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ENGLISH IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 2

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Title: ENGLISH IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 2


1
FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND
COMPUTING GRAMMAR REVISION AND
EXERCISES 2 3 PRESENT PERFECT
PASSIVE MARIJA KRZNARIC
2
TALKING ABOUT THE PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT
PERFECT SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT
CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
up to
now time ----??----------------------------??
--------------------------------?------?
present perfect present
future Present
Perfect connects the past and the present,
something happened in the past and has some
connections with the present moment. Negative
havent, hasnt Interrogative - inversion
  S   HAVE   HAS PAST   PARTICIPLE
3
  • It is used
  • to connect the past and the present the action
    happened in the past but we either do not know
    when it happened or it does not seem to be
    important to us - the results or consequences of
    that action are evident now
  • I have broken my glasses I am as blind as a bat.
  • Peter cant go on holiday, he has broken his leg.
  • - for things which have happened during a period
    of time that continues up to now
  • I have been to Africa several times.
  • John has crashed his car again.
  • - with adverbs of indefinite time already, so
    far, yet vec (?), just , yet još (neg.),
    lately, ever, recently, never, nearly, before (
    vec prije)
  • Whats the best film you have ever seen?
  • I have never eaten Chinese food.

4
  • It is used
  • - if the period of time we are talking about has
    not finished yet today, this morning, this week
  • I have written six e-mails this morning. (it is
    10 a.m.)
  • No more cinemas, Mary! You have been to the
    movies five times this week.
  • with since ( the starting point of period) and
  • for ( length of time)
  • I have not seen Peter since Christmas.
  • I have not seen him for six months.
  • I haven't seen him since he returned.
  • I haven't seen him since he returned last month.

5
SUPPLY THE PRESENT SIMPLE, PRESENT CONTINUOUS or
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE 1. Someone (use)
my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was
wet yesterday and the day before! Well,
it wasn't me. I (not, be)
out of the house for a week! 2. John (not, be)
at home. He (go)
to the pictures again although he (be) twice
already this week. 3. Why (John, go)
to the pictures so often? I (not, know) ,
maybe because he (not, like)
TV. 4. Bad students never (work) hard,
they (spend) their spare time in
coffee bars or (play) stupid video games. 5.
That girl who (cross) the street now (be)
my brothers girl friend. She (live)
in London.
And why (she, come)
here? Well, my brother (be) in
hospital for a week now, so she (probably, come)
to visit him.
has used
havent been
isnt
has gone
has been
does John go
dont know
doesnt like
work
spend
play
is crossing
is
lives
has she come
has been
has probably come
6
SUPPLY THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or SIMPLE
PAST 1. Columbus (discover) America more
than 500 years ago. 2. I (not, see) you
for more than a week. 3. I (not, eat)
since I (be) in Moscow. 4. Since when
(you, know) him? 5. How long ago (the
last war, be) ? 6. (You, ever, hear)
Pavarotti singing? 7. I (listen) to
Pavarotti when I (be) in London. 8. Peter
(just, go) out, but you can leave a message
for him. 9. We (know) each other for a long
time. 10. She (work) here since 1997. 11.
I cant go on holiday because I (break)
my leg. 12. Im sure we (meet) before. 13. I
(meet) Peter when he (come) here last
month.
discovered
havent seen
havent eaten
was
have you known
was the last war
Have you ever heard
listened
was
has just gone
have known
has worked
have broken
have met
met
came
7
Complete this conversation by putting the verbs
in brackets into the Present Perfect or Simple
Past. Mark Hello, Jenny. Jenny Hello. I
(not, see) you since
my graduation ceremony. M. I (see) you
downtown a few days ago, but you (not, see)
me. I (be) on a bus. J. Well,
how are things? Are you still living with your
parents? M. No, I (move) . I (find)
a small flat just before I (get)
the job. I (be) there for a year
now. J. (You, pass) your driving test
yet? M. Yes, I .I (pass) it as soon as I
(start) to work. I (not,
buy) a car yet, though. What about you,
Jenny? (Anything exciting, happen)

to you lately? J. Well, I (get)
married after our graduation. M.
Congratulation, Jenny! Who is the lucky guy? Do I
know him? J. I dont know. We (go)
to high school together. M. I (not, know)
you then. Any children? J. Yes. I have
a girl. She (be) born in July last year. And
you? M. I (not, find)
my soul-mate yet. And you (not, want)
me, remember? J. Oh, we (be)
kids then. By the way, you (be)
crazy about Laura, or (you, forget)
? M. No, I
. It (be) only because you
.. J. OK, lets drop the subject. How about a
cup of coffee, my treat?
havent seen
saw
didnt see
was
found
got
have moved
have been
Have you passed
have
passed
started
havent bought
Has anything exciting happened
got
went
didnt know
was
didnt want
havent found
were
were
have you forgotten
was
havent
8
TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES
  • Sekretarica gospode Brown je pred jedan sat
    dobila puno pisama, ali ih još nije otvorila. Ima
    pune ruke posla otkako je ušla u ured.
  • 2. Peter, gdje je moja prtljaga? Treba mi
    mobitel.
  • Nije ovdje, nosac ju je vec odnio u našu
    sobu. Što ce ti mobitel?
  • Moram nazvati mamu i reci joj da smo stigli.
  • Nazvat ceš je kad dodemo u sobu, ima vremena.
  • 3. Peter je posjetio Brownove kad je bio u
    Londonu, ali ih od tada više nije vidio.
  • 4. Jesi li sinoc vidio prometnu nesrecu ispred
    tvoje kuce?
  • Ne, nisam.
  • Ne mogu vjerovati! Zar nisi cuo jedan strašan
    tresak?
  • Ne, spavao sam i ništa nisam cuo.
  • 5. Vrijeme je u zadnjih nekoliko dana užasno.
    Iako je proljece svaki dan kiša pada i
  • puše vjetar.
  • Da, u pravu si. I hladno je vec danima.
  • 6. Jesi li u posljednje vrijeme cuo nešto o Tomu?
    Znaš li gdje je?

