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Topic 8 Reflections on the foundations of the MOI-Policy Evaluation Studies

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Title: Topic 8 Reflections on the foundations of the MOI-Policy Evaluation Studies


1
Topic 8 Reflections on the foundations of the
MOI-Policy Evaluation Studies
PEDU 7209 Foundations of EAP
2
Frank Fischers Framework of Policy Evaluation
  • The framework of practical logical of policy
    evaluation
  • Post-positivist methodological approach to policy
    evaluation By post-positivism, it refers to "a
    contemporary school of social science that
    attempts to combine the discourse of social and
    political theory with the rigor of modern
    science. It calls for a marriage of scientific
    knowledge with interpretive and philosophical
    knowledge about norms and values." (Fischer,
    1995, p. 243) According, Fischer advocates that
    policy evaluation research should extend beyond
    the dominance of empirical-positivism and
    incorporate practical discourse about the
    relevance and rightness of normative claims in
    policy evaluation research..

3
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • The framework of practical logical of policy
    evaluation
  • Fischer names such a post-positivist approach in
    policy evaluation the framework of the "Practical
    Logic of Policy Evaluation".
  • "It is design to illuminate the basic
    discursive components of a full or complete
    evaluation, one which incorporates the full range
    of both the empirical and normative concerns that
    can be brought to bear on an evaluation.
    Structured around four interrelated discourses,
    the approaches extends from concrete empirical
    questions pertinent to a particular situation up
    to the abstract normative issues concerning a way
    of life." (Fischer, 1995, p. 18)

4
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • The framework of practical logical of policy
    evaluation
  • Accordingly, the framework of practical logic of
    policy evaluation is made up of
  • First-order evaluation level
  • Technical-analytical discourse
  • Contextual discourse
  • Second-order evaluation level
  • Systems discourse
  • Ideological discourse

Cognitive-Technical perspective
Situational-practical perspective
Systemic-practical perspective
Critical perspective
5
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Technical-analytical discourse Program
    verification
  • By program verification, it refers to concerns
    "with measurement of the efficiency of program
    outcome. The basic questions of verification are
  • Does the program empirically fulfill its stated
    objective(s)?
  • Does the empirical analysis uncover secondary or
    unanticipated effects that offset the program
    objectives?
  • Does the program fulfill the objectives more
    efficiently than alternative means available?"
    (p. 20)

6
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Technical-analytical discourse Program
    verification
  • "Program verification employs such methodologies
    as experimental research and cost-benefit
    analysis. The goal is to produce a quantitative
    assessment of the degree to which a program
    fulfills a particular objective (standard or
    rule) and a determination (in terms of a
    comparison of input and output) of how
    efficiently the objective is fulfill (typically
    measured as a ratio of costs to benefits)
    compared to other possible means." (p. 20)

7
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Contextual discourse Situational validation
  • Validation focuses on whether or not the
    particular program objectives are relevant to the
    situation. Instead of measuring program
    objectives per se, validation examines the
    conceptualizations and assumptions underlying the
    problem situation which the program is designed
    to influence. Validation centers around the
    following questions
  • Is the program objective(s) relevant to the
    problem situation?
  • Are there circumstances in the situation that
    require an exception to be made to the
    objective(s)?
  • Are two or more criteria equally relevant to the
    problem situation?" (Pp. 20-21)

8
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Contextual discourse Situational validation
  • "Validation is an interpretive process of
    reasoning that takes place within the framework
    of the normative belief systems brought to bear
    on the problem situation. Validation draw in
    particular on qualitative methods, such as those
    developed for sociological anthropological
    research." (p.21)

9
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Systems discourse Societal vindication
  • "In vindication the basic task is to show that a
    policy goal (from which specific program
    objectives were drawn) addresses a valuable
    function for the existing societal arrangement.
    Vindication is organized around the following
    questions
  • Does the policy goal have instrumental or
    contributive value for the society as a whole?
  • Does the policy goal result in unanticipated
    problems with important societal consequences?
  • Does a commitment to the policy goal lead to
    consequence (e.g. benefits and costs) that are
    judged to be equitably distributed?" (p. 21)

10
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Systems discourse Societal vindication
  • As second-order vindication, this type of policy
    evaluation "steps outside of the situational
    action context in which program criteria are
    applied and implemented in order to assess
    empirically the instrumental consequences of a
    policy goal in terms of the system as a whole."
    (p. 21) Hence, the methodological approach
    adopted by societal vindication is
    macroscopic-institutional analysis which usually
    takes the forms of comparative and/or
    historical-sociological methods.

