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The ImPActS model of principled living: Measuring the extent that people view principles to be Important, Pressured by others, Activated, and Successfully engaged.

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Title: The ImPActS model of principled living: Measuring the extent that people view principles to be Important, Pressured by others, Activated, and Successfully engaged.


1
The ImPActS model of principled living
Measuring the extent that people view
principles to be Important, Pressured by others,
Activated, and Successfully engaged.
Dr. Joseph Ciarrochi, School of Psychology,
University of Wollongong Contributors to the
research reviewed in this presentation Jess
Frearson Kate Williams Stephenie Veage Natalie
Stefanic Peter Leeson Patrick Heaven
2
Core hypothesis 1
  • Human happiness and vitality will be determined
    by four components of valued living
  • ImportanceWhat people find to be important and
    unimportantPressure from others to what extent
    do people feel their principles are driven by
    what others want?ActivationHow many principles
    do people put into play in life?Successfully
    engagementAre people successfully living their
    principles?

3
The ImPActS intervention model
Importance ACT can be used to help people discover what principles are or are not important to them.
Pressure ACT can be used to undermine the power of unhelpful, pliance-based principles
Activity ACT can be used to increase the amount of principle-congruent activity and the likelihood of contacting reinforcers
Success ACT can be used to increase peoples success at living principles (e.g., via overcoming barriers and reinforcing commitment)
4
Label Description Possible Example
Principles Values Done for their own sake Never permanently realized Cannot be evaluated must be chosen Being a loving parent Being physically active Having a loving, authentic relationship
Principles Abstract Goals In the service of values Never permanently realized Often broadly applicable does not refer to one specific type of behavior Being honest and loyal Acting with courage
Concrete goals actions Concrete behaviors in the service of a goal Play game with child after work today Get up at 7 am on Monday to go to the gym Express honest feelings to partner over dinner tonight
5
Measuring and using principles in therapy
ACT intervention
Survey of Life Principles
  • Card sorting task
  • Life in general
  • Work
  • SLP guides clinical focus

SLP as an outcome measure, focusing on valued
activity instead of symptoms
6
Past research in principles
  • Values work (Schwartz, et al., Rokeach et al.).
  • What is most important to you?
  • Are there Universal values?
  • Personal strivings (Sheldon, Emmons, Deci).
  • What do you strive for
  • Why do you strive? Is it for authentic or
    controlled reasons?
  • We will call both of these guiding principles
    for ease of reference

7
Recasting Self-Determination Theory in
behavioural terms.
Pliance
Tracking
Deci and Ryban, 2000, psychological science
8
Research on values
9
The structure of values (Schwarz)
10
Methods
11
SLP content
  • The SLP seeks to capture all the dimensions in
    the Schwarz circumplex.
  • It also sought to expand the range of items to
    include principles related to career, health,
    experiential control, sexuality, and other
    important domains.
  • Items focus on what could personally be put into
    play
  • Creating beauty instead of A world of beauty
  • Items have a verb focus, in keeping with the ACT
    notion that values are patterns of behavior that
    are never permanently realized.

12
SLP rating scales
  • Go beyond importance scale used in values
    research
  • Importance
  • Pressure
  • Activity
  • Success

13
  • N1 300 University sample
  • N2 240 adolescents in Grade 12

14
Top 10 most important values
1 Having genuine and close friends
2 Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group
3 Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones
4 Having relationships involving love and affection
5 Feeling good about myself (experiential control item)
6 Striving to be a better person
7 Experiencing positive mood states (experiential control item)
8 Being Honest
9 Having an enjoyable, leisurely life
10 Being safe from danger
15
Top 10 most pressured values
1 Meeting my obligations
2 Being ambitious and hardworking
3 Being physically fit
4 Showing respect to parents and elders
5 Eating healthy food
6 Being honest
7 Being self-sufficient
8 Striving to be a better person
9 Being competent and effective
10 Being safe from danger
16
Top 10 most successful values
1 Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group
2 Enjoying food and drink
3 Being safe from danger
4 Having genuine and close friends
5 Being honest
6 Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones
7 Making sure to repay favors and not be indebted to people
8 Showing respect to parents and elders
9 Having relationships involving love and affection
10 Enjoying music, art, and/or drama
17
Top 10 failures
1 Leading a stress free life (experiential control)
2 Having a sense of accomplishment and making a lasting contribution
3 Promoting justice and caring for the weak
4 Gaining wisdom and a mature understanding of life
5 Being wealthy
6 Being at one with god or the universe
7 Feeling good about myself (experiential control)
8 Striving to be a better person
9 Being physically fit
10 Having an enjoyable, leisurely life
13 Experiencing positive mood states (experiential control)
Note Failure index Importance success.
18
Does the SLP cover important domains?
  • As expected, SLP importance scale correlates in
    expected ways to well-accepted Schwarz value
    measure (Williams and Ciarrochi, 2009).
  • We will be assessing whether it correlates with
    key dimensions on a job interest survey

19
Does the SLP cover important domains?
  • SLP and personality (Steph Veage thesis).
  • If the SLP has comprehensive coverage, then it
    should be able to distinguish between types of
    personality
  • Grade 12 high school students n 240