9
7. Peter mi kaže da si se upravo oženio. Kada je
ceremonija održana? 8. Zdravo, Pero. Tako mi je
drago što te vidim. Reci mi gdje si bio otkako
sam te zadnji puta vidio. 9. Ne znam što
da napravim, izgubio sam kljuc od auta i ne mogu
se sjetiti gdje sam ga ostavio. I što
ceš sada napraviti? Ako ga ne nadem, razbit cu
jedan prozor i uci u auto. 10. Moji su susjedi
bili tako dobri prema meni kad su mi roditelji
doživjeli prometnu nesrecu da do
današnjeg dana nisam zaboravio njihovu
ljubaznost. Uvijek su me pozivali na
rucak, vodili u bolnicu posjetiti roditelje i
brinuli o mojim ocjenama. 11. Tako mi
je drago da je prestala padati kiša. Hajdemo
van! Ali ja još nisam napisao zadacu.
Pricekaj još nekoliko minuta.
10
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Negative - havent, hasnt Interrogative -
inversion It is used - to express an action
beginning in the past, continuing up to the
present moment and probably going on in the
future it emphasises the continuity of the
action You look tired. Yes, I have been
working all day. Ive been translating this
letter for two hours but I havent finished it
yet. Peter has been sleeping since he came home
from school. Is he all right? Peter has been
trying to buy a car since he got the job, but he
still hasnt managed to save enough.
S HAVE HAS BEEN -ING
11
  • SUPPLY THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS or SIMPLE
  • Nobody (come) to see us since we (live)
    in
  • this out-of-the-way place.
  • 2. What (you, do) here all day?
  • I (sit) here writing my presentation, but I
    (not, quite, finish) it yet.
  • 3. That helicopter (fly) round the house for
    the last hour do you think its taking
    photographs?
  • 4. Do you know that Mary (cry) in the kitchen
    for five minutes?
  • No, she (not, cry) , she (peel)
    onions.
  • 5. Your fingers are very brown. You (smoke)
    too much!
  • 6. Ever since he came to work here that man (try)
    to make trouble.
  • 7. Peter (not, be) here since Christmas. I
    wonder where he (live) since then.

