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Emergence of Civilization

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Title: Emergence of Civilization Author: teacher Last modified by: Connie Perry Created Date: 6/8/2004 3:13:07 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergence of Civilization


1
Emergence of Civilization
  • Unit 1

2
GEOGRAPHY
  • Study of people, their environment and
    resources. Can give us contextual clues as to
    how they live their lives.
  • Every event happens somewhere
  • Must know WHERE it happens to fully understand
    WHY it happens.

3
GEOGRAPHY
  • 5 Major Themes of Geography
  • to help us understand what and why things happen
  • LOCATION Where, How do I get there?
  • exact location
  • LATITUDE - North and South of equator
  • LONGITUDE - East and West or Prime Meridian
  • Zero degrees, through Greenwich, England
  • Hemisphere Half of the globe
  • relative location

4
GEOGRAPHY
  • PLACE What is it like to live there?
  • physical and human characteristics of the
    LOCATION
  • mountains, rivers, beaches, topography, and
    animal and plant life of a place
  • human-designed features of a place, i.e. land
    use, architecture, forms of livelihood, religion,
    transportation communication.

5
GEOGRAPHY
  • Human Environment Interaction How do people
    relate to the land?
  • how people relate to it, are affected by it and
    have modified it.
  • Positively and negatively
  • interactions between 4 physical systems
  • Earths atmosphere, land, water, and life.

6
GEOGRAPHY
  • MOVEMENT
  • food, religion, political, work, ideas, products,
    disease humans effect on the environment

7
GEOGRAPHY
  • REGIONS
  • areas with specific characteristics, things in
    common
  • Physical, political, religious, language,
    economic
  • All can in some way be represented with or by
    maps
  • sources for history

8
Geography Assignment
  • Use the newspaper or magazines (whatever you have
    available) to cut out an example of each of the
    five themes of geography (Use your notes to help
    you find examples.)
  • Location
  • Place
  • Human Environment Interaction
  • Region
  • Movement
  • 1. Paste or tape each examples to a piece of
    paper.
  • This will leave room for some writing.
  • 2. Next to each example you cut out, write what
    theme it represents and a couple sentences
    stating why it represents that theme.
  • Create a title page (Title (5 Themes), Name,
    Period)
  • Staple all together.
  • Due Next Class period.

9
Terms to Know
  • PRE-HISTORY
  • Period before writing was invented
  • used pottery, buildings, bones, etc...to
    determine our best guess as to what life was like
    for them
  • ARTIFACTS
  • objects studied by archaeologists, shaped by
    humans, used to make our best guess of what life
    was like
  • tools, pottery, weapons, toys.

10
Terms to Know
  • Technology
  • A change in thinking and practice about how we do
    something to become more efficient and productive
    with less effort.

11
Before Common Era (BCE)
Years
Scientists use the abbreviation BCE to mean
Before Common Era. It is the same thing as B.C.
(Before Christ). After the year 0 scientists use
the term CE for Common Era. It is the same as
A.D. (Anno Domini). To figure out how long ago
from today a date in BCE was, add the current
year to the BCE year.
12
Terms to Know
  • ARCHAEOLOGISTS
  • scientists who analyze ARTIFACTS left by early
    people
  • try to piece together what life was like
  • Three step process of gathering and analyzing
  • 1 - find site
  • 2 - start digging
  • 3 - analyze artifacts found
  • a - determine location within/around a structure
  • b - determine age of the artifact
  • Vore Buffalo Jump
  • ANTHROPOLOGY
  • study of cultures, the unique way that people
    live.
  • To gain a better understanding of their lives and
    things that effected them.

13
Stone Age Peoples
  • Stone Age - Period when people used simple tools
    made of stone (arrow heads, axe heads) before
    writing was invented
  • Old Stone Age - Paleolithic
  • New Stone Age Mesolithic Neolithic

14
Stone Age Peoples
  • Old Stone Age
  • Paleolithic Era
  • Paleo means Old Stone
  • Started about 2.5 Million years ago.
  • Africa, China, Asia, Europe, and Americas

15
Old Stone Age Peoples
  • Nomadic
  • Move with and in search of food
  • Fished, hunted, gathered plants, roots, fruits,
    nuts and seeds.
  • Travel in groups of related families
  • No permanent shelters, lived in caves and
    lean-tos
  • Some organizational structures
  • Developed limited spoken languages
  • Clothing
  • Wore animal skins

16
Old Stone Age Peoples
  • Learned to control fire
  • light, cooking, protection and warmth
  • Simple tools start to become more specialized
  • Used bone stone chipped to make sharp edges
  • Made needles, axes, fish hooks, arrow heads,
    spear points

17
Old Stone Age Peoples
  • Some basic religious beliefs but no real
    structure
  • Cave drawings could help a hunt be productive
  • Burying dead with food Belief in an afterlife

18
End of Paleolithic Era
  • Marked by the end of the last Ice Age
  • Glaciers start to melt and move back towards the
    poles
  • Land bridges become covered with water as the
    oceans start to fill back up
  • Believed to be the way in which people first came
    to this continent from Africa and Europe,
    following herds
  • Changed the climate of many areas, deserts
    appeared with new plants

19
New Stone Age Peoples
  • New Stone Age
  • Mesolithic Era
  • Meso meaning middle
  • Lasted about 10,000 years
  • 18,000 B.C.E. to 8000 B.C.E.
  • Africa, China, Asia, Europe, Americas and Middle
    East (Mesopotamia)

20
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Mesolithic Era
  • Developed the Bow and Harpoons
  • Tamed dogs, used for hunting small animals
  • Built canoes from hollowed out logs
  • Cross large rivers
  • Fish in deep waters

