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The Revolution in Energy and Industry

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The Revolution in Energy and Industry Presented by: Nicola Felice, Elizabeth Cafaro, Danielle Conklin National Variation Up until the 1800 s most European countries ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Revolution in Energy and Industry


1
The Revolution in Energy and Industry
  • Presented by
  • Nicola Felice, Elizabeth Cafaro, Danielle Conklin

2
National Variation
  • Up until the 1800s most European countries were
    fairly close with regard to their per capita
    levels of Industrialization.
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain caused it to
    be the most industrialized nation in continental
    Europe by the 1900s.
  • Increasing industrialization resulted in
    animosity between nations and increased
    competition for resources and wealth.

3
The Challenge of Industrialization
  • 18th Century Europe was marked by agricultural
    improvement, population increase, and greatly
    expanding foreign trade.
  • The French Revolution resulted in decreased
    trade, increased tension, and minimized
    communication between Britain and France.
  • France suffered in that it was no longer able to
    use the innovative technology of Britain.
  • Britain began to dominate economically, thus
    taking control of the world markets.
  • Expensive steam power, pricey railroads and a
    shortage of laborers stunted the potential of
    industrial growth in Britain.

4
The Challenge of Industrialization(continued)
  • Various other European countries began to match
    up with the success of Britain, borrowing the
    methods developed their.
  • Merchant capitalists and skilled artisans
    contributed to the industrial success of many
    European nations.

5
Agents of Industrialization
  • Up until 1825 Britain forbid any artisans and
    skilled mechanics from leaving the nation in
    order to keep their discoveries secret from the
    rest of Europe. However, various workers escaped
    out of the country and introduced their skills to
    others abroad.
  • William Cockerill and his sons built
    cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium in 1799. in
    1817 his son, John created an industrial
    enterprise, producing steam engines, locomotives
    and various other machinery. John would have
    illegal workers come to him with information
    about the newest technological advance. Clearly
    technicians and skilled workers were a diving
    force in the spread of early industrialization.

6
Agents of Industrialization(Continued)
  • Talented Entrepreneurs were agents of
    industrialization.
  • Fritz Harkort was inspired to help Germany match
    the industrial success of Britain. Built engines
    and became well known across Europe.
    Unfortunately, after sixteen years he was greatly
    in debt and was forced to give up his company.
  • The third agent of industrialization is
    government.
  • Tariff protection enabled a country to flourish
    by increasing the tariff on imported goods so
    that consumers would buy domestic items.
  • Many governments also financed the erection of
    buildings, railroads and other transportation
    systems.
  • In an attempt to tie the nation together the
    government of Belgium supported a stat-owned
    railroad system.

7
Agents of Industrialization(Continued)
  • In Prussia the state treasury agreed to pay
    interest on railroad bonds if private companies
    were unable to.
  • In France the state funded everything from roads,
    to bridges, railroads and tunnels.

8
Friedrich List
  • German journalist who believed that it was the
    governments responsibility to promote the
    industrial success of a nation.
  • National System of Political Economy, listed his
    policies and focused on government financed
    railroad building and the protective tariff.
  • Supported the formation of the Zollverein or a
    tariff union within member states.
  • Wanted a high protective tariff and denounced
    free trade.
  • Collection of his beliefs began to be known as
    economic nationalism.

9
  • The Coming of Railroads
  • As early as 1800 an
  • American ran a
  • "steamer on wheels"
  • through the city streets.
  • In the early 1820s English
  • engineers created steam
  • cars capable of carrying
  • 14 passengers at 10 miles
  • per hour.
  • The noisy, heavy steam
  • automobiles scared horses
  • and damaged the roads as
  • well as themselves with
  • their vibrations.
  • They were not practical.

10
  • Once a rail capable of supporting a heavy
    locomotive was developed in 1816, all sorts of
    experiments with steam engines on rails went
    forward.
  • The coal industry had long been using plank roads
    and rails to move coal wagons within mines and at
    the surface.
  • In 1825 after 10 years of work George Stephenson
    built an effective locomotive. In 1830 his Rocket
    sped down a track at 16 miles per hour.
  • Within 20 years the locomotive
  • tracks had spread all over Britain.
  • The railroad dramatically reduced the cost and
    uncertainty of shipping freight over land.

The Coming of Railroads
11
  • Industry and Population
  • In 1851 London was
  • the sight of a famous
  • industrial fair.
  • The Great Exhibition
  • was held in the newly
  • built Crystal Palace.
  • The Revolution and
  • security people felt
  • caused a population boom.
  • This growth facilitated
  • industrial expansion.

12
  • The Steam Engine Breakthrough
  • In an attempt to overcome the disadvantages of
    coal Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in
    1705 invented the first primitive steam engines.
  • These were inefficient, both burned coal to
    produce steam which was then used to operate a
    pump.
  • In the early 1760s a Scot named James Watt
    improved on Newcomen's engine and made it more
    efficient.
  • Watt's steam engine proved to be the most
    fundamental advance in technology during the
    Industrial Revolution.

13
  • The Steam Engine Breakthrough
  • Steam power promoted important breakthroughs in
    other industries.
  • It radically transformed the British iron
    industry.
  • The economic consequence of these technological
    innovations was a great boom in the British iron
    industry.
  • In 1740 annual British iron productions was only
    17,000 tons in 1788 68,000 tons, 1796 125,000
    tons, and 260,000 tons in 1806.
  • This was a truly amazing expansion. Once scarce
    and expensive, iron became cheap, basic,
    indispensable building blocks of the economy.

14
  • Steam Engine Breakthrough
  • The growth of the textile industry might have
    been cut short if water from rivers and streams
    had remained the primary source of energy.
  • As the energy crisis continued to grow Britain
    began to look to its abundant and widely spread
    reserves of coal as an alternative to rapidly
    vanishing wool.
  • As more coal was produced mines were dug deeper
    and began to fill with water.
  • Mechanical pumps had to be installed that
    required large teams of animals to run.

15
  • The First Factories
  • Working conditions in the early factories were
    less than satisfactory many people were unwilling
    to work in them.
  • Many factory owners turned to young children who
    had been abandoned by their parents.
  • Parish owners often "apprenticed such children
    to the factory owners.
  • The parish saved money, and the factory owners
    gained workers over whom they exercised almost
    the authority of slave owners.

16
The Industrial Revolution in Britain
  • Britain was the pioneer of
  • the industrial revolution.
  • Between 1793 and 1815
  • they revolutionized industrial
  • technology, social relations
  • and urban living.
  • During this time Britain was
  • also at war with France.
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