HAS COME
HAVE BEEN LIVING
HAVE YOU BEEN DOING
HAVE BEEN SITTING
HAVE NOT QUITE FINISHED
HAS BEEN FLYING
HAS BEEN CRYING
HASNT BEEN CRYING
HAS BEEN PEELING
HAVE BEEN SMOKING
HAS BEEN TRYING
HASNT BEEN
HAS BEEN LIVING
12
INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS (HOMEWORK!!!!)
1. While I (walk) ____________ through Hyde Park
yesterday afternoon, I (hear) ________________ a
scream, but before I (get) _____________ to the
place where a woman (scream) _________________,
the thief (already, run) ______________
away. (He, steal) __________________ anything
from her? No, he ___________. He (not, have)
___________________ enough time. She (begin)
________________ screaming as soon as she (see)
_______________ him. 2. Mary (go)
____________to hospital last week. She (think)
_____________ (that) she (come) ______________
home in two days but she (not, leave)
_______________ her hospital bed yet. The doctor
(say) ______________ to her mother that she
(probably, stay) __________________ in hospital
for two weeks to run all the necessary tests. 3.
Peter, (not, go) ______________ anywhere now.
Mary (just, call) _______________ and (say)
___________ she (come) _______________________ in
half an hour. 4. Mr Browns secretary (receive)
________________ a lot of letters an hour ago,
but she (not, open) __________________ them yet.
If she (not, open) ________________ them by noon,
her boss (take) ______________ them home and
(answer) __________ them himself first thing
tomorrow morning. 5. (Take) _____ the Browns
luggage to the platform, the porter (remember)
_________ he (see) ___________ them at the same
station last week. As Mrs Brown (have) _____ so
many bags and suitcases, he (ask) ____________
another porter for help.
was walking
heard
got
was screaming
had already run
Did he steal
didnt
didnt have
began
saw
went
thought
hasnt left
would come
said
would probably stay
has just called
dont go
said
would come/was coming
received
doesnt open
hasnt opened
will take
answer
Taking
remembered
had seen
had
asked
13
6. The Browns (come) __________ (see) __________
me last night. When I (invite) ____________ them
(stay) ____________ for dinner, they (say)
________ they (be) ___________ in a hurry. A
friend (wait) ___________________ for them in his
hotel. 7. Nothing ever (happen) ___________ in
this village! It (become) ________________ a dead
place all young people (drift)
_________________ to towns. 8. (You, see)
________________ Philip lately? I (phone)
____________ several times last week but nobody
(answer) _____________. Oh, he (be)
_______________ in America for the last month. He
(fly) _____________ for a conference but then he
(make) ____________ up his mind (stay)
____________ for six weeks. (You, hear)
________________ from him? Yes, I (get)
____________ an e-mail letter shortly after he
(arrive) _______________. 9. We often (go)
___________ out on Saturday evenings, but it (be)
________ so cold last Saturday that we (stay)
_____________ in and (play) ____________
cards. What (you, play) ____________________? We
(play) ____________ poker. I (lose) ____________
five pounds. (You, play) _______________ poker? I
_______, but I (not, play) _______________ since
I (graduate) ____________.
came
to see
invited
to stay
said
were
was waiting
happens
has become
have drifted
Have you seen
phoned
answered
has been
flew
made
to stay
Have you heard
got
had arrived
go
was
played
stayed
did you play
played
lost
Do you play
havent played
graduated
do
14
10. What (the matter, be) ____________ with you?
You (look) _____________ awful. I
(have) ____________ a terrible toothache for
days. (You, be) ______________ to the
dentist? Yes, I __________, but he just (tell)
_____________ me (take) _____________ some
pain-killers and antibiotics. When the swelling
(disappear) ____________ , he (take)
_______________ that tooth out. 11. When I
(meet) _______________ Tom last night, I (ask)
___________ him when he (take) _________________
his degree. I (be) ________ really surprised
(hear) ____________ that he (already, take)
____________________ it. 12. Yesterday our
neighbour (fall) ________ while he (mount)
_________________ the new antenna system on the
roof. Fortunately, my father (be) ___________ at
home, so he (take) _________ him to hospital at
once. The doctor (say) ___________ he (stay)
___________ overnight, because he (be)
___________ afraid of possible complications. We
(go) ____________ (visit) ___________ him this
afternoon. 13. Where (Peter, be)
_______________? Well, he (not, finish)
______________ his test yet. He (still, write)
________________ when I (leave) _________________
the classroom.
is the matter
look
have had
Have you been
have
to take
told
disappears
will take
met
asked
would take
was
to hear
had already taken
was mounting
fell
was
took
said
would stay
was
are going
to visit
is Peter
was still writing
hasnt finished
left / was leaving
15
PUT THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER (the first
words are written in capital letters) 1.
Peters, his, dirty, because, has, hands, he,
are, mending, bike, been 2. a, been, since,
tennis, I, small, have, I, playing, child,
was 3. was, the, Jenny, good, until, friend,
was going to, latest thriller, see, her, no,
told, it, her 4. an, While, was planning, the
owner of the company, to give, Mr Black, decided,
him, to retire, extra bonus 5. In, 10,
Britain, at night, big, at, oclock,
supermarkets, 7, open, oclock, close, as late
as, in the morning, and
Peters hands are dirty because he has been
mending his bike.
I have been playing tennis since I was a small
child.
Jenny was going to see the latest thriller until
her friend told her it was no good.
While Mr Black was planning to retire, the owner
of the company decided to give him an extra
bonus.
In Britain big supermarkets open at 7 oclock in
the morning and close as late as 10 oclock at
night,
16
6. you, any further, You, for two hours, wont
make, study, progress, every other day, if 7.
has, Oxford University, different, which, in the
world, colleges, one of the oldest, is, many
8. manager, her, a, later, promised, Sallys,
in pay, get, year, rise, would, she, that 9.
his roommate, he, yesterday, him, Peter, was,
that, visit, sure, but, was, going to, didnt
10. you, been, Where, so long, have? met, a
cup of coffee, I, and, Well, had, a friend, we
You wont make any further progress if you study
for two hours every other day.
Oxford University, which is one of the oldest in
the world, has many different colleges.
Salys manager promised her she would get a rise
in pay later that year.
Peter was sure that his roommate was going to
visit him yesterday but he didnt.
Where have you been so long?
Well, I met a friend and we had a cup of coffee.
17
DEFECTIVES
  • CAN MUST

  TENSE     PRESENT   SIMPLE PAST   FUTURE   PRESENT PERFECT   PAST PERFECT   FUTURE IN THE PAST
    CAN     CAN     COULD   WILL   BE ABLE TO   HAVE / HAS   BEEN ABLE TO   HAD   BEEN ABLE TO   WOULD   BE ABLE TO
    MUST   MUST   HAVE TO HAS TO       HAD TO   WILL   HAVE TO   HAVE / HAS   HAD TO     HAD   HAD TO   WOULD   HAVE TO
no continuous no s in the 3rd person sing.
must not ne smjeti ne morati dont have,
doesnt have have to negative and
interrogative with TO DO
18
TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH   1. Moram napisati
prezentaciju o osiguracima, ali nemam pojma kako
se to radi. Možeš li mi pomoci?   2. Ne znam ni
ja. Pitaj Petra, siguran sam da ce ti on moci
pomoci.   3. Zdravo, jesi li napravio
prezentaciju o kojoj smo pricali neki dan?   4.
Ne, još je nisam završio. Petar jucer nije mogao
doci i pomoci mi. Sutra cu se morati primiti
posla, rok je blizu.     5. Kada moraš predati
tu prezentaciju?     6. Prekosutra.  
I have to make a presentation about fuses but I
dont have a clue how to do it. Can/Could you
help me?
I dont know either. Ask Peter, Im sure hell be
able to help you.
Hi, have you made the presentation we were
talking about the other day?
No, I havent finished it yet. Peter couldnt
come and help me yesterday. Ill have to get down
to work tomorrow, the deadline is near.
When do you have to hand in that presentation?
The day after tomorrow.
19
CONDITIONALS - TYPE 0 TYPE 1
  • TYPE 0

