The Closing of the Western Frontier - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Closing of the Western Frontier PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5ad9b7-YTEzN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Closing of the Western Frontier

Description:

The Closing of the Western Frontier Out of Many Chapter 18 A lot of s within this powerpoint were created by Pamela Montague. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS FOR PLAINS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:287
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 41
Provided by: MsS88
Learn more at: http://sshsapush.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Closing of the Western Frontier


1
The Closing of the Western Frontier
  • Out of Many
  • Chapter 18

A lot of slides within this powerpoint were
created by Pamela Montague.
2
Key Tensions
Buffalo Hunters Railroads U. S. Government
Native Americans
Cattlemen
Sheep Herders
Farmers
Ranchers
3
Key Tensions
Ethnic Minorities
Nativists
Big Business Interests Local Govt.
Officials Farmers Buffalo Hunters
Environmentalists
Lawlessness of the Frontier
Civilizing Forces
4
Plains Indians
  • Nomads followed their food source
  • buffalo, 12 to 15 million
  • Horses made them better hunters and warriors
  • Plains Wars, 1860-1890
  • Fight to protect land and stop waste (buffalo)

5
THE BUFFALO
  • The buffalo or bison was an extremely important
    part of the plains peoples lives.
  • They used virtually every part of the buffalo
    from the hide for clothing, to the stomach for
    holding water.
  • At one time, an estimated 60 million buffalo
    roamed the plains of the present day United
    States and Canada.

A buffalo can weigh up to 2,000 pounds and live
as long as 30 years.
6
U.S. Government Indian Policy
  • Dept. of Interior in charge gross corruption
  • Initial policy of CONCENTRATION
  • Deal with each tribe individually to define
    territories
  • Allegedly to stop intertribal warfare but
    actually to divide conquer
  • By the 1860s, policy is one of confining all to
    reservations in Black Hills of SD, or OK
    Indians to become farmers on the reservations
  • Indians received food, supplies in return for
    removal to reservations promise to be left
    alone
  • INDIANS WAGED WAR!!
  • Plains Wars last from 1860-1890
  • Plains Indians are excellent warriors
  • Sherman a mere 50 Indians could often
    checkmate 3000 U.S. soldiers.

7
The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
1/5 of soldiers on frontier
The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by
the Native American tribes they fought the term
eventually became synonymous with all of the
African-American regiments formed in 1866
8
SAND CREEK MASSACRE
Colonel John Chivington
  • Colorado, Nov. 1864
  • Cheyenne, under Chief Black Kettle, came to U.S.
    fort to negotiate
  • Col. Chivington arrives at fort ignores
    attempts to negotiate
  • Executes them all men, women children
  • Much mutilation

Kill scalp all, big little!
9
Battle of Little Bighorn
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie granted Sioux the right
    to occupy Black Hills
  • Gold found in Black Hills, DK, 1874
  • Col. George A. Custer, 7th Calvary leads
    expedition of 264 soldiers
  • Suppose to say that there wasnt much gold to be
    found
  • Instead, said the opposite
  • Sioux Cheyenne force of 2,500
  • Custers Last Stand
  • 1st major victory for Indians after a long series
    of defeats
  • But, short-lived victory

10
Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever!
  • Reservation reduced by 90 after gold discovered
  • 6 million acres at less than 10 cents/acre
  • Flee towards Canadian border
  • Surrender after 3 months 1700 miles..only 30
    miles from the Canadian border
  • Told theyll be returned to ID, instead are sent
    to OK and 40 die of disease

Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
11
Dawes Severalty Act (1887) Assimilation Policy
  • Tribal lands split into allotments - each family
    160 acres
  • Land cant be disposed of for 25 years
  • After 25 yrs., would get citizenship ownership
    of land

12
ASSIMILATION
  • Attempt to have Indians become white and become
    part of white mans culture
  • Boarding schools, like Carlisle School, PA
  • Kill the Indian Save the Man!
  • U.S. government tries to give them land and turn
    them into farmers
  • Failed Indian culture was nomadic dont make
    good farmers

Apache children on arrival at the Carlisle Indian
School (Pennsylvania)
Apache children at the Carlisle School 4 months
later.
13
Arapahoe Ghost Dance, 1890
  • Prophet had vision
  • If the Indian peoples learned to love each other,
    theyd have a special place in the afterlife
  • The Sioux came to believe that when the day of
    judgment came, all Indian peoples who had ever
    lived would return to their lost world
  • White people would vanish from the Earth
  • White settlers saw this as a threat

14
Battle of Wounded Knee
  • Sioux fleeing reservation after Sitting Bull shot
  • Rounded up by Army surrendered herded into
    Wounded Knee Army Camp
  • Ghost Dance
  • Army ordered to disarm Indians
  • 190 unarmed Indians massacred in the process
  • End of Plains Wars

Chief Big Foots Lifeless Body
15
Factors which brought an end to Plains Indians
way of life
  • RAILROADS!!
  • Destroy Buffalo
  • Bring out settlers, miners, etc.
  • Discovery of gold/silver on Indian lands
  • Disease Firewater
  • Indian Wars
  • Either killed them OR
  • Survivors forced to move to reservations (Dakota
    and Oklahoma)

