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Developing oneself as a teacher using innovative teaching methods and strategies to establish constructive and positive relations with all students in guiding them in their development of critical, analytical thinking and problem solving abilities.

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Title: Developing oneself as a teacher using innovative teaching methods and strategies to establish constructive and positive relations with all students in guiding them in their development of critical, analytical thinking and problem solving abilities.


1
Evaluating and improving teaching
  • Developing oneself as a teacher using innovative
    teaching methods and strategies to establish
    constructive and positive relations with all
    students in guiding them in their development of
    critical, analytical thinking and problem solving
    abilities. 

2
Rationale
  • We need to start from a position of knowing how
    well we are teaching
  • Poor evaluation, whether of students or of staff,
    renders an unfair judgement and fails to reveal
    shortcomings in performance. Good evaluation on
    the other hand provides decision makers with the
    information necessary for informed choices and
    teachers with useful feedback for improvement.
  • Centre, 1993, p.1

3
Evaluating teaching
  • Two broad purposes
  • Evaluation for improvement, i.e. Quality
    enhancement leading to development and
    improvement of learning, teaching etc
  • Evaluation for accountability i.e Quality
    assurance regarding performance with respect to
    promotion, competence, assurance for stakeholders
    etc

4
Vocabulary
  • Formative Provides feedback which is used during
    the teaching process for improvement. It is
    continuous, diagnostic, remedial, and low
    stakes.
  • Summative ...used after the teaching process
    has been completed. Grading and accountability
    are major outcomes. It is terminal, finite,
    descriptive and high stakes.
  • After Scriven, 1967.

5
Activity 5
  • In small groups identify the university processes
    involving decision-making about you that requires
    evaluative information about your teaching
  • What aspects of your teaching provides that
    information?
  • What (if any) further information could/should be
    provided?
  • How and by whom?
  • How valid and reliable do you think the
    information is?

6
Something to think about...
  • In what may as well be starkly labelled smug
    satisfaction, an amazing 94 of college
    instructors rate themselves above average
    teachers and 68 rate themselves in the upper
    quartile of teaching performers.
  • K. Patricia Cross

7
Activity 6 Universities are generally interested
in teaching...
  • to ensure quality, effectiveness, and
    accountability
  • to provide recognition and reward
  • to bring about improvement.
  • ...
  • ...
  • Activity In groups, identify the mechanisms by
    which these outcomes are achieved at Bilkent.
  • For each mechanism reflect on how effectively it
    achieves its purpose

8
So the question for you as a teacher is...
  • How do you know you are teaching well?
  • Or
  • How well you are teaching?
  • And
  • How might you improve?

9
Activity 7
  • Rule a column down the middle of a piece of paper
  • On the left hand side list things that you
    believe you have done well when teaching
  • On the right hand side for each indicator, map
    the evidence you have that supports the point
  • What evidence do you use to know things havent
    gone well?

10
Some thoughts about evaluating teaching...
  • When evaluations are used for promotion and
    tenure, the accepted rule is that no single
    evaluation should be considered adequate for
    decision making
  • Theall and Franklin, p.94, 1991
  • Use multiple sources of data if you are serious
    about improving teaching
  • Cashin, p.93, 1992
  • It is wise to be circumspect about using student
    ratings to make judgments on teaching quality and
    to recognise their complications as well as their
    virtues.
  • Ramsden, p.229, 1992

11
But there are options
  • We can change the focus from
  • what is the quality of your teaching
  • To
  • how can we use evidence gathered from student
    feedback and other forms of information to
    improve teaching?
  • Berk (2005) has listed 12 ways as a starter to
    which I will add two more Small Group
    Instructional Diagnosis and Classroom Assessment
    Techniques.

12
12 sources of evidence(Berk, 2005)
  1. Student ratings
  2. Peer ratings
  3. Self-evaluation
  4. Videos
  5. Student interviews
  6. Exit and Alumni ratings
  7. Employer ratings
  8. Administrator ratings
  9. Teaching scholarship
  10. Teaching awards
  11. Learning outcome measures
  12. Teaching portfolios

13
Peer ratings
  • Peer ratings of teaching performance and
    materials is the most complementary source of
    evidence to student ratings. It covers those
    aspects of teaching that students are not in a
    position to evaluate. Student and peer ratings,
    viewed together, furnish a very comprehensive
    picture of teaching effectiveness for teaching
    improvement. Peer ratings should not be used for
    personnel decisions.