  IF CLAUSE   MAIN CLAUSE
  PRESENT SIMPLE   PRESENT SIMPLE
- is used to express that one thing always
follows automatically from another   If you heat
metal, it expands. If the mains supply fails,
the batteries take over. If you press this
switch, the computer comes on. She glares at me
if I go near her desk. What happens if one bulb
in a series circuit burns out?  
20
TYPE 1
  IF CLAUSE   MAIN CLAUSE
PRESENT SIMPLE   PRESENT CONTINUOUS   PRESENT PERFECT   FUTURE   IMPERATIVE   PRESENT (CAN, MUST...) 
  • is used to express an open condition (something
    will happen or it will not happen in the future)
  • If it doesnt rain, the wedding reception will
    take place in the garden.
  • Ako ne bude padalo, vjencanje ce se održati u
    vrtu.
  • If we are expecting twenty guests, well have to
    borrow a few chairs from our neighbours.
  • Ako ocekujemo 20 gostiju, morat cemo posuditi
    stolice od susjeda.
  • If you have been a good boy, Ill buy you an
    ice-cream.
  •  Ako si bio dobar, kupit cu ti sladoled.

21
If you are afraid of flying, take a bus. Ako se
bojiš letenja, idi busom. If it is raining
already, dont go without an umbrella. Ako vec
sada pada kiša, nemoj ici van bez kišobrana. If
you have finished your homework, help me with the
dishes. Ako si završio sa zadacom, pomozi mi oko
suda.   If I see Ann at school, I can give her
the book. Ako vidim/budem vidio Anu u školi, mogu
joj ja dati knjigu. If it isnt raining, we can
eat outside. Ako ne pada, možemo jesti vani. If
they have offered you the job, you must accept
it. Ako su ti ponudili posao, moraš ga
prihvatiti.
22
SUPPLY THE CORRECT CONDITIONAL VERBAL FORMS (0 or
1)   1. If you (lift) up a heavy object, you
(use) up energy.   2. If I (miss) the bus
this afternoon, I (get) a taxi instead.   3.
They (refund) your money if you (keep) your
receipt.   4. If I (make) some coffee,
(you, cut) the cake? 5. If you (smoke)
in a non-smoking compartment, the other
passengers (object) .   6. If you (feel)
too hot during the night, (turn) off the
central heating.   7. I always (wake) up in time
even if I (not, set) my alarm
clock.   8. If there (not, be) enough wine in
that bottle, (go) to the cellar and
(bring) a new one. 9. The ship (run)
aground if the pilot (make)
one mistake. 10. They (force) their way
into the house if the convict (not, come)
out.
LIFT
USE
MISS
LL GET
REFUND
KEEP
MAKE
WILL YOU CUT
SMOKE
OBJECT/WILL OBJECT
FEEL
TURN
WAKE
DONT SET
ISNT
GO
BRING
WILL RUN
MAKES
WILL FORCE
DOESNT COME
23
MAKE A NEW SENTENCE WITH THE SAME MEANING    1.
Mary left this morning. She will probably send us
an e-mail tonight.  If Mary leaves/has left this
morning, shell probably ..  2. Stop making
that noise, Ill hit you. If you dont stop
making that noise, Ill ..  3. You are driving
too fast. The police will stop you.  If you are
driving too fast, the police .  4. Be in touch.
Use a Samsung mobile phone.  If you want to be in
touch, use If you use a Samsung mobile phone,
youll be in touch.  5. Save money by buying an
IBM computer. If you buy an IMB computer,
youll save money.  6. The children mustnt go
near Toms dog. Hell bite them.  If children go
near Toms dog, hell bite them.  7. It might
rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside. If it
rains, everyone can eat inside.
24
The Future Perfect
  • Future Perfect has two different forms
  • You will have perfected your English by the time
    you come back from the UK.
  • and
  • You are going to have perfected your English by
    the time you come back from the UK.
  • Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

subject will have done
subject am are is going to have done
25
Completed Action Before Something in the Future
  • The Future Perfect expresses the idea that
    something will occur before
  • another action in the future. It can also show
    that something will happen
  • before a specific time in the future.

By next November, I will have received my
promotion. By the time he gets home, she is going
to have cleaned the entire house. I am not going
to have finished this test by 3 o'clock. Will she
have learned enough Italian to communicate before
she moves to Rome? Sam is probably going to have
completed the proposal by the time he leaves this
afternoon. By the time I finish this course, I
will have taken ten tests. How many countries
are you going to have visited by the time you
turn 50?
26
Duration Before Something in the Future
(Non-Continuous Verbs)
  • The Future Perfect with non-continuous verbs
    shows that something will
  • continue up until another action in the future.

I will have been in London for six months by the
time I leave. By Monday, Susan is going to have
had my book for a week. The Future Perfect
cannot be used in clauses beginning with time
expressions such as when, while, before, after,
by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead
of Future Perfect, the Present Perfect is used.
I am going to see a movie when I have finished
my homework.
27
ADVERB PLACEMENT
  • The examples below show the placement for grammar
    adverbs such as always,
  • only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
  • You will only have learned a few words.
  • Will you only have learned a few words?
  • You are only going to have learned a few words.
  • Are you only going to have learned a few words?
  • ACTIVE / PASSIVE
  • They will have completed the project before the
    deadline. Active
  • The project will have been completed before the
    deadline. Passive
  • They are going to have completed the project
    before the deadline. Active
  • The project is going to have been completed
    before the deadline. Passiv

