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Tissues: The Living Fabric

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Chapter 4 Tissues: The Living Fabric ... Essential Cell Biology, Garland Press, 1998 A skeletal muscle cell ... Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 Healing of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tissues: The Living Fabric


1
Mariebs Human Anatomy and Physiology Ninth
Edition
Mariebs Human Anatomy and Physiology Ninth
Edition Marieb w Hoehn
  • Chapter 4
  • Tissues The Living Fabric
  • Muscle Nervous Tissues
  • Lecture 11

2
Mid-term Grades (based on 3 grades) - Revised
Based on the three (3) grades you have received
so far, you should do a mid-term checkup to see
how youre doing. To find your average so far,
total the three grades youve received and divide
by 300 (the total amount of points possible so
far for the courses). Ex keeping all grades
(83 50 90) ? 300 0.74 (74) Ex dropping
the low grade (83 90) ? 200 0.86 (86) To
figure out what you need to AVERAGE on the next
lecture and two lab exams plus the final COMBINED
to get your desired grade for the course
Pts desired (from syllabus) - Total pts. so far
Average grade needed on remaining exams

450 (if no grade dropped) or 550 (if low grade
dropped)
3
Points and Grades (from Syllabus) - Revised
Grade for Course Grade as Points (of a possible 800) Quality Points
       
A 92-100 736-800 4.0
A- 90-91.9 720-735 3.7
B 86-89.9 688-719 3.3
B 82-85.9 656-687 3.0
B- 80-81.9 640-655 2.7
C 78-79.9 624-639 2.3
C 70-77.9 560-623 2.0
D 68-69.9 544-559 1.0
D 60-67.9 480-543 0.7
Example 1 To get a grade of B for the course,
using the example grades on previous slide, and
not dropping lowest grade (50), and assuming 50
pts for lab and 4 XC points
656 (83 50 90 50 4) x
x 0.84 (84) Average on upcoming exams
450
Example 2 To get a grade of B for the course,
using the example grades on previous slide, and
dropping lowest grade (50), and assuming 50 pts
for lab and 4 XC points
656 (83 90 50 4) x
x 0.78 (78) Average on upcoming exams
550
4
Lecture Overview
  • Connective tissue framework of the body
  • Introduction to muscle tissue
  • Classification/characteristics of muscle tissue
  • Overview of nervous tissue
  • Inflammation and repair

5
CT Framework of the Body
Fascia connects the organs of the dorsal and
ventral cavities with the rest of the body
Provide - Strength - Stability - Organ
position - Conduits
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
6
Fascia and CT of Skeletal Muscle
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
7
CT and the Heart
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
8
Muscle Overview
  • General characteristics
  • Elongated cells with special properties
  • Muscle cells (myocytes) muscle fibers
  • Contractile (major property of all muscle)
  • Use actin (thin) and myosin (thick) for
    contraction
  • Three types of muscle tissue
  • Cardiac
  • Skeletal
  • Smooth

9
Skeletal Muscle
  • Skeletal muscle
  • attached to bones
  • striated
  • voluntary
  • multinucleated
  • unbranched

Like most other highly differentiated cells,
skeletal muscle is incapable of cell division,
but new fibers can be formed by other cells
10
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Satellite cells progenitor cells
Nuclei lie just internal to the cell membrane
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
11
Skeletal Muscle Cells (Fibers)
A skeletal muscle cell (muscle fiber)
Lengths can be up to the entire length of a
muscle (30 cm or 12 in)!
Figure from Alberts et al., Essential Cell
Biology, Garland Press, 1998
12
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
13
Smooth Muscle
  • Smooth muscle
  • walls of organs and blood vessels
  • skin
  • involuntary
  • not striated (its smooth!)
  • single, centrally located nucleus
  • unbranched

Smooth muscle cells normally dont divide but
they can if there is a need to regenerate tissue
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
14
Smooth Muscle
Notice that the contractile filaments within the
cells are organized very differently than
skeletal muscle no sarcomeres no striations
Figures from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
15
Cardiac Muscle
  • Cardiac muscle
  • heart wall (myocardium)
  • involuntary ( autorhythmic)
  • striated
  • intercalated discs
  • branched
  • single nucleus (usually)

Cardiac muscle cells may also be called
cardiocytes or cardiac myocytes or myocardial
cells
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
16
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  • Important points
  • Almost totally dependent upon aerobic metabolism
  • Intercalated disks consist of 1) gap junctions
    and 2) desmosomes
  • Myofibrils are oriented longitudinally (like
    skeletal muscle)

Regenerative capability is limited no satellite
cells
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
17
Nervous Tissue
  • found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral
    nerves
  • conduction of nerve impulses
  • basic cells are neurons
  • sensory reception
  • neuroglial cells are supporting cells

Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
18
Nervous Tissue
Neuroglia - Maintain physical structure -
Repair framework after injury - Perform
phagocytosis - Provide nutrients to neurons
Figures from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
19
Introduction to Inflammation
Restoration of homeostasis after tissue injury or
infections involves two processes 1)
inflammation and 2) repair.
Hallmarks of inflammation Redness, heat, pain,
swelling, and loss of function (Inflammation
-itis)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
20
Inflammatory Response
From Saladin, Human Anatomy Physiology, McGraw
Hill, 2007
From http//www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/l
oosct2l.jpg
21
Eicosanoid Synthesis and Inflammation
From http//www.arthritis.co.za/cox.html
(COX)
From Saladin, Human Anatomy Physiology, McGraw
Hill, 2007
22
Healing of Cuts
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
1. Bleeding/clotting
2. Scab formation
Tissue repair can occur by either 1)
regeneration healing with tissue that was
originally present 2) fibrosis healing with
scar tissue
23
Healing of Cuts
4. Shedding of scab covering of wound with
epithelium
3. Epidermal cell migration and collagen
production
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
24
Review
  • The connective tissues (CT) create the internal
    framework of the body
  • Layers of CT connect the organs with the dorsal
    and ventral cavities
  • Fasciae (singular, fascia)
  • CT layers and wrappings that support and surround
    organs
  • Superficial fascia
  • Deep fascia
  • Subserous fascia

25
Review
NAME OF MUSCLE TISSUE DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE TYPE OF CONTROL LOCATION FUNCTION
SKELETAL MUSCLE long, thin fibers with many nuclei and striations Voluntary attached to bones to move bones
SMOOTH MUSCLE spindle shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus, lacking striations Involuntary walls of visceral hollow organs, irises of eyes, walls of blood vessels to move substances through passageways (i.e. food, urine, semen), constrict blood vessels, etc
CARDIAC MUSCLE a network of striated cells with one centrally located nucleus attached by intercalated discs Involuntary heart pump blood to lungs and body
26
Review
  • The restoration of homeostasis following injury
    or infection involves two steps (in order)
  • 1. Inflammation
  • Isolates injured/infected tissue
  • Activates mast cells (histamine, heparin)
  • Attraction of immune/phagocytic cells to clean up
  • 2. Repair (Will discuss with integumentary
    system)
  • Fibroblasts move in to stabilize injury site
    (scar tissue)
  • Different tissues have different ability to
    repair injury
  • Epithelia and CT regenerate very well
  • Smooth/skeletal muscle regenerate poorly
  • Cardiac muscle and nerve cannot regenerate at all
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