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Exertional Heat Illness Overview

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: james d. saris Last modified by: kdeweber Created Date: 3/26/2006 12:01:22 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exertional Heat Illness Overview


1
Exertional Heat IllnessOverview
Military Sports Medicine Fellowship
  • Kevin deWeber, MD, FAAFP
  • Director
  • Primary Care Sports Medicine Fellowship

Every Warrior an Athlete
2
Objectives
  • Thermoregulation
  • Heat injuries
  • Predisposing factors
  • Return to play
  • Prevention

3
Sudden Death in Athletes
  • 1 overall cause Cardiovascular conditions
  • Very difficult to prevent
  • 1 non-CV cause Exertional Heat Illness (EHI)
  • More preventable

4
Thermoregulation
  • Metabolic Heat Environmental Heat
  • Body Temperature



5
Thermoregulation (cont.)
Heat exchange mechanisms
6
Thermoregulation (cont.)
()
(-)
  • Heat gain Heat loss
  • Metabolic Convection
  • Conduction
  • Radiation
  • Evaporation
  • When Environmental to gt Skin to


7
Non EHI Injuries
  • Parade Syncope - syncope from standing in the
    heat
  • Dehydration
  • Vasovagal reactions
  • Heat edema
  • Heat rash

8
Types of EHI
  • Heat Cramps - skeletal muscle cramping, usually
    in abdomen or extremities
  • Heat Exhaustion inability to continue to
    exercise (/- collapse), but no lab evidence of
    organ dysfunction

9
Types of EHI (cont)
  • Rhabdomyolysis muscle damage causing CPK gt
    3000, possibly leading to renal impairment
  • Heatstroke CNS dysfunction (mental status
    changes ranging from confusion to delirium to
    seizure, coma and death) with lab evidence of
    organ dysfunction (e.g. renal, hepatic, muscle)

10
Early Signs and Symptoms
  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • headache
  • slowed mentation
  • thirst
  • muscle cramps
  • nausea, vomiting
  • diarrhea

11
Heat Cramps
  • Etiology ? fatigue gt Na loss gt dehydration
  • Symptoms
  • Painful muscle contractions
  • Skeletal muscle only
  • Last 1-3 min usually, up to 8 hours

12
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis
  • Etiology intense exertion, muscle damage
  • Signs/sxs
  • Muscle pain, but not cramps
  • Muscle tenderness, /- swelling
  • May have coke-urine

13
Heat Exhaustion
  • Etiology
  • central fatigue induces widespread peripheral
    vascular dilation
  • Heat and dehydration usually involved
  • Signs/Symptoms
  • VS high HR, low BP
  • Sweaty, pale, ashen appearance
  • Headache, irritability, n/v, decreased
    coordination, weakness, dizziness
  • May have muscle cramps
  • Temp lt 104

14
Exertional Heatstroke
  • Temp gt 104
  • sxs of heat exhaustion, PLUS
  • disorientation
  • confusion
  • dizzziness/ataxic gait
  • irrational behavior
  • Inappropriate comments
  • seizures, coma
  • Organ dysfunction
  • Kidneys, liver, clotting system

CNS
15
Diagnosis of Heat Stroke
  • The diagnosis of heat stroke is simple
  • In a previously healthy individual who collapses
    when exerting in a hot environment for long
    periods, and whose rectal temperature is above
    40.6oC (105oF), the diagnosis of heat stroke is
    virtually certain

Epstein Y. Am J Med Sports 2143-152, 2000
16
AXIOM
  • A sudden collapse during physical exertion
    carried out under warm climatic conditions should
    a priory be diagnosed as heat stroke (unless and
    until proven otherwise)

17
Spectrum of Severity
Heat exhaustion
Heat Stroke
Rhabdomyolysis and cramps can present anywhere on
the spectrum
  • Core Temperature necessary in assessment but
    NOT good method of predicting level of severity
    or outcome.