28
FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE or FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  • 1. By 2018 we (live)
    in Madrid for 20 years.
  • 2. He (write) a book by the end
    of the year.
  • 3. (finish, you) this novel by next
    week?
  • 4. He (read) this book for 15 days by the
    end of this week.
  • 5. They (be) married for 40 years by the
    end of this month.
  • 6. (be, she) pregnant for three months this
    week?
  • 7. When will you send this message? - We
    (deliver) it by Friday.
  • 8. How long does it take you to rewrite such a
    report?
  • Tomorrow I (work) on it for three
    days. And I (finish) it by 6 p.m.

will have been living
will have written
Will you have finished
'll have been reading
'll have been
Will she have been
will have delivered
will have been working
will have finished
29
9. Will Sam be ready for the test on Monday?
He (revise) for a couple of weeks.
But he (not, revise) everything by
Monday. 10. Can I have a look at your photos
tomorrow? No, I'm sorry. They (not,
develop)
by tomorrow. 11. Can we
start the party at 3 o'clock? I don't
think so. All our guests (not, arrive) by
then, I'm afraid.
will have been revising
will not have revised
will not have been developed
will not have arrived
The difference between future perfect and future
continuous ? ? ? ?
30
Future perfect and future continuous 1. (you /
retire) by the time you're 60? 2. Next
year, I (study) maths at university. 3.
Hurry up! The film (start) soon. 4. There
won't be anyone in the office. Everyone (go)
home. 5. Julie (not, work)
this time next week. She'll be on
holiday! 6. I'm only halfway through my homework.
I (not, finish) it before the teacher
arrives. 7. Do you think that Les (fix) the
car by tomorrow? 8. Don't phone me before 8
o'clock, we (have) dinner.
Will you have retired
ll be studying
will be starting
will have gone
wont be working
will not have finished
will have fixed
will be having
31
ACTIVE PRESENT TENSES time ---?------------------
--------------------------?-----------------------
-------------------?------? present perfect
present future
continuous continuous continuo
us present perfect present
future simple
simple
simple
    S       HAVE   HAS     BEEN     - ING   do sada i dalje       S     AM ARE IS     -ING   sada   sutra       S       SHALL   WILL     BE     -ING
    S       HAVE   HAS   PAST   PARTICIPLE   do   sada       S     INFINITIVE   -(E)S     inace       S       SHALL   WILL     INFINITIVE
32
PAST TENSES
time ---?-----------------------------------------
-?------------------------------------------?-----
-?
past perfect past
future-in-the past continuous
continuous continuous 
    S         HAD         BEEN     - ING   radnja prije yester- day       S     WAS   WERE     - ING     yester- day         S         WOULD     BE     - ING
past perfect past
future-in-the-past simple
simple
simple
    S         HAD       PAST   PARTICIPLE   radnja prije yesterday       S     -(E)D     yesterday       S         WOULD     INFINITIVE
33
S    DO DOES N O T    INFINITIVE
S    DID N O T    INFINITIVE
whokoga, kome? whatšto? where why when how how much how many how often how long   DO   DOES             S         INFINITIVE
whokoga, kome? whatšto? where why when how how much how many how often how long   DID             S         INFINITIVE
WHO tko? WHAT što?  / / -(E)S
WHO tko? WHAT što?  / / -(E)D
34
PASSIVE   PRESENT TENSES   time
---?-------------------------------------------?--
----------------------------------------?------?
present perfect present future
continuous
    S     AM ARE IS     BEING   PAST   PARTICIPLE
present perfect simple
present simple future
simple
    S       HAVE   HAS B E E N   PAST   PARTICIPLE       S     AM ARE IS   PAST   PARTICIPLE         S         WILL     BE   PAST   PARTICIPLE
35
PAST TENSES   time ---?---------------------------
---------------?----------------------------------
----------?------?   past perfect
past future-in-the past
continuous
    S     WAS   WERE     BEING   PAST PARTICIPLE  
past perfect simple
past simple future-in-the past
simple
    S         HAD       B E E N   PAST   PARTICIPLE       S     WAS   WERE     PAST   PARTICIPLE       S         WOULD     BE   PAST   PARTICIPLE
negative ? NOT interrogative ? INVERSION
36
  INFINITIVE   INFINITIVE
  ACTIVE   PASSIVE
  TO INCREASE   TO BE INCREASED
  They are going TO INCREASE overtime rates.   Overtime rates are going TO BE INCREASED.
CAN, COULD       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
MUST       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
HAVE TO, HAS TO       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
HAD TO       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
WILL HAVE TO       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
SHOULD       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
MAY       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
MIGHT       BE       PAST PARTICIPLE
37
TALKING ABOUT THE PASSIVE VOICE
TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE
present simple We serve lunch at 12 oclock every day. Lunch is served at 12 oclock every day.
present continuous We are serving lunch now. Lunch is being served now.
future We will serve lunch at 1 oclock tomorrow. Lunch will be served at 1 oclock tomorrow.
present perfect We have already served lunch. Lunch has been already served.
past simple We served lunch at 12 yesterday. Lunch was served at 12 yesterday.
past continuous We were serving lunch from 12 till 1 p.m. yesterday. Lunch was being served from 12 till 1 p.m. yesterday.
past perfect We had served lunch before you came. Lunch had been served before you came.
negative be not interrogative inversion
38
  • THE PASSIVE VOICE
  • - is used when the speaker is more interested in
    the action than in the person(s)
  • doing the action
  • The streets are swept every day.
  • The gates will be closed this evening.
  • - is used when we either do not know who the doer
    of the action is, or it is of little or no
    importance
  • This castle was built in the 18th century.
  • My car has been crashed.
  • is used far more often in English than in some
    other languages (in French it is on, in German
    man and in Croatian, the passive voice is
    often replaced by reflexive verbs),
  • is more usually found in written language than
    in speech, particularly in scientific and
    technical writing to convey information and to
    develop logical arguments.