20
Neur Extro Open Conscien Agree Psycho (Unsoci-Impulsiv)
Relationship principles
Friendship .14 .34 -.22
Love .21 .39 -.14
Benevolence (loyalty and security of loved ones) .30 .37 -.32
Power .27 .17 .14
Conscientious Achievement .21 .37 .17
Lasting achievement .22 .22 .31 -.17
Stimulation .17 .17 .15
Health -.16 .17 .22
Tradition
Religious values .15 .25 .19 -.16
Showing respect for tradition -.14 .20 .29 .29 -.19
Sex (being sexually desirable and sexually active) .25 -.19 .31
21
Neur Extro Open Conscien Agree Psycho (UnsocialImpulsiv)
Hedonism .21 .24
Universalism and self-direction
Artistic .47 .18
Connecting with nature .29
Promoting justice .24 .18 .31 -.27
Self-sufficient .20 .33 .17 .24
Wisdom .30 .24 .26 -.16
Conformity
Being self-disciplined -.14 .15 .33 .29
Meeting my obligations .34 .28 -.28
Security
Being safe from danger .18 .30 -.29
Reciprocation of favours, not being in debt .15 .23 .24 -.18
Experiential control .18 .31
Being Wealthy .17
22
Other findings
  • Neurotics tend to feel more external pressure to
    put their principles into play, and are less
    successful at their principles
  • Neurotics feel they are much worse at
    experiential control
  • Agreeable and C look similar in achievement
    motivation. However, C are more successful at
    achievement (both lasting and conscientious)

23
SLP relations to well-being
  • 300 University Students
  • We focused on variables of interest to
    clinicians e.g., measures of emotional
    well-being, psychological well-being, social
    support, and relationship satisfaction

24
We observed four patterns between principles and
well-being
  • 1) Happy people find the principle to be
    important and tend to be successful at it
    (relationship principles, stimulation principles,
    hedonism, health, achievement)
  • 2) Happy people were indifferent to the principle
    or found it unappealing, but nevertheless were
    somewhat more successful at it (power)
  • 3) Happy people do not find the principle to be
    particularly important but nevertheless succeed
    at it. (sex)
  • 4) Happy people do not find the principle to be
    particularly important, nor do they succeed at
    it. (being wealthy, tradition principles,
    security principles, conformity principles)

25
  • Importance and success ? well-being

26
The Link between principle importance and three
forms of well-being
Emotional Well-being Emotional Well-being Emotional Well-being Psychological Well-being Psychological Well-being Psychological Well-being Social well-being Social well-being Social well-being
Relationship Pos emot Hostil Sad Auto Relat Purp Social Amnt Social Sat Relat Sat
Love .14 .14 .16
Friends .26 .14 .18 .22
Benevol. .14 -.12 .15 .23 .16 .21 .26
Last Achieve .14 .29
Con Achieve .34
Stimulation .30 .22 .15
Hedonism .26 .20
Health .26 -.13 .23 .27 .15
27
The Link between principle success and three
forms of well-being
Emotional Well-being Emotional Well-being Emotional Well-being Psychological Well-being Psychological Well-being Psychological Well-being Social well-being Social well-being Social well-being
Relationship Pos emot Hostil Sad Auto Relat Purp Social Amnt Social Sat Relat Sat
Love .27 -.19 -.33 .17 .30 .21 .34 .49
Friends .25 -.17 -.19 .21 .62 .17 .26 .28 .25
Benevol. .15 -.14 -.13 .19 .17 .13 .13 .30
Last Achieve .23 -.24 -.24 .19 .16 .42 .15
Con Achieve .24 -.25 -.22 .16 .19 .51 .24 .20
Stimulation .41 -.16 -.22 .37 .35 .23 .18 .27 .20
Hedonism .27 -.18 .13 .28 .13 .15
Health .20 -.12 .23 .18 .15 .14
28
Power principles
  • People who valued power tended to be more
    hostile.
  • If these people were in an intimate relationship,
    their partner tended to be less satisfied in the
    relationship

29
Sex principles
  • Valuing sex was unrelated to well-being
  • But getting sex was related to emotional,
    psychological, and social well-being

30
Emotional control principle
  • Most likely to be underachieved
  • Valuing emotional control linked slightly to
    higher well-being
  • Succeeding at emotional control tended to have
    the strongest correlate of all aspects of
    well-being

31
Correlation, causality, and a core ACT hypothesis
  • When experiential control principles are
    inconsistent with important behavior-focused
    principles, you get the following

32
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33
Can the SLP substitute for well-being measures?
  • Positive affect 41 variance explained by SLP
  • Hostility 18
  • Sadness 28
  • Autonomy 30
  • Positive relations with others 43
  • Purpose 37
  • Amount of social support 9
  • Satisfaction with social support 18
  • Relationship satisfaction 8

34
Using the SLP in ACT interventions
35
Importance ratings
  • What do clients value most? What is likely to be
    the focus of therapy
  • Principle themes. Social. Power. Art? Achievment
  • Look out for low importance ratings involving
    relationships, stimulation, hedonism, health, and
    achievement
  • Likely intervention Values clarification
    (see card sorting task)

36
Low principle Activity
  • Clients may endorse several principles as
    important, but state that they have not tried to
    put them into play.
  • What are the barriers to putting the principles
    into play?
  • Likely interventions acceptance, defusion,
    or overcoming practical barriers?

37
Dominance of experiential control items
  • High importance on experiential control
    dimension
  • Nothing inherently wrong with experiential
    control, unless in conflicts with other important
    principles
  • Likely interventions Creative hopelessness,
    acceptance

38
Presence of strong compliance pressure
  • Research suggests that pressured principles tend
    not to lead to vital living or well-being
    (Sheldon Kasser, 1995) and tend to be
    associated with hostility and sadness (Ciarrochi,
    2008).
  • Danger of contercompliance In reaction to
    pressure, the client refuses to act according to
    the principle, or acts contrary to the principle

39
Presence of strong pressure Interventions
  • Therapist behaviours acting with humility in
    session, undermining your own authority,
    encouraging clients to not believe anything you
    say
  • Remove source of pressure. E.g., imagine nobody
    knew you were living the principle. Would you
    still live it?
  • Seek to identify past experience that was vital.
    E.g., sweet spot exercise. Connect their valued
    statements to this vital past

40
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