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People and Ideas on the Move

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Title: People and Ideas on the Move Author: SJCSD Created Date: 2/4/2009 12:50:27 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company: St. Johns County ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: People and Ideas on the Move


1
People and Ideas on the Move
  • What are some reasons people might migrate?
  • What are some things that may PULL people to a
    region or location?
  • What are some things that may PUSH people away
    from a region or location?
  • Has your family immigrated to the United States?
  • Do you know anyone who has immigrated to or from
    the United States?

2
People and Ideas on the Move
  • Ch. 3
  • 2000 b.c. 250 b.c.

3
Migratory Civilizations in E. Europe/ W. Asia
  • Indo- Europeans Hittites
  • Aryans

4
Indo-Europeans
  • Indo refers to the Indian Subcontinent
  • Europe in the West ?? India in the East
  • Nomadic peoples who came from the steppes (dry
    grasslands) between the Caucasus mountains

5
Indo-European Language (p.61)
6
Hittites (2000 BCE)
  • Hittites settle Anatolia (modern day Turkey)
  • Geography high, rocky plateau, rich in timber,
    minerals

7
Hittites (2000 B.C. 1190 B.C.)
  • Occupied Babylon, fought with Egypt over N. Syria
  • Superior war technology
  • Chariot (center wheel, Iron construction)
  • Iron weapons (iron ore and charcoal readily
    available in mountains)
  • Invasions from North led to decline

8
Aryans (1500 B.C. 250 B.C.)
  • Pastoral People
  • Occupy modern day Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan,
    India

9
Aryans (1500 B.C. 250 B.C.)
  • Little archeological (earthen) record
  • Kept records using Vedas
  • Sacred literature (prayers, magical spells,
    instructions for performing rituals)
  • Periodic lack/ loss of a writing system

10
Aryan Civilization Cont.
  • Development of a Caste System
  • What is a Caste System?
  • Aryans portray a feeling of superiority over
    other races
  • Aryan (nobles) vs. Dasas (Indian peoples known as
    slaves)
  • Aryan Caste system is composed of multiple social
    classes
  • Brahmins (priests)
  • Warriors
  • Peasants or Traders
  • Shudras (non-Aryan laborers or craftspeople)
  • Caste is for life, determined work, marriage,
    eating arrangements

11
Caste System Cont.
  • (Brahmins)
  • Priests Warriors
  • Traders (Shudras)
  • Laborers
  • Examine textbook on p. 64 (The Aryan Caste
    System)

12
Aryan Civilizations Cont.
  • Kingdoms Arise
  • 1000 B.C. minor kings desire to have territorial
    kingdoms
  • Kingdom of Magadha arises as a result of the
    struggle for land and power (one major kingdom)
  • Violence and confusion lead to new religions in
    India
  • Development of Hinduism and Buddhism

13
Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
  • In pairs, examine p. 66-71 in textbook.
  • Create a Venn Diagram comparing
  • Beliefs
  • Practices
  • of Buddhism and Hinduism

14
Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
  • Intermingling of Aryans and Non-Aryans leads to
    development of Hinduism
  • As Hindu teachers attempt to explain Vedic hymns,
    their comments are written down as Upanishads
  • These Upanishads later become the basis for the
    Hindu faith
  • Hinduism (750-550BC)
  • No single founder
  • No single set of ideas
  • See religion as a way to liberate the soul from
    the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of
    everyday existence

15
Hinduism
  • Believe that persons can achieve moksha, a state
    of perfect understanding of all things
  • A person must understand the relationship between
    the atman (soul of a living being) and Brahman
    (world soul responsible for uniting all atmans)
    to achieve perfect understanding or moksha
  • This understanding comes through a process of
    reincarnation, in which an individual soul or
    spirit is born again
  • Karma (the following of good or bad deeds from
    one reincarnation to another)
  • Determine life status , opportunity, ect.

16
Hinduism
  • 3 Gods of Hinduism
  • Brahma Creator
  • Shiva Destroyer
  • Vishnu Protector

17
Hinduism
  • Worship of a god is not mandatory
  • Free to choose from three paths to achieving
    moksha
  • Path of right thinking,
  • Path of right action,
  • Path of religious devotion
  • Good Karma results in good fortune, bad karma
    results bad

18
Hinduism
  • Hinduism and the caste structure developed during
    the Aryan time period still dominate individual
    life
  • As a result, Hindus are coerced into looking to
    religion for guidance in order to better their
    chances in future lives

19
Jainism
  • Mahavira (founder, 599-527BC) Everything has a
    soul and so should not be harmed
  • Jians preach tolerance of all religions
  • Few efforts convert followers
  • http//www.jainworld.com/education/jainsymbol.htm

20
Founding of Buddhism
  • Buddhism is founded by Siddhartha Gautama
    (563-483BC)
  • Isolated inside his fathers palace until the age
    of 29 due to his fathers hopes of him becoming a
    world leader
  • Ventured outside four times at the age of 29
  • 1st saw an old man
  • 2nd saw a sick man
  • 3rd saw a corpse
  • 4th saw a holy man at peace

21
Buddhism
  • Interpreted these experiences as every living
    thing experiences these misfortunes, but only a
    religious life can provide refuge and peace
  • Siddhartha wandered the forests of India for 6
    years searching for Enlightenment, or wisdom
  • After 49 days of meditation, he understood the
    misfortunes and suffering in the world
  • This Enlightenment gave him the title of the
    Enlightened One, or Buddha