39
The first step toward the passive would be
converting active into passive. Such exercises
are useful for practical purposes, but the
process is essentially an artificial one.
Nevertheless, it will teach us how to form the
passive. The passive tenses are made by putting
the verb TO BE into the required tense (the rules
for the use of passive tenses are the same as
those for the active) and adding the Past
Participle of the main verb. The object of the
active sentence becomes the subject of the
passive one
They make these suits in Italy.
When did they produce the first video recorders?
They told us to stop talking.
Has anyone corrected the mistakes?
They are making a new road here.
These suits are made in Italy.
When were the first video recorders produced?
We were told to stop talking.
Have the mistakes been corrected?
A new road is being made here.
40
Defectives and modals (can, must, may, should..)
are followed by BE and the past participle
They must take the luggage to the check-in desk.
Somebody can easily mend this door.
They will have to operate on him tomorrow.
Nobody can repair the broken vase.
People should cut down that tree.
The luggage must be taken to the check-in desk.
This door can easily be mended.
He will have to be operated on tomorrow.
The broken vase cannot be repaired.
That tree should be cut down.
Verbs which cannot be passive become, happen,
have (own), lack, resemble, seem, stay, suit
(be right for). Verbs which can be passive
believe, contain, include, intend, know, like,
love, mean, need, owe, own, understand,
want. The agent (the doer of the action), if
required, is introduced at the end of the
sentence with BY.
41
PUT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE
VOICE 1. Boys play football all over the
world. Football is played all over the world.
2. She is just washing your pullover. Your
pullover is just being washed. 3. They had to
write the report yesterday. The report had to
be written yesterday. 4. You will take it to the
cleaner's. It will be taken to the cleaners.
5. They have repaired her steering wheel. Her
steering wheel has been repaired. 6. She can
serve dinner at 6 p.m. Dinner can be served at
6 p.m. 7. Her attitude shocked me. (agent) I
was shocked by her attitude.
42
8. Someone must teach that boy a lesson! That
boy must be taught a lesson! 9. When will they
paint the house? When will the house be
painted? 10. He hasnt painted the house since
they built it ten years ago. (two passives) The
house hasnt been painted since it was built ten
years ago. 11. Why did they send him to
prison? Why was he sent to prison? 12. Havent
they promised you a rise in salary? Havent you
been promised a rise in salary? Hasnt a rise in
salary been promised to you? 13. Dickens
probably wrote this play. (agent) This play was
probably written by Dickens.
43
  • PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE
  • All these grammar drills (already, print)
  • for the students.
  • 2. The museum (open) to visitors every day.
  • 3. These lorries (produce) in
    our factory for ten years.
  • 4. Mary (take) to hospital last week.
  • 5. This picture (always, admire) .
  • 6. The box (not, open) for 200
    years.
  • 7. The living-room window (break) yesterday.
  • 8. This tragic accident (forget) in a
    few years' time.
  • 9. The Browns' children (usually, dress) very
    badly.
  • 10. In the past the Tower of London (use)
    as a prison.
  • 11. Mary (give) a bulldog for her last
    birthday.
  • 12. Two of my dinner-plates (break)
    so far.
  • 13. My book (publish) next year.

HAVE ALREADY BEEN PRINTED
IS OPENED
HAVE BEEN PRODUCED
WAS TAKEN
IS ALWAYS ADMIRED.
HASNT BEEN OPENED
WAS BROKEN
WILL BE FORGOTTEN
ARE USUALLY DRESSED
WAS USED
WAS GIVEN
HAVE BEEN BROKEN
WILL BE PUBLISHED
44
PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO THE PASSIVE
VOICE 1. A lot of destroyed houses (re-build)
here since my last visit. 2. The matter
(discuss) just now. 3. I (give)
all the details about the trip next Saturday. 4.
The door (already, shut) 5. Sometimes dinner
(serve) here at 7 p.m. 6. Lots of
things (find) on trams and buses every
day. 7. I (punish) for something I didn't
do. 8. Peter (tell) that all the tickets
(already, sell) 9. A strange man (see)
here an hour ago. 10. Peter (teach)
French when he was in France. 11. After the
thief (give) a fair trial, he (send)
to prison. 12. The box (lock)
and it cant (open) now. 13.
Several new motorways (build) here but
European standards (not, reach)
yet. 14. (You, tell) at the meeting yesterday
that our company (sell) to an American
businessman? 15. Have you read that our railway
system (modernize) before the beginning of the
next holiday season?
HAVE BEEN RE-BUILT
IS BEING DISCUSSED
WILL BE GIVEN
HAS BEEN ALREADY SHUT.
IS SERVED
ARE FOUND
WILL BE PUNISHED
HAD BEEN ALREADY SOLD out.
WAS TOLD
WAS SEEN
WAS TAUGHT
HAD BEEN GIVEN
WAS SENT
HAS BEEN LOCKED
BE OPENED
HAVE BEEN BUILT
HAVENT BEEN REACHED
WERE YOU TOLD
WOULD BE SOLD
WILL BE MODERNIZED
45
  • TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO ENGLISH.
    USE THE PASSIVE VOICE WHEREVER POSSIBLE
  •  
  • Ne možete ovdje prelaziti rijeku jer se most
    upravo popravlja.
  • The river cannot be crossed here, the bridge is
    just being repaired.
  • 2. Ljudi se boje jer su pokraj skijaške staze
    videni vukovi.
  • People are afraid becuase woolves have been seen
    near the ski track.
  • 3. Shvatio je da ce biti kažnjen za ono što je
    ucinio.
  • He realized that he would be punished for what he
    had done.
  • 4. Ovo je strašno. Pogledaj! Ozlijedenog igraca
    upravo iznose sa terena.
  • This is terrible. Look! The injured player is
    being carried away from the playground.
  • 5. Smece opet nije odneseno! A svi su racuni
    placeni.
  • Again the garbage hasnt been taken away! And all
    the bills have been paid.
  • 6. Ako ti je ruka slomljena, morat ce se slikati.
  • If your arm is broken, it will have to be
    x-rayed.