11
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Ideological discourse Social choice
  • "Social choice seeks to establish and examine the
    selection of a critical basis for marking
    rationally informed choices about societal
    systems and their respective ways of life.
    Social choice raises the following types of
    questions
  • Does the fundamental ideal (or ideology) that
    organize the accepted social order provide a
    basis for a legitimate resolution of conflicting
    judgments?
  • If the social order is unable to resolve basic
    values conflicts, do other social orders
    equitably accommodate the relevant interests and
    needs that the conflicts reflect?
  • Do normative reflection and empirical support the
    justification and adoption of an alternative
    ideology and the social order it prescribes? (p.
    22)

12
Frank Fischers Conception of Four Levels of
Policy Evaluation
  • Ideological discourse Social choice
  • "Social choice involves the interpretive tasks of
    social and political critique, particularly as
    practiced in political theory and philosophy.
    Most fundamental are the concepts of a 'rational
    way of life' and 'good society'. Based on the
    identification and organization of a specific
    configuration or values ? such as equality,
    freedom, or community ? models of the good
    society serve as a basis for the adoption of
    higher level evaluative criteria." (p. 22) The
    typical methodological approach adopted by this
    type of evaluative studies is critical approach
    to political, social and philosophical inquiry.

13
Ideological Choice Because of
Critical Discursive Perspective
Systems Vindication Because of
Interpretive Political Perspective
Situational Validation Because of
Warrant Since
Analytic Technical Perspective
Technical Verification
Data
So, (Qualifier), Conclusion
14
Evaluation Study of MOI Policy for Secondary
Schools in HKSAR
Topic 9 Policy Process Studies Policy Evaluation
Studies
15
Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • A policy measure in search of an objective
  • Summative or even judgmental evaluation of the
    efficiency of CMI in comparison with EMI
  • Informative evaluation of the efficiency of
    preparing secondary-school leavers to become
    trilingual and bilateral
  • Upholding mother-tongue instruction
  • Summative evaluation of the effectiveness of
    eliminating mixed-coded teaching in secondary
    schools in HKSAR

16
The Objectives of the Longitudinal Study
(1999-2002) are
  • to trace the academic personal development of
    students in schools adopting either Chinese or
    English as the MOI
  • to compare the degree of improvement of students
    academic and personal development in schools
    adopting either Chinese or English as the MOI
  • to compare the language ability (in both Chinese
    English) of students in schools adopting either
    Chinese or English as the MOI and
  • to identify facilitating hindering factors
    affecting students learning in school adopting
    Chinese as the MOI.
  • (p.2 of Tender ref.
    ED/PR/EMICM/99)

17
The Objectives of the Longitudinal Study
(2002-2004)
  • Study are to find out
  • The effects of different MOI arrangements at
    senior levels on students learning, e.g. their
    academic performance, personal development,
    language ability and high-order thinking skills
  • the major factors that enhance/hinder students
    learning in Chinese or English MOI at senior
    secondary levels and
  • the major factors that enhance/hinder the
    introduction of English as MOI or in part only at
    senior secondary levels.
  • based on the findings, to design/recommend
    measures that support students learning under
    different MOI arrangement for their whole
    secondary schooling.
  • (Tender ref.
    ED/PR/EMICMI/02)

18
Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • To compare the academic and personal development
    outcomes of students in EMI and CMI schools
    Summative, outcome-based and endogenous
    evaluation research
  • Instructional paradox in MOI policy outcomes
  • Socio-psychological paradox in MOI policy
    outcomes
  • School-organizational paradox in MOI policy
    outcomes

19
Subjects
  • Cohorts of Students under Study

20
00-01
99-00
01-02
02-03
03-04
04-05
05-06
98 Cohort
98 AAI
F. 2 Tests
HK CEE
F. 3 Tests
F. 4 Tests
HK ALE
99 Cohort
99 AAI
F. 1 Tests
F. 2 Tests
F. 4 Tests
HK CEE
HK ALE
F. 3 Tests
21
Teachers Perception of Learning Environment
A. Sense of efficacy B. Sense of administrative
and collegial support C. Sense of reward
recognition from work D. Sense of autonomy
empowerment E. Feeling of stress in work
Students Performance Perception of Learning
Environment A. Academic Development a.
Language Subject - Chinese Language
- English Language b. Content Subject
- Mathematics - Science - Social
Subjects B. Personal Development a.
Self-esteem b. Citizenship Development c.
Social Efficacy d. Language learning
attitudes C. Perception of Learning Environment
a. Learning process motivation b.
Teachers efficacy c. Classroom climate
d. Quality of school life
EMI
HKCEE Results
EMI
CHIG
Students Academic Socio-economic Background
Implementation of the MOI Guidance
CMI
EMI
CMID
CMI
EMI
CLOW
CMI
School Administration Learning Environment
A. Principals Leadership B.
Organizations of Academic Disciplinary Orders
C. Organizational Climate Collaborative
Culture.
Conceptual Framework of the Project
22
Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • Instructional paradox in MOI policy outcomes
  • (Junior Forms)