22
Buddhism
  • 1st sermon was preached to five companions
  • Laid out the four main ideas that he had come to
    understand
  • Four Noble Truths
  • 1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow
  • 2. The cause of all suffering is peoples
    selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of
    this world
  • 3. The way to end all suffering is to end all
    desires
  • 4. The way to overcome such desires and attain
    enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path,
    which is called the Middle Way between desires
    and self-denial

23
Buddhism
  • To achieve enlightenment or Nirvana, Buddha
    stated the need to follow the Eightfold Path
  • Right Views
  • Right Resolve
  • Right Speech
  • Right Conduct
  • Right Livelihood
  • Right Effort
  • Right Mindfulness
  • Right Concentration
  • Anyone capable of reaching Nirvana

24
Buddhism
  • Rejected many gods of Hinduism
  • Rejected the caste system
  • Both believe in a perfect state of understanding,
    a break from the chain of reincarnations

25
Buddhism
  • So what exactly happens when one achieves
    Nirvana?
  • "Nirvana" is simply "understanding" Understandin
    g about the very nature of your being. When you
    die with Nirvana, you get absorbed into the
    cosmic consiousness - the very consciousness that
    is part of the creation. If you chose to come
    back to further the creation process, you can (a
    la Buddhism)..if not, you do what the stars and
    planets do at a level inconceivable to
    humans.... Humanity is just the beginning of an
    ever evolutionary process.... enjoy the
    process....

26
Buddhism and Society (concluding facts)
  • Many followers were laborers or craftspeople
  • Buddha reluctantly admitted women
  • Monks and nuns took vows of poverty, nonviolence,
    and celibacy
  • Teachings of Buddha are documented in the Jatakas
  • Buddhism spread throughout Asia and Indonesia

27
Buddha Gestures
  • DHAMMACAKKA is the first sermon of Lord Buddha.
    In this mudra hands are raised in front of
    chest, while clinching the thumb and forefingers
    of both hands.

28
Buddha Gestures
  • ABHAYAMUDRA means fearlessness and kindness. In
    this mudra, right hand is raised to level of
    shoulder while palm facing opposite.

29
Buddha Gestures
  • Third position of mudra is called Right Hand
    BUMISPARA. Bumispara is made of two words Bumi
    and spara, Bumi means earth and spara means
    indicating towards. In this mudra right hand is
    extended towards the earth god, palm facing
    towards self and the fingers reaching below knee.

30
Buddha Gestures
  • VARADA means generosity. In this position, hand
    is extended towards the earth while palm is kept
    open and outward. This position of Buddhas
    statue shows generosity.

31
Buddha Gestures
  • VITARKA is next position of the statues, which
    means teaching. Vitarka position is a method of
    teaching to attain Lord Buddha. In this mudra the
    hand is raised while thumb is touching forefinger

32
Buddha Gestures
  • Dhyana is a position of meditation, where legs
    are placed crossed above one another and the
    hands are place quietly into lap of legs. The
    word Dhyana is derived from pali language jhana
    means meditation.

33
Buddha Gestures
  • Last position of Buddhas statue is known as
    ANJALI means resepect greeting In this mudra,
    both the hands are raised in front the heart
    while palms touching each other. Anjali mudra is
    the Buddhas way of respecting and welcoming.

34
Origins of Judaism
  • Hebrews settled in Canaan
  • Modern day Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria,
    Egypt
  • The land God had promised to the Hebrew people

35
Origins of Judaism
  • Early knowledge of Judaism comes from the Torah
  • Torah first five (5) books of the Hebrew Bible
  • Abraham is chosen by God to be the father of
    the Hebrew people
  • Moves his people to Canaan (1800 B.C.)
  • Hebrews are Monotheists God Yahweh
  • Covenant between Yahweh and Abraham protects
    Hebrews
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vSTPVvd_II08

36
Exodus
  • Famine causes Hebrews to migrate to Egypt from
    Canaan forced into slavery
  • Exodus (1300-1200 B.C.) Hebrews fled Egypt
  • Remembered during Passover
  • Instructed to leave blood of a spring lamb
  • Festival of the unleavened bread
  • Moses led Hebrews out of slavery

37
New Covenant
  • Ten Commandments
  • Spoken to Moses on Mount Sinai (2 stone tablets)
  • Basis for civil and religious law in Judaism
  • Formed a covenant between God and the Hebrew
    people

38
Desert Wandering
  • Moses dies after 40 years of wandering
  • Hebrews decide to return to Canaan
  • Develop civilization (city-dwellers)
  • 12 tribes (self-governing)

39
Formation of Israel
  • Tribes die out due to lack of structure and
    support
  • Tribe of Judah remains ? called Jews (Judaism)
  • Kingdom of Israel
  • Saul drove out Philistines
  • David son-in-law
  • established Jerusalem as capital, united the
    tribes, founded a dynasty
  • Solomon son of David
  • Built trade empire, beautified city
    (templecontain tablets)

40
Decline of Israel
  • Kingdom divides in two
  • Israel
  • Judah
  • Both succumb to Assyrian attack
  • Babylonians destroy Solomons temple
    (Jerusalem)(586 B.C.)
  • Persians conquer Babylon and allow 40,000 exiles
    to return to Jerusalem
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