46
7. Upravo je objavljeno da je sinoc ubijen jedan
od ministara. It has just been announced that
one of the ministers was killed last night. 8.
Ovo mi vec ide na živce! Takva vrsta oglasa može
se vidjeti posvuda. This is getting on my nerves!
Such an advertisement can be seen everywhere.
9. Vjeruje se da Tom ima informacije koje ce
policija koristiti u istrazi. It is believed that
Tom has the information which will be used in the
police investigation. 10. Cuo sam da nam nece
platiti prekovremeni rad. I have heard that we
will not be paid for our overtime hours. O cemu
ti pricaš? Pa nikad nismo ni bili placeni za
prekovremeni rad. What are you talking about? We
have never been paid for our overtime work. 11.
Da li je Tom sinoc uhicen? Was Tom arrested last
night? Mislim da je, oko 2 u noci probudila me
buka policijske sirene. I think he was, at about
2 a.m. I was waked up by the police siren.
47
PAST PARTICIPLE
 ACTIVE TENSES   PASSIVE TENSES ADJECTIVES SHORTENED PASSIVE SENTENCES HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE
  Peter has bought a new car.   If your hand is broken, it will be X-rayed first.   stolen money   The letter written yesterday has to be mailed at once.   While I was having my hair cut the police towed away my car.
  He said he had paid 20.000 for it.   The rubbish hasnt been collected yet.   broken glass   The house built at the end of the street looks great.   His house is too small and he is having a room built on.
  She wondered who had left the door open.   The streets in our town are swept every day.   an infuriated woman   Convinced that they were trying to poison him, he refused to eat anything.   Do you have your car washed or do you wash it yourself?  
We have known each other for a long time.    Those pyramids were built around 400 A.D.     a written report   The printer bought yesterday does not give good copies.   Ive been getting a lot of annoying phone calls so Im going to have my number changed.
48
INSERT PRESENT or PAST PARTICIPLES IN THE
FOLLOWING SENTENCES   1. There is a (break)
window in the hall. It should be (repair)
at once. 2. You said you were (bore) but I
think the lesson was quite (interest)
. 3. Whos the fat man (sit) in the
corner?  I dont know. I have never (see)
him before. 4. The speaker was so (bore)
that most people left before the lecture was
over. 5. Peter is so (interest) in
astronomy that he has already (decide)
to study it. 6. Ill never get (marry) ! I
dont want to spend my life (surround) by
dirty washing and (scream) children. 7.
Most of the people (invite) to the party
didnt turn up so the food was (take)
to a charity home.
BROKEN
BE REPAIRED
BORED
INTERESTING
SITTING
SEEN
BORING
INTERESTED
DECIDED
MARRIED
SURROUNDED
SCREAMING
INVITED
TAKEN
49
8. Peters scholarship will be (grant) in
a few days. At least he was (tell) so. 9. If a
story is (excite) , you will be (excite)
when you read it. 10. (Open) the
door of my room, I saw him (drink) my
whisky. 11. He told me somebody had (phone)
while I was out. 12. They were (quarrel)
about the property their father had
(leave) them when he died. 13. I wanted to go
to the theatre last night, but when I got there I
saw that it was (close) by the police on the
orders of the mayor.  
GRANTED
TOLD
EXCITED
EXCITING
OPENING
DRINKING
PHONED
QUARRELLING
LEFT
CLOSED
50
ACTIVE PASSIVE
  Active is used when the subject of the sentence actually DOES the action expressed by the verb.   Passive is used when the subject of the sentence DOES NOT DO the action expressed by the verb, it suffers the action of the verb. Remember the Croatian word for the Passive Voice!  
51
INSERT THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE or
ACTIVE Solar energy (be) clean green
electricity that (either, create) from
sunlight or from heat from the sun. Having solar
energy in your home, usually (mean)
setting up a solar photovoltaic system on your
roof. What (photovoltaic, mean) ? Photo
(stand) for light and photons (be)
energy particles coming from sunlight. Voltaic
(denote) producing a voltage or volts.
Abbreviation for photovoltaic (be) PV.
Solar energy (be) one of the renewable
energy sources. Although it (not, be)
inexhaustible, it (be) sustainable unlike
fossil fuels which (be) finite. It is also a
non-polluting source of energy and it (not, emit)
any greenhouse gases when electricity
(produce)
IS
IS EITHER CREATED
MEANS
DOES PHOTOVOLTAIC MEAN
STANDS
ARE
DENOTES
IS
IS
IS
ISNT
ARE
DOESNT EMIT
IS PRODUCED.
52
The solar energy that (produce) can
supplement your entire or partial energy
consumption. Using solar power (mean)
reducing your energy bills and saving money. If a
PV system (install) on the roof of
your home, the value of your home (increase)
The system (require) low
maintenance. Solar thermal applications (be)
the most widely used category of solar energy
