethics, Article XI,
Section 2)
20
A teacher shall maintain at all times a
dignified personality which could serve as model
worthy of emulation by learners, peers, and
others. (Code of Ethics, Article XI, Section 3)
21
Joseph Santos vs. NLRC, Hagonoy Institute, Inc.
As teacher, (one) serves as an example to
his/her pupils xxx. Consequently xxx teachers
must adhere to the exacting standards of morality
and decency. xxx A teacher both in his official
and personal conduct must display exemplary
behavior. He must freely and willingly accept
restrictions on his conduct that might be viewed
irksome xxx the personal behavior of teachers, IN
AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM, must be beyond
reproach xxx they must observe a high standard of
integrity and honesty.
22
TO ACT WITH HONOR
To strictly honor contractual obligation with
the School
Art. VI, Sec. 6, Code of Ethics
A teacher who accepts a position assumes a
contractual obligation to live up to his
contract, assuming full knowledge of the
employment terms and conditions.
23
DUTY OF TEACHERS (Based on Law)
As an EDUCATOR
1987 Constitution states
x x x The State shall protect and promote the
right of all citizens to quality education at all
levels and shall take appropriate steps to make
such education accessible to all. (Article XIV,
Section 1)
24
As a PARENT
Article 218 of the Family Code provides
The school, its administrators and teachers, x x
x engaged in child care shall have special
parental authority and responsibility over the
minor child while under their supervision,
instruction or custody.
Article 219 of the Family Code provides
Those given the authority and responsibility
under (Article 218) shall principally and
solidarily liable for damages caused by acts or
omissions of the unemancipated minor.
25
Principal Duty or Obligation is To Ensure
Quality Education
What is QUALITY EDUCATION?
x x x making sure that basic education is really
solid, because if it is not solid, it affects the
quality of secondary education. If secondary
education is poor, then the person goes to
college unprepared for college work. And if he
is allowed to graduate again with a poor quality
college education, he goes to university
professional education even more unprepared. -
Rev. Fr. Joaquin Bernas, SJ
26
In short
A school, before promoting or graduating a
student, must be sure that he/she (the student)
is functionally literate to go through next
higher level.
27
To ensure Quality Education
1) Must be COMPETENT and EFFICIENT
Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers, Article
IV, Section 2
Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible
standards of quality education, shall make the
best preparation for the career of teaching, and
shall be at his best at all times in the practice
of his profession.
28
BP 232 (Education Act of 1982), Section 16 (2)
provides
The teacher shall xxx be accountable for
efficient and effective attainment of specified
learning objectives xxx.
Code of Ethics further mandates that
Every teacher shall participate in the
continuing professional education (CPE) program
of the PRC, and shall pursue such other studies
as will improve his efficiency, enhance the
prestige of the profession, and strengthen his
competence, virtue and productivity in order to
be nationally and internationally competitive.
(Article IV, Section 3)
29
A teacher shall ensure that conditions
contributive to the maximum development of
learners are adequate and shall extend assistance
in preventing or solving learners problems and
difficulties.
(Article IV, Section 3)
30
In short
A teacher is expected to be efficient and
competent in the performance of his academic
duties at all times.
Otherwise,
A teacher who has consistently shows his
inability to efficiently perform his duties and
responsibilities, within a common performance
standards should not be allowed to stay in school
xxx.
The MRPS provides as just cause of terminating a
faculty
Gross inefficiency and incompetence in the
performance of his duties xxx.
(Section 3 (a))
31
Hence, the SC held in Evelyn Peña vs. NLRC that
x x x schools can set high standards of
efficiency for its teachers since quality
education is a mandate of the Constitution xxx
security of tenure xxx cannot be used to shield
incompetence.
32
2) Must EVALUATE LEARNERS
(i) Duty to give grades/evaluation
Section 16(3) of BP 232, TEACHER SHALL
Render regular reports on performance of each
student and to the latter and to the latters
parents and guardians with specific suggestions
for improvement.
and...
Must promptly render or give grades. Otherwise,
the unjustified or unreasonable delay in giving
grades constitutes gross neglect of duty.
33
In the case of University of the East vs. Romeo
A. Jader, the SC declared
It is the contractual obligation of the school
(through the teachers) to TIMELY INFORM AND
FURNISH sufficient notice and information to each
and every student as to whether he/she had
already complied with all the requirements xxx.
The negligent act of a teacher who fails to
observe the rules of the school, for instance, by
not promptly submitting a students grade is not
only imputable to the teacher but is an act of
the school being his/her employer xxx.
34
In evaluating/giving grades the following rules
of conduct must be observed
Code of Ethics provides
A teacher has the duty to determine the academic
marks and the promotion of learners in the
subject they handle. Such determination shall be
in accordance with generally accepted procedure
of evaluation and measurement on case of any
complaint, teachers concerned shall immediately
take appropriate action, observing the process.
(Article VIII, Section 1)
35
Under no circumstances shall a teacher be
prejudiced nor discriminatory against any
learner.
(Article VIII, Section 3)
A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from
learners, their parents or others in their behalf
in exchange for requested concessions, especially
if undeserved.
(Article VIII, Section 4)
A teacher shall base the evaluation of the
learners work on merit and quality of academic
performance.
(Article VIII, Section 6)
36
  1. In computing the grades