18
Core Body Temperature
  • MUST assess by rectal thermometer
  • Heat exhaustion
  • T usually lt 104
  • Heat Stroke
  • T gt 104
  • T gt 104 by itself is NOT diagnostic of heat
    stroke
  • Need CNS/organ dysfunction also

19
Exercise Associated Collapse
Mental Status Conscious/oriented
Unconscious/disoriented Positional
Hypotension Rectal
Temperature Supine head down position
lt95F 95F-103F gt104F
Hypothermia EAC
Hyperthermia
20
EHI Initial Eval Treatment
  • Rest
  • Shade
  • Remove excess clothing/equipment
  • Fluid replacement (electrolytes)
  • Measure core temperature!
  • Cooling (if necessary)

21
Muscle Cramps
Rest, Massage, Stretch, Oral hydration, Ice
Re-eval in 10-15 minutes
Serum Na, give 2 liters of IV saline Re-eval
in 10-15 minutes
Transport if poor response
22
Heat Exhaustion Treatment
  • Monitor VS
  • Cooling if hyperthermic
  • Supine, legs up
  • Most improve w/ rest, oral hydration
  • IV fluids (NS, D5) if slow response
  • No evidence for faster recovery

23
Heatstroke Treatment Cool Quickly! (after
calling EMS)
Internal cooling -Intravenous fluids -Peritoneal
lavage
  • External cooling
  • Cold ice packs
  • Water spraying
  • Fans
  • Cooling blankets
  • Ice bath

Antipyretics have no role in the acute treatment
of heatstroke
24
Hyperthermia
Tgt103F
Rectal Thermistor Ice Water Immersion IV NS 1L
Continuous VS/Cooling
Y
Continue Cooling
N
Tlt102F 38.9C
Remove from Water Manage as Appropriate
15-20min
Tlt102F
Y
N
Continue Cooling and Transport
25
Temperature - duration area
The severity of the illness is a function of the
temperature-duration area above a critical
temperature (40.5oC 105oF), not so much the
absolute max temperature
26
Methods of rapid field cooling
  • Mist spray and fanning
  • Ice in axillae, groin, neck
  • Ice water bath immersion

27
Monitoring Response to Cooling
  • Monitor mental status
  • Temp will drop rapidly, 10 - 30 minutes
  • When 102oF reached, STOP ice bags/ice bath
  • Continue cooling w/ mist/fan until about 100oF
  • If prolonged temp elevation, think fever
  • Transport ASAP!

28
EHI Return-to-Activity Decision
  • 3 options
  • Return to play now
  • Release, no RPT return for F/U
  • Transport to ED

29
Heat Cramps
  • If associated with more severe EHI, base RTP on
    that
  • Most can RTP after rest, hydration

30
Exertional Rhabdo
  • Needs transport hospitalization!

31
Heat Exhaustion
  • Same-day RTP not advised
  • Release, f/u next day if sxs mild
  • Recovery takes 1-3 days
  • RTP only when asymptomatic
  • High relapse rate if RTP w/ sxs

32
Heatstroke
  • Transport immediately, hospitalize
  • No evidence-based RTP recs
  • No exercise AT LEAST 7 days after hospital DC
  • Re-eval w/ history, labs, exam
  • When all are normal, GRADUAL RTP
  • Acclimatize 2 weeks
  • If sxs recur, stop RTP
  • Consider referral for heat tolerance testing

33
Prevention is the Best Treatment
34
Predisposing factors
  • Lack of acclimatization
  • Hot and humid climate
  • Dehydration
  • Obesity
  • Excessive clothing
  • Low physical fitness
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Previous history of heat stroke
  • Medications
  • Sweat gland dysfunction
  • Upper respiratory illness
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Overmotivation
  • Genetic predisposition

35
Heat Acclimatization
  • Exercise in the heat
  • Improves response to heat in a few days, most
    gains within 10 days
  • Increase blood volume
  • Increase stroke volume
  • Decrease resting heart rate
  • Decrease metabolic heat production
  • Sweat sooner, more, and with less sodium
  • Skin vasodilates more quickly

36
Wet Bulb Globe Temp (WBGT)
  • Used to determine risk of heat illness
  • See published tables and activity guidelines by
    ACSM
  • Depends on athletes risk
  • Depends on activity type

37
Prevention
  • Avoid working in high heat load
  • Plan work rest cycles
  • Avoid the sun (work at night)
  • Calculate heat index
  • Sleep at list 6 hours a day
  • Drink (cool and flavored water)
  • Consider salt intake (food)
  • Acclimatize (gt2 weeks)
  • Understand the cumulative effects of heat
  • Educate athletes, coaches

38
Points to Remember
  • Assume Heatstroke in any collapsed athlete in hot
    conditions COOL FAST!
  • Assess core temp ASAP, but it alone doesnt
    define heat stroke
  • Heatstroke Tgt104 CNS dysfxn organ damage
    COOL and TRANSPORT!
  • Cooling icebath gt mist/fan icebags
  • Return to activity
  • Cramps maybe same-day
  • Heat Exhaustion 1-3 days
  • Heatstroke 2-3 weeks at least

39
Thank you
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