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Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • Instructional paradox in MOI policy outcomes
  • (Senior Forms HKCEE)

30
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40
Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • Instructional paradox in MOI policy outcomes
  • (Access to University Education HKALE)

41
Educational Attainment Measure JUPAS Minimum
entry requirement 1. Grade E or above in either
2 AL subjects  or 1 AL subject 2 AS
subjects (other than UE and Chi Lang
Culture) 2. Grade E or above in AS UE 3. Grade E
or above in AS Chi Lang Culture
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Educational Attainment Measure JUPAS Maximum
entry requirement 1. Grade E or above in either
2 AL subjects  or 1 AL subject 2 AS
subjects (other than UE and Chi Lang
Culture) 2. Grade D or above in AS UE 3. Grade E
or above in AS Chi Lang Culture
45
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49
Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • To compare the academic and personal development
    outcomes of students in EMI and CMI schools
    Summative, outcome and endogenous evaluation
    research
  • Instructional paradox in MOI policy outcomes
  • Paradox in socio-psychological outcomes
  • School-organizational paradox in MOI policy
    outcomes

50
Paradox in Socio-psychological Outcomes
  • Academic Self-concept
  • Attitudes towards English Motives Strategies
    in English Learning
  • Quality of School Life
  • School Identity and Education Aspiration

51
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53
Paradox in Socio-psychological Outcomes
  • Academic Self-concept
  • Attitudes towards English Motives Strategies
    in English Learning
  • Quality of School Life
  • School Identity and Education Aspiration

54



55



56



57



58



59



60
Paradox in Socio-psychological Outcomes
  • Academic Self-concept
  • Attitudes towards English Motives Strategies
    in English Learning
  • Quality of School Life
  • Linguistic efficacy
  • Learning Opportunities
  • School Identity and Education Aspiration

61



62



63
Paradox in Socio-psychological Outcomes
  • Academic Self-concept
  • Attitudes towards English Motives Strategies
    in English Learning
  • Quality of School Life
  • Linguistic efficacy
  • Learning Opportunities
  • School Identity and Education Aspiration

64
99-cohort 2001/2002 (F.3)



65
98-cohort 2001/2002 (F.4)



66
Educational Aspiration



67
Educational Aspiration



68
Educational Aspiration



69
Educational Aspiration



70
Technical-analytical Discourse Program
verification
  • To compare the academic and personal development
    outcomes of students in EMI and CMI schools
    Summative, outcome and endogenous evaluation
    research
  • Instructional paradox in MOI policy outcomes
  • Paradox in socio-psychological outcomes
  • School-organizational paradox in MOI policy
    outcomes
  • Paradox between instructional effectiveness and
    educational advancement
  • Paradox between intake-process-output in
    different phases of secondary-school education

71
Form-1 Intakes
Junior-Secondary Instructional Process
Senior-Secondary Instructional Process
HKCEE Results
Six-Form Instructional Process
HKALE Results
72
Technical-analytical Discourse Rationality
Verification
  • Policy objective To prepare of secondary-school
    leavers to be trilingual bilateral
  • Typology of bilingual
  • Balance bilingual
  • Chinese dominant bilingual
  • English dominant bilingual
  • Dimensions of bilingual proficiency
  • Cognitive demanding or undemanding
  • Context reduced or embedded
  • Levels of bilingual proficiency
  • Conversational proficiency
  • Context-reduced and cognitive undemanding
    proficiency
  • Context-embedded and cognitive demanding
    proficiency
  • Academic language proficiency

73
  • Jim Cummins Conceptualization of language
    proficiency

Cognitively Undemanding
A
C
Context Embedded
Context Reduced
B
D
Cognitively Demanding
74
Technical-analytical Discourse Rationality
Verification
  • Upholding mother-tongue instruction
  • Elimination of mixed-coded teaching in secondary
    schools in HKSAR
  • at the expenses of
  • Opportunity to learn
  • Opportunity for educational advancement

75
Contextual Discourse Situational Validation of
the Relevance of the MOI Policy
  • To identify the stakeholders (e.g. students,
    parents, teachers and/or administrators in
    secondary schools, employers, higher-education
    institutions, etc.) and their definition of the
    situations and systems of relevance in regards
    to the MOI policy