21
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Neolithic Era
  • Neo meaning New
  • Lasted about 4000 years
  • 8000 B.C.E. to 3500 B.C.E.
  • Started grinding and polishing tools to sharper
    points and edges

22
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Change from hunting and moving to farming
  • Domesticated Animals For work and food
  • Dogs, Sheep, goats and pigs
  • Women farmed, men hunted
  • Permanent settlements
  • Villages
  • Built houses
  • Some remained hunters gatherers and nomadic

23
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Growth of political structure
  • Council of Elders
  • Make decisions
  • Settle disputes
  • Developed more complete spoken languages
  • Specialized tools
  • Hoes Granite
  • Cloth Wool
  • Nets for fishing
  • Pottery for cooking

24
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Used animals for work
  • Oxen to pull plows
  • Use of organic fertilizers
  • Work more land, harvest more crops
  • Support larger population
  • Simple religions based upon nature
  • Gods control the forces of nature

25
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Transportation Improvements
  • Wheel is invented
  • improved land transportation
  • replaced the wooden sleds
  • Sails start to be used for water transportation
  • Quicker, more efficient means of travel
  • Metals start to be used
  • Copper is the first
  • Bronze
  • mix of copper and tin - stronger metal

26
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27
New Stone Age Peoples
  • By 3000 B.C.E. all of these inventions and items
    are in use in some part of the world, BUT NOT
    ALL.
  • Change in the way people lived and survived
  • Brings more technological advances

28
Emergence of Civilization
  • CIVITAS - Latin word meaning 'cities
  • Emerges at the end of the Neolithic era
  • First Civilizations develops in four different
    areas independently of each other.

29
5 Characteristics of Civilization
  • 1- Surplus of Food
  • 2- Complex Institutions
  • More complex government and religions
  • High level of cooperation for the benefit of the
    group
  • Technology Advances
  • 3- Division of Labor - Specialized workers
  • Specialized skills occupations
  • Creates a class of skilled worked called Artisans
  • Merchants and Traders

30
5 Characteristics of Civilization
  • 4- Writing - Record Keeping
  • Priests were the first to start using marks or
    drawings which evolved into writing
  • Needed to keep track of when to do important
    ceremonies and rituals to keep the gods happy
  • A sacrifice at the wrong time could ruin a crop
  • Scribes - Those who mastered the writing and
    reading of the symbols Keep Secretive
  • Government
  • Births, deaths, taxes
  • Ownership, marriages, business contracts, etc..
  • Became a way to pass down traditions, learning,
    wisdom, information, ideas and religious beliefs

31
Characteristics of Civilization
  • 5- Calendar
  • Needed to know when river would flood
  • Time from flood to flood was a year
  • Time from full moon to next full moon was a month
  • Not completely accurate about 11 days off

32
GROWTH OF CITIES
  • 4 Areas of the world develop independently of
    each other
  • Valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers -
    Middle East
  • Valley of the Nile River in Africa Egypt
  • Indus River Valley in South Asia India
  • Yellow River Valley East Asia - China
  • All Develop around Rivers
  • Fertile soil
  • Rivers consistently flood every year
  • Bring moisture to the land
  • Can be used for Transportation and food
  • Fish and animals

33
GROWTH OF CITIES Govt.
  • Construction projects increased as number of
    people increased
  • Organized projects
  • Clear land for farming
  • Irrigation systems for dry times of the year
  • Temples and palaces
  • Defense of cities from invaders - increased size
    and power of government

34
Religion
  • POLYTHEISTIC - Belief in many Gods and Goddesses
    that control the forces of nature
  • Believed in spirits
  • Believed that the Gods controlled forces of
    nature
  • Gave sacrifices to win the gods favor and get
    peace, good harvests, rainfall, etc.
  • Gave thanks to Gods when the outcome was
    favorable
  • Wanted to keep the Gods happy
  • Priests gained power because they carried out the
    rituals to keep the gods happy
  • Powerful positions in the governments

35
Religion
  • THEOCRACY - Government controlled by a church or
    religion
  • Military leaders worked in conjunction with
    priests to keep the gods happy and provided a
    defense against enemies
  • Military leaders increased in power
  • Became judges, made laws, supervised building
    projects
  • Collected taxes - earliest system of taxation
  • Labor for construction projects
  • Part of harvest
  • Used to pay for government and building projects

36
Economy and Society
  • Technology was important
  • made work easier, faster and more efficient
  • Bronze Age - Vessels, tool, weapons, longer
    lasting
  • Farming improved
  • Develop use of irrigation through ditches and
    canals
  • Fewer farms needed
  • Excess food used for trading with merchants for
    goods
  • Barter Economy - Trading goods or services for
    something you need
  • Creates a demand for more specialized skills and
    goods
  • Still used to some extent today
  • Social structure starts to change
  • Social Classes - Defines a persons place in
    society
  • Movement between classes
  • THEN --gt No movement born there die there
  • NOW --gt Movement is possible but still hard

37
Social Classes
  • Kids generally took over parents profession or
    occupation
  • Artisans - People with a specialized skill or
    trade Skilled Craftsperson
  • Indentured Servants - People working off debts

38
Family
  • Women managed the family
  • Cared for children, prepared food, made clothing
  • Probably invented weaving and pottery making
  • Probably discovered plants could be grown from
    seeds
  • Increased womens power and status as primary
    food provider
  • Lead to the Agricultural Revolution and drastic
    change in the way people lived.
  • As technology increased men became the primary
    food providers and primary authorities in society

39
Important Point to Note
  • Although civilization developed in different
    areas and at different times there was still
    limited contact between them
  • Trading
  • Migration
  • Wars
  • Brought a spread of ideas, skills, and a
    diversity of culture Cultural Diffusion

40
The End
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