14
Self Evaluation
  • Self-evaluation is an important source of
    evidence to consider in formative and summative
    decisions. Faculty input on their own teaching
    completes the triangulation of the three direct
    observation sources of teaching performance
    students, peers, and self.

15
Videos
  • If faculty are really committed to improving
    their teaching, a video is one of the best
    sources of evidence for formative decisions,
    interpreted either alone or, preferably, with
    peer input. If the video is used in confidence
    for this purpose, faculty should decide whether
    it should be included in their self evaluation or
    portfolio as a work sample for summative
    decisions.

16
Student ratings
  • Student ratings is a necessary source of evidence
    of teaching effectiveness for both formative and
    summative decisions, but not a sufficient source
    for the latter. Considering all of the polemics
    over its value, it is still an essential
    component of any faculty evaluation system.

17
Student interviews
  • The quality control circle is an excellent
    technique to provide constant student feedback
    for teaching improvement. The group interview as
    an independent evaluation can be very informative
    to supplement student ratings. Exit interviews
    may be impractical to conduct or redundant with
    exit ratings, described in the next section.

18
Exit and Alumni interviews
  • Although exit and alumni ratings are similar to
    original student ratings on the same scale,
    different scale items about the quality of
    teaching, courses, curriculum admissions, and
    other topics can provide new information. Alumni
    ratings should be considered as another important
    source of evidence on teaching effectiveness.

19
Employer ratings
  • Employer ratings provides an indirect source of
    evidence for program evaluation decisions about
    teaching effectiveness and attainment of program
    outcomes, especially for professional schools.
    Job performance data may be linked to individual
    teaching performance, but on a very limited basis.

20
Administrator ratings
  • Administrator ratings is typically based on
    secondary sources, not direct observation of
    teaching or any other areas of performance. This
    source furnishes a perspective different from all
    other sources on merit pay and promotion
    decisions.

21
Teaching scholarship
  • Teaching scholarship is an important source of
    evidence to supplement the three major direct
    observation sources. It can easily discriminate
    the teacher scholar and very creative faculty
    from all others for summative decisions.

22
Teaching Awards
  • As a source of evidence of teaching
    effectiveness, at best, teaching awards provide
    worthwhile information only on the nominees, and,
    at worst, they supply inaccurate and unreliable
    feedback on questionable nominees who may have
    appeared on Law and Order. The merits of
    teaching awards should be evaluated in the
    context of an institutions network of incentives
    and rewards for teaching.

23
Learning outcome measures
  • Learning outcome measures should be employed with
    extreme caution as a source of evidence for
    faculty evaluation. Its safer to use in
    conjunction with the direct data sources
    described previously for program improvement.

24
Teaching portfolio
  • As a collection of many of the previous sources
    and them some, the teaching portfolio should be
    reserved primarily for summative decisions to
    present a comprehensive picture of teaching
    effectiveness to complement the list of research
    publications.

25
Small Group Instructional Diagnosis
  • Developed by Clark in 1979 Small Group
    Instructional Diagnosis (SGID) is a form of
    classroom research which focuses on student
    learning. It is a formative process enhancing
    learning and is a safe, non-threatening and
    transparent mechanism liked by students and
    staff. It is orally-based, involving concensus
    and involves little time with a quick turn-around.

26
Classroom Assessment Activities (including fast
feedback tools)
  • Classroom assessment techniques drawn from Angelo
    and Cross (1996). These tools are Learner
    Centred, Teacher directed, Mutually beneficial,
    Formative, Context-specific and Ongoing.

27
CAT examples
  • The Minute Paper
  • The Muddiest Point
  • Directed paraphrasing
  • Application cards

28
The proof of the pudding...
  • If we are teaching well, the obvious outcome
    would be in student learning.
  • One of the major challenges we face is that of
    effectively measuring student learning. i.e.
    We are talking about effective assessment!
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