76
HKSAR Government
meaning
MOI Guidance for Secondary Schools
meaning
meaning
EMI Schools
Parents of EMI-capable
meaning
meaning
Parents of EMI-incapable
meaning
CMI Schools
National Political arena
meaning
Business sectors
77
Contextual Discourse Situational Validation of
the Relevance of the MOI Policy
  • Situational paradoxes facing stakeholders
  • Students and Parents Situational paradox between
    immediate learning efficacy and long-term
    prospects in educational or even socioeconomic
    advancement
  • School teachers and administrators
  • Situational paradox between instructional
    efficacy and graduates' prospects in educational
    advancements
  • Situation paradox between current instructional
    efficacy and future efficacy of attracting
    "high-quality" primary-school leavers or even
    future prospect of survival of the schools.
  • Employers The situational paradox is between the
    prospects of local and global markets.
  • Higher-education institution The situation
    paradox is between short-term instructional
    efficacy and long-term development of universally
    applicable scholarship and/or professional
    competence

78
Contextual Discourse Situational Validation of
the Relevance of the MOI Policy
  • To validate whether or to what extent each of the
    stakeholders systems of relevance have been
    fulfilled by the MOI policy measure.

79
System Discourse Societal Vindication of the MOI
Policy
  • Systemic vindication of value orientation of the
    MOI policy
  • To define the institutional features of the
    social, political and economic systems of HKSAR
    Biglossic or even triglossic structures of a
    post-colonial society, one-country-two-system
    polity, and open and small economy in
    global-informational capitalism.
  • To evaluate whether or to what extent that MOI
    policy have instrumental or contributive value
    for these systemic features of HKSAR

80
The MOI Policy in HKSAR Secondary Education
Institutional and Systemic Analysis
Local intra- national economic systems
Intra- national tertiary education institution
Economic System
Global professional- intellectual community
Education Policy Public Sphere
Conjugal families local community of Mother
Tongue
Local tertiary education institution
Global- informational economy
Private Sphere
Primary School System
Secondary School System
Political System
Global- political arena
International tertiary education institution
Local Intra- national political systems
81
Bilingual System with English Dominance
Trilingual system With English /or
Putonghua Dominance
Monolingual Local community of Cantonese
Trilingual system with Cantonese Dominance
Local political economic systems
Intra- national tertiary education institution
Global professional- intellectual community
Local community of Mother Tongue
Local tertiary education institution
Global- informational economy
Primary School System
Secondary School System
Global- political arena
International tertiary education institution
Intra- national political economic systems
82
System Discourse Societal Vindication of the MOI
Policy
  • To vindicate the intensification effect of MOI
    policy on the contradictory structure of HKSAR
  • Biglossic or even triglossic structures of the
    open and small economy of HK within the
    global-informational capitalism.
  • Biglossic structure of the political system of
    HKSAR within the context of One Country Two
    System
  • Biglossic or even troglossic structure of the
    cultural system of a post-colonial society
  • To vindicate the unequalizing effect of MOI
    policy on the structural disparity among the 18
    school districts in the SSPA system in terms of
    distribution of EMI school places

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System Discourse Societal Vindication of the MOI
Policy
  • To vindicate the institutionalized effect of MOI
    policy on the inequality of mobility chances
    between CMI and EMI students in competing access
    to higher education.

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Ideological Discourse Social Choice underlying
the MOI policy
  • To identify the ideological stance underlying the
    MOI policy discourse
  • Orientations to bilingualism
  • Bilingualism as problem
  • Linguistic imperialism
  • Linguistic nationalism
  • Bilingualism as rights
  • Bilingualism as resource
  • Power implications of bilingualism
  • Bilingualism as coercive power
  • Bilingualism as collaborative power
  • Structure-agent stance in bilingualism
  • Structural imposition stance
  • Agent resistance stance
  • Agent appropriation stance

90
Ideological Discourse Social Choice underlying
the MOI policy
  • To identify the ideological stance underlying the
    MOI policy discourse
  • The myth of mother tongue

91
Ideological Discourse Social Choice underlying
the MOI policy
  • To reflect and choose the ideological stances
    toward Cantonese, Poutonghau and English, which
    have been embedded in the MOI policy discourse in
    post-1997 HK.

92
Evaluation Study of MOI Policy for Secondary
Schools in HKSAR
Mother Tongue or Other Tongue
93
Topic 8 Reflection on the Foundation of
MOI-Policy Evaluation Studies
END
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