Bronchial Asthma - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bronchial Asthma


Bronchial Asthma Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway, which characterized by hyper-responsiveness, mucosal edema, mucus production Inflammation obstruction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bronchial Asthma

Bronchial Asthma
  • Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway,
    which characterized by hyper-responsiveness,
    mucosal edema, mucus production
  • Inflammation ?obstruction from mucosal edema ?
    reducing the airway diameter contraction of
    bronchial smooth muscle
  • First attack usually occur before the age of 5
    years where some manifesting clinical SS in
  • Classified into 4 categories based on the symptom
  • Intermittent, mild persistent, moderate
    persistent and severe persistent

Risk factors
  • Family history
  • Allergy
  • Chronic exposure to airway irritants or allergens
    grass, weed pollen, dust, dander, extreme
    temperature, strong odor, smoke, perfume
  • Emotional stress and anxiety
  • Exertion
  • Food additives msg
  • Drugs

Clinical manifestation of asthma
  • Cough hacking, paroxysmal, irritative and non
    productive which gradually become rattling and
    productive of frothy, clear and gelatinous sputum
  • Respiratory signs SOB, prolonged expiratory
    phase, audible wheeze, may have red ears, lips
    may appear dark red which may progress to
    cyanosis which can also be observe from the nail
    beds. Restlessness, apprehension, prominent
    sweating as the asthma attack progress. Prefer
    sitting up right. Speaking with short, panting
    and broken phrases.
  • Chest wheeze sound throughout the lung fields,
    prolonged expiration
  • Chronic cases barrel chest, elevated shoulder,
    used of accessory muscle of respiration

Nursing assessment
  • Assess the childs condition (assess the
    severity) history of exacerbations, family,
    environment and family history
  • History medical and medication allergy
  • Monitor the respiratory status for progression
    and evaluation breath sound, vital signs, pulse
    oximetry, peak flow

Nursing management
  • Goals maintain normal activity maintain normal
    pulmonary function and prevent chronic symptoms
    and recurrent exacerbations, provide optimum drug
  • Promoting airway clearance
  • Positioning childs comfort - usually up right
  • Administer oxygen face mask or nasal prong as
    prescribe by doctor (ensure to know the safety
    precaution when administering oxygen)
  • Close observation of vital signs
  • IVI (I/O charting) ? required to maintain
    adequate tissue hydration
  • Less number of visitors
  • Minimizing anxiety information giving,
    understanding of the illness process and update
    of treatment and progress etc

Health teaching
  • Avoid allergen that precipitate asthma episodes
  • Cautioned to avoid exposing a sensitive child to
    excessive cold, wind or other extreme weather
    smoke, sprays or other irritants. Avoid food and
    medication known to provoke symptoms.
  • Relieve bronchospasm parents and child need to
    recognize early SS of asthma attack. Child and
    parents need to have knowledge how to use the
    devices (nebulizer, spacer) correctly
  • The child should be protected from a respiratory
    tract infection that can trigger an attack
  • Deep breathing exercise and controlled breathing
    are taught and encourage
  • Support child and family (need to learn how to
    control and cope with the asthma and live with
    normal life

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