Section 16 (5) of BP 232 mandates that a teacher
shall
Refrain from making deductions or additions in
students scholastic ratings for acts that are
clearly not manifestations of xxx scholarship.
Hence, Section 79 of the MRPS
Basis for Grading. The xxx grade or rating xxx
in a student should be based SOLELY on his
scholastic performance. Any addition or
diminution to the grade in a subject for
co-curricular activities, attendance, or
misconduct shall NOT be allowed xxx.
37
Code of Ethics provides
A teacher shall not xxx make deductions from
their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts
which are clearly not manifestations of poor
scholarship.
(Article VIII, Section 8)
Thus, it is not a matter of discretion on the
part of the teachers in the giving of the
students grades, but rather it is a clear
obligation for the teachers to determine student
academic marks solely based on scholastic
performance. For a teacher to do otherwise, would
be serious academic malpractice or grave
misconduct in the performance of his/her duties.
38
In Padilla vs. NLRC, SBC the Supreme Court said
This Court is convinced that the pressure and
influence exerted by (a teacher) on his colleague
to change a failing grade to passing one xxx
constitute serious misconduct which is a valid
ground for dismissing an employee.
39
B. As a PARENT Principal Duty to Exercise
Parental Authority and Responsibility
Article 218, Family Code provides
The school, its administrators and teachers xxx
engaged in child care shall have special parental
authority and responsibility over the minor child
while under their supervision, instruction or
custody.
40
Code of Ethics states
A teacher shall recognize that the interest and
welfare of learners are his first and foremost
concern, and shall handle each learner justly and
impartially.
(Article VII, Section 2)
41
Parental Authority to Discipline
As parents, the teachers shall use discipline
not to punish but to correct, not to force, but
to motivate and not to obey with rigid cadence,
but to choose to follow the right way. Hence,
teachers cannot generally use methods of
punishing or such degree of penalties that a good
mother or a good father would not likely use on
her/his own children.
42
Corporal Punishment - Article 233 (2nd par.)
In no case x x x inflict corporal punishment
upon the child.
Definition An act that inflict pain or harm upon
a childs body as punishment for wrong doing
usually through beating and spanking
Elements
  1. physical contact
  2. to inflict pain

43
  • VIII, 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal
    punishment on offending learners nor make
    deductions from their scholastic ratings as a
    punishment for acts which are clearly not
    manifestations of poor scholarship.

44
Sale of Tickets Collection of Contribution/
Donations from Pupils / Parents
BP 232, Sec. 9 (9) - students have right to be
free from (voluntary) involuntary contributions
  • Improper or unauthorized solicitation of
    contributions from subordinate employees and by
    teachers or school officials from school children
  • VIII, 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or
    indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials other
    than what is authorized for such service.

45
Anita Y. Salvarria vs. Letran College, et al.
(296 SCRA 184)
The Supreme Court declared--
Petitioner contended that her dismissal was
arbitrarily xxx, having been effected without
just cause, on the premise that the solicitation
of funds xxx was initiated by the students and
that her participation was merely limited to
approving the same. xxx
46
If there is one person more knowledgeable of
xxx policy against illegal exactions from
students, it would be xxx Salavarria. Hence,
regardless of who initiated the collections, the
fact that the same was approved or indorsed by
petitioner, made her in effect the author of the
project.
47
xxx (Department of Education) considers the
act of teachers in xxx contracting loans from
parents of their students xxx not only serious
misconduct but xxx violation of students right
to be free from involuntary contribution xxx.
- USEC Nachura, 13 Feb. 98
48
Parental Responsibility
The student / pupil while in school, is in the
custody and hence, the responsibility of the
school authorities as long as he is under the
control and influence of the school, whether the
semester has not yet begun or has already ended.
49
In Amadora vs. CA, the Supreme Court said--
Even if the student is just relaxing in the
campus in the company of his classmates, x x x
the student is still within the custody and
subject to the discipline and responsibility of
the teachers x x x.
50
Hence--
A teacher required to exercise special parental
authority but who fails to observe all the
diligence of a good father of a family in the
custody and care of the pupils and students,
shall be held liable for gross neglect of duty.
51
The Court takes this opportunity to pay a
sincere tribute to the school teachers, who are
always at the forefront in the battle against
illiteracy and ignorance. If only because it is
they who open the minds of their pupils to an
unexplored world awash will the magic of letters
and numbers, which is an extraordinary feat
indeed, these humble mentors deserve all our
respect and appreciation.
52
Teaching Philosophy is a work in progress.
The best way for me to describe my teaching
philosophy is to use the notion of a journey.
Whether I work with students at the beginning of
their formal studies or near the end of their
degree or anywhere in between, often the goals
and tools needed for the eventual successful
completion of the journey are the same interest,
courage, and the realization that the journey
never ends. I know I am only one of the teachers
of these students whom they are going to
encounter along the way and I also understandI
am encountering them en route, each having
arrived from different paths and each facing
different challenges. It is with this knowledge
that I approach and have so far developed my
philosophy of teaching. (Christine Watson,
Department of English, SIFC)
53
  • REFERENCES
  • CONSTITUTION
  • ATTY.ULAN SARMIENTOs LECTURE

54
This is the end of the presentation. Thank you
for participating.
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