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Design for Construction Safety

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Title: Engineering Construction Site Safety Author: T. Michael Toole Last modified by: T. Michael Toole Created Date: 11/2/2003 8:41:10 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Design for Construction Safety


1
Design for Construction Safety
OSHA Alliance Construction Roundtable Design for
Construction Safety Workgroup
2
Designing for Construction Safety
  • Overview
  • What is DfCS?
  • Practical Benefits
  • The DfCS Process
  • Examples
  • Solutions to barriers
  • Organizations working on DfCS

3
Designing for Construction Safety What is it?
  • The process of addressing construction site
    safety and health in the design of a project
  • Construction site safety as a design criterion
  • Safety Constructability
  • Focus on the design of the permanent facility

4
Benefits of DfCS
  • Increased productivity
  • Reduced workers compensation premiums
  • Fewer delays due to accidents during construction
    allow continued focus on quality
  • Improved ability to meet clients needs

5
Construction Accidents in U.S.1
  • Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,200 deaths
    each year
  • 7 of workforce but 21 of fatalities
  • Every design, engineering and construction
    professional must do what they can to reduce
    these numbers
  • 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics



6
Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most
Payoff
The earlier safety is incorporated into the
schedule the more influence it will have on the
total project!
High
Conceptual Design
Detailed Engineering
Procurement
Ability to Influence Safety
Construction
Start-up
Low
Project Schedule
7
Design Matters
  • 50 of general contractors identified poor design
    features as affecting safety
  • 60 of accidents could have been reduced during
    design
  • 22 of injury incidents and 42 of fatality
    incidents linked to design

8
Codes of Ethics Related to DfCS
  • National Society of Professional Engineers
  • Engineers shall hold paramount the safety,
    health, and welfare of the public.
  • American Society of Civil Engineers
  • Engineers shall recognize that the lives, safety,
    health and welfare of the general public are
    dependent upon engineering decisions .

9
DfCS Practices Around the Globe
  • Designers first required to design for
    construction safety in the United Kingdom in 1995
  • Other European nations have similar requirements
  • Australia also leading in DfCS

10
DfCS Examples Prefabrication
Concrete Wall Panels
Concrete Segmented Bridge
Steel stairs
11
DfCS Examples Roof Deck Anchors
Wood Roof Anchor
Permanent Anchors
Metal Roof Anchor
12
DfCS Examples Anchorage Points
13
DfCS Examples Roofs
Upper story windows and roof parapets
Skylights
14
DfCS Examples Steel Design
  • Avoid hanging connections design to bear on
    columns instead using safety seats
  • Require holes in columns for tie lines 21 and
    42 above each floor slab
  • Specify shop welded connections instead of bolts
    or field welds to avoid dangerous positions
    during erection
  • Consider approximate dimensions of connection
    tools to prevent pinches or awkward assemblies

National Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel
Erectors Association of America. Detailing Guide
for the Enhancement of Erection Safety. 2001
15
DfCS Examples Well Locations
  • Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too
    close to overhead power lines.
  • Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring
    wells were to be dug directly under power lines.
  • Engineer could have specified wells be dug away
    from power lines and/or better informed the
    employer of hazard posed by wells proximity to
    powerlines through the plans, specifications, and
    bid documents.

16
Other DfCS Design Examples
  • Design underground utilities to be placed using
    trenchless technology1
  • Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that
    do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic
    products2
  • Design cable type lifeline system for storage
    towers3
  • 1 Weinstein, Can Design Improve Construction
    Safety, 2005
  • 2 Gambatese, Viability of Designing for
    Construction Worker Safety, 2005
  • 3 Behm, Linking Construction Fatalities to the
    Design for Construction Safety Concept, 2005

17
DfCS Barriers
  • Like many good ideas, DfCS faces a number of
    barriers that will likely slow its adoption.
  • Solutions to these barriers involve long-term
    education and institutional changes.

18
Barrier Designers' Fear of Liability
  • Some designers may avoid DfCS for fear of
    undeserved liability for worker safety.
  • Solution Clearly communicate the DfCS
    initiative does NOT suggest designers should be
    held responsible for construction accidents.
  • Solution Develop revised model contract language
    and legislation that encourage DfCS.
  • Solution Propose legislation is facilitate
    designing for construction safety without
    inappropriately shifting safety duties and
    liability onto designers.

19
Barrier Increased Designer Costs Associated
with DfCS
  • While DfCS results in decreased total project
    life cycle costs for the owner, DfCS processes
    will increase both direct and overhead costs for
    designers.
  • Increased direct costs will result from more time
    spent on many design tasks.
  • Increased overhead costs will result from
    providing safety training and perhaps increased
    insurance premiums.
  • Solution Educate owners that they must be
    willing to pay slightly higher design fees to
    save themselves money in the long run.

20
Barrier Designers' Lack of Safety Expertise
  • Barrier Few design professionals possess
    sufficient expertise in construction safety.
  • Solution Promote including construction safety
    in construction, engineering and architectural
    curricula.
  • Solution Develop and promote 10-hour and
    30-hour OSHA courses for design professionals.

21
DfCS Process
22
DfCS Resources
  • Construction Industry Institute database
  • http//www.construction-institute.org/scriptconten
    t/more/rr101_11_more.cfm
  • United Kingdom Health Safety Executive designer
    guides
  • http//www.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index
    .htm
  • CHAIR
  • http//www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/S
    afetyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htm
  • OSHA Website
  • www.osha.gov
  • Life Cycle Safety Process

23
OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable
DfS Workgroup Members
  • American Society of Civil Engineers-Construction
    Institute
  • American Society of Safety Engineers
  • Independent Electrical Contractors
  • ADSC International Association of Foundation
    Drilling
  • Laborers Health and Safety Fund of North America

24
DfS Workgroup Members, continued
  • Mason Contractors Association of America
  • National Fire Protection Association
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety
    Health
  • Sealant, Waterproofing and Restoration Institute
  • Washington Group International

25
Summary
  • Designing for construction safety is the right
    thing to do and the smart thing to do
  • Increased productivity
  • Reduced workers compensation premiums
  • Fewer delays due to accidents
  • Better able to meet clients needs
  • Many countries require or promote designing for
    safety
  • National organizations are working to create
    tools, eliminate barriers and facilitate adoption
    of this important process in the United States

26
Thanks for Listening
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  • Comments?
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