Lakota Sioux Chief Crazy Horse, Black Hills, SD
"Crazy Horse is being carved not so much as a
lineal likeness but more as a memorial to the
spirit of Crazy Horse -- to his people."
16
MINING IN THE OLD WEST
  • MAJOR SILVER STRIKE
  • The Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nevada
  • Over 300 million of silver extracted over 18 yrs
  • COPPER MT
  • Only those who could afford to invest in the
    large machinery were making huge profits
  • MAJOR GOLD STRIKES
  • California, 1848
  • Colorado, 1858 (Pikes Peak or Bust!)
  • Black Hills of the Dakotas, 1877

17
THESE STRIKES CAUSED MINING TOWNS TO SPRING UP
  • Helldorados
  • 1 in 3 buildings is a saloon
  • Gambling, prostitutes, etc.
  • Vigilante and lynch law justice
  • Deadwood, OK
  • Home of many famous Wild West legends

18
Colt .45 Revolver
God didnt make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
19
Legendary Gunslingers Train Robbers
Jesse James
Billy the Kid
20
Mining (Boom) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns
Calico, CA
21
Role of Mining in Subduing the Frontier
  • Eventually becomes big business
  • Small miners cant get to deep ores need big
  • Attracts people wealth to West
  • Helped fund the Civil War building of railroads
  • Brought more conflict with the Plains Indians
  • Another effect
  • Discovery of gold/silver leads to increased
    interest in the West. enter the Wild West Shows!

22
William Buffalo Bill Codys Wild West Show
Wild West vaudeville shows traveled worldwide
23
Buffalo Bill Cody Sitting Bull
Calamity Jane
Annie Oakley
24
Theres gold from the grass roots down, but
theres more gold from the grass roots up.
  • Open range ranching began in Spanish Texas
  • Spanish gave us techniques of roping, herding,
    etc. as well as style of dress equipment
  • Between 1836 1860 mavericks multiplied on the
    open range to 3-4 million (along with the 12-15
    million buffalo)
  • Distinguished only by branding owners didnt
    have to own much land
  • RR refrigerated cars solve problem of getting
    meat to markets in NE
  • So, to get cattle to the railroad centers.

25
THE LONG DRIVE WAS ESTABLISHED BY 66 where
herds were driven to rail centers in Kansas and
Missouri.
26
The Cattle Trails
Routes were known as trails. The most famous
was the Chisholm Trail (San Antonio to Abilene).
27
  • 8 to 10 cowboys could work 2,500 steer
  • Several thousand were black, also many Mexican
  • Dime novels (tall tales) were created about
    such legends as Billy the Kid, Jesse James, etc.

28
MANY DIFFICULTIES ON THE LONG DRIVE
  • Overgrazing
  • Disease
  • Floods
  • Droughts
  • Stampedes
  • Rustlers
  • Homesteaders
  • Cold Winters/Blizzards

29
The Fall of the Cowboy Frederick Remington
  • Closed range ranching takes over
  • Cow hands became ranch hands
  • Required actual ownership of land so ranching
    also becomes big business.

30
The Homestead Act
  • 160 acres for 10 to head of household
  • must improve it cultivate it for 5 years
  • Did NOT work out as planned
  • 160 acres not enough on Great Plains
  • Factory workers cant farm
  • Fraud by speculators
  • RAILROADS!!
  • Selling better land cheap

31
Black Exoduster Homesteaders
32
PROBLEMS OF PLAINS FARMERS
  • NATURAL DISASTERS
  • DROUGHT
  • SEVERE CLIMATE
  • PRAIRIE FIRES
  • GRASSHOPPER PLAGUES

33
Changes in American farming
  • High crop prices for wheat/corn encouraged cash
    crop farming
  • Large scale farming becomes a business
  • Need mega to buy new combines, etc.
  • Emergence of bonanza farms
  • Pushes small farmers off the land
  • Hired hands (Mexicans, Chinese) to work the farms
  • ¼ of American farms operated by tenants

How did 1800s Plains farming techniques help lead
to the Dust Bowl in the 1930s?
34
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS FOR PLAINS FARMERS
  • CASH CROPS made farmers dependent on high prices
  • Foreign competition drove it down
  • DEFLATION farmers caught in debt cycle
  • have to produce more to pay back fixed debts
  • Overproduction drives prices down
  • MORTGAGES high interest foreclosures
  • DEPENDENT ON RR for shipping high rates

35
Government and Business Policies also hurt Farmers
  • Govt favored industrial classes urban areas
  • Local property taxes high Westerners cant hide
    land like Easterners could hide stocks bonds
  • Protective tariffs for industry nothing for
    farmers
  • Farmers were at mercy of corporations, trusts,
    agents
  • Machinery, fertilizer, barbed wire all controlled
    by major trusts
  • Middlemen take cut of sales kept prices high
  • Storage rates for grain in warehouse elevators
    high RR freight rates also high

36
RAILROADS
Single greatest factor in settling the West.
  • Sold land from land grants cheaply
  • Bureaus of Immigration in East Europe to
    encourage settlement in the West
  • Advertised myths to encourage settlement
  • Climate would cure all diseases
  • Women would find husbands men get rich quick
  • Rain follows the plow

37
The Reality
PLAINS WOMEN
  • Born and scrubbed suffered and died.
  • Morrill Act Federal to help states establish
    universities (land grant colleges) which were
    open to women
  • Western women will ultimately get the vote first

38
The Chinese Question
  • Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion
    Act - Chinese Exclusion Act

39
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF THE WESTWARD EXPERIENCE?
Destruction of the Buffalo Herds
The near extinction of the buffalo.
40
Yellowstone National Park
First national park established in 1872.
About PowerShow.com