technology. They (use) heat from the sun for
water and space heating, ventilation, and many
other applications.
IS PRODUCED
MEANS
IS INSTALLED
INCREASES.
IS INCREASED
REQUIRES
ARE
USE
53
INSERT ACTIVE or PASSIVE The power of moving
water (recognize) a long time ago and rivers
(use) as transport corridors for
thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians, for
example, (float) down the Nile River
on the water current and they (learn) to
harness the winds energy to sail up it again.
Essentially, river-based water power (be)
another form of indirect solar energy because it
(use) the potential energy in rain water (or
melted snow) as it (drain) back to the oceans.
The available energy (depend) on the
quantity of water and the drop in elevation along
the path of flow. The energy in the stream of
water (convert) to rotational energy by means
of a water wheel or turbine. One liter of water,
falling about 150 meters per second, can generate
one kilowatt of electricity. Around 200 BC, the
water wheel (be) the first invention created to
harness the mechanical power of water. The water
wheel (develop) more than 2000 years ago
in two forms - horizontal and vertical. The
vertical wheel (first, use) to lift water and
drain mining pits.
WAS RECOGNIZED
HAVE BEEN USED
FLOATED
LEARNED
IS
USES
DRAINS
DEPENDS
IS CONVERTED
WAS
WAS DEVELOPED
WAS FIRST USED
54
Soon afterwards, people (recognize) that
flowing water (can) turn the wheel. Then
dams and channels (build) to control the flow
of water. The horizontal wheel (can) drive
millstones directly and (be) simple to build
and repair. The vertical wheel (need) a pair
of gear wheels to turn the rotating force through
90 degrees but it (be) much more
powerful and efficient. Water wheels (put) to
work in a wide variety of activities during the
Middle Ages, which (last) until the
fifteenth century. The power of water wheels
(use) to grind grain, make paper and
cloth and operate some kinds of ancient tools. In
1090, a 12-metre high clock driven by waterwheels
(build) in China.
RECOGNIZED
COULD
WERE BUILT
COULD
WAS
NEEDED
WAS
WERE PUT
LASTED
WAS USED
WAS BUILT
55
INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS (ACTIVE or PASSIVE,
all tenses)
1. Where (transformers, use) ? 2. They
(tell) she'd meet them. 3. This project
must (study) very carefully. 4. The meeting
(organize) as a protest against the war
but in the end it (use) by politicians for
their own promotion. 5. She (tell) to meet
them at the airport at 9 p.m.. 6. She (tell)
me she (meet) them at the airport at 9 p.m. 7.
We (ask) what device (use) to
prevent the short circuit, but nobody had a clue.
8. The boiler (explode) while the steam
(heat) to
the temperature of more than 200o C. 9. What
(you, do) if you (win) a million
pound?
ARE TRANSFORMERS USED
WERE TOLD
BE STUDIED
WAS ORGANIZED
WAS USED
WAS TOLD
TOLD
WOULD MEET
WERE ASKED
WAS USED
EXPLODED
WAS BEING HEATED
WILL YOU DO
WIN
56
10. Mary, all these letters must (answer)
before you (go) home. 11. Yesterday our
geography teacher (explain) why
Africa (discover) before
Australia. 12. The induction motor
(construct) more than a hundred
years ago. Tesla (patent) it in 1888. 13.
What (a power plant, supply)
us with?
14. Although it was C. Columbus who (discover)
America, the continent (name)
after Amerigo Vespucci. 15. President John F.
Kennedy (assassinate) in Dallas in
1963, but the truth about his assassin (never,
confirm) . 16. Oldtimers can (see)
in the Technical museum from 9 a.m. till 6 p.m.
every day. 17. (You, ever, visit)
the Mimara art collection?
BE ANSWERED
GO
WAS EXPLAINING
HAD NOT BEEN DISCOVERED
WAS CONSTRUCTED
PATENTED
DOES A POWER PLANT SUPPLY
DISCOVERED
WAS NAMED
WAS ASSASSINATED
HAS NEVER BEEN CONIFIRMED.
BE SEEN
HAVE YOU EVER VISITED
57
Not really, but I (hear) that since it
(open) in 1986, it
(visit) by thousands of people. 18.
Yesterday evening the club (close) by the
police because a snitch (badly injure)
and (leave) under the staircase.
19. The principles of electromagnetism (first,
formulate) by Ampere, in whose
honour the unit of current intensity (later,
name) . 20. Energy may
(define) as the
capacity for doing work. 21. The principle of the
conservation of energy may (state) as follows
"Energy cannot (create) or (destroy)
but it may (convert)
from one form to another. 22. When the police
(open) his apartment they (find)
out that he (be) dead for two days. 23.
The method for storing solar energy (not,
discover) yet although scientists
(work) on it very hard for years.
HAVE HEARD
WAS OPENED
HAS BEEN VISITED
WAS CLOSED
HAD BEEN BADLY INJURED
LEFT
WERE FIRST FORMULATED
WAS LATER NAMED
BE DEFINED
BE STATED
BE CREATED
DESTROYED
BE CONVERTED
OPENED
FOUND
HAD BEEN
HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED
HAVE BEEN WORKING
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