The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a common language family, the Bantu languages, and in many cases common customs. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a common language family, the Bantu languages, and in many cases common customs.


The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a common language family, the Bantu languages, and in many ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a common language family, the Bantu languages, and in many cases common customs.

Bantu Migration(2,000 years ago)
  • The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic
    groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa,
    united by a common language family, the Bantu
    languages, and in many cases common customs.
  • About 2,000 years ago, small groups of Bantu
    speakers began spreading south and east.
  • They shared their skills with people they met on
    their journey, adapted their methods to suit
    their new environment, and learned new ways.
  • Moving eastward toward the savannas they adapted
    their skills for herding goats and sheep to
    raising cattle.
  • Passing through what is now Kenya and Tanzania,
    they learned to cultivate new crops.
  • This expanded their food supply
  • They followed the Congo river through the rain
    forests, there they farmed the riverbanks.
  • 1,500 years Bantu speakers reached the southern
    tip of
  • Africa
  • They believe the Bantu migrated because their was
  • explosion of food supply, which increased
    the population.
  • With this increase, their was a need for
    food and land, so
  • people went to search these out resulting
    in the migration.

  • Charlemagne
  • During the 800s, Charlemagne, a Frankish king,
    built an empire (modern-day France, Germany, and
    part of Italy)
  • Cooperation with the Church
  • Charlemagne helped Pope Leo III defeat rebellious
    Roman nobles.
  • In return, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne
    Emperor of the Romans
  • Charlemagne wanted a united Christian Europe and
    helped spread Christianity
  • Government
  • Appointed nobles to rule local areas (He gave
    them land, they help defend the empire)
  • Sent off officials called missi Domenici to check
    on conditions throughout the empire
  • Learning
  • Encouraged learning
  • Set up school to educate government officials and
    established libraries where scholars copied
    ancient texts.
  • End of Charlemagnes Reign
  • Died in 1814- empire fell apart as heirs battled
    for control
  • 843- Charlemagnes grandsons signed Treaty of
    Verdun- divided Charlemagnes empire into 3
    separate kingdoms (one for each grandson).
  • Charlemagnes strong government was a model for
    future medieval rulers

  • Feudalism
  • A system of government in which local lords
    control their own lands but owe military service
    and support to a greater lord.
  • The land was divided into estates.
  • The lesser lords were called vassals.
  • Local lords owned serfs who would work the land
  • The serfs were able to live on the land in

  • Manorialism
  • Self-Sufficiency
  • Manors were the basic economic arrangement during
    the Middle Ages
  • The lord provided serfs with protection, housing,
    and strips of farmland
  • The serfs worked for the lord and maintained the
  • Peasants rarely traveled from their manor
  • Nearly everything they needed was produced
    crops, fuel, cloth, lumber, and leather goods
  • The manor contained a church, mill, blacksmith,
    water, fields, anything that was needed
  • Troubles of Manor Life
  • Serfs had to pay taxes for grain, marriage, and
    10 of their income as a tithe, or church tax
  • Serfs lived in crowded cottages, with dirt floors
    and straw beds
  • The peasants believed that God determined their
    place in society

  • Gothic
  • A style of church architecture that developed in
    medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults,
    stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed
    arches, and tall spires.
  • Developed in the 1100s, replacing the old
    Romanesque style of churches.
  • Gothic cathedrals, unlike the grave and ominous
    Romanesque buildings, stood very tall, as if
    reaching toward heaven.
  • Cathedrals started off in Germany and quickly
    spread throughout medieval Europe.
  • Soon, they were found in Paris, Chartres, Reims,
    Amiens, and Beauvais.
  • Nearly 500 Gothic cathedrals were built between
    1170 and 1270.
  • Other forms of art centered around the Gothic
    style, such as sculpture, woodcarvings, and
    stained-glass windows.

  • Cultural Exchanges The Crusades
  • Crusades
  • During the Middle Ages, Europeans had only one
    significant unifying aspect of life.  The
    Catholic Church permeated every aspect of
  • For about 200 years, Western Europe under the
    sway of the Catholic church attempted to retake
    the Holy Land away from the Muslims.  The largest
    target was the holy city of Jerusalem, however,
    other areas were fought over, such as the city of
  • Although the crusades were considered there were
    some positive effects. Europeans began to gain an
    expanded view of the world. Trade increased
    drastically. Crusaders brought home new fabrics,
    spices, and perfumes.

  • Saladin
  • Respected Muslim Leader
  • Saladin united the Muslim world in the late
  • He was respected by both Christians and Muslims.
  • Saladin went to Jerusalem and the Christians had
    their mind set on stopping him.
  • Taking of Jerusalem
  • There was no Christian victory when they went to
    stop Saladin.
  • Crusaders in Jerusalem surrendered, but Saladin
    would not let his soldiers kill or harm them the
    Crusaders or the people.
  • Richard the Lion-Hearted
  • King of England in 1189.
  • He wanted to take Jerusalem from Saladin.
  • Richard won a lot of victories during the Third
  • Richards forces were unable to capture the city.

  • Impact of the Crusades
  • Increased Trade
  • Before the crusades trade with the Byzantine
    empire sparked interest in goods form the east
  • Crusaders returning from Europe brought home new
    fabrics, spices, and perfume
  • Ships used to carry crusaders now became trade
  • Both Eastern and Western economies benefited from
  • Encouragement of Learning
  • As Europeans were exposed to the Byzantine and
    Muslim culture they began to take interest in
  • They were exposed to advances in math, science,
    literature, art, and geographic knowledge
  • Changes in the Church
  • The Crusades increased the power of the pope for
    a short time
  • Problems between Eastern and Western Churches
    grew after the crusaders attack on
  • Changes in the Feudal System
  • Crusades increased the power of Monarchs
  • Feudalism was weakening
  • Serfs had been to pay for land using food, but
    now Lords demanded payment in the form of money
    to finance the crusades
  • An economy based on money, not land, took over

  • Feudal JapanSamurai
  • Rival lords in Japan surrounded themselves with
    body guards called Samurai.
  • They lived according the demanding code, Bushido.
  • They were expected to show reckless courage,
    reverence for the gods, fairness, and generosity
    toward those who are weaker than themselves.
  • Dying an honorable death was more important than
    living a long life. Kamakura Shogun
  • The shogun had the power of a military dictator
    over Officials, judges, taxes, armies, roads-
    all were under his authority.
  • Although tradition was the Emperor still reigned,
    even though the Shogun had the real power.
  • The emperor became more of a puppet head than a
    political influence.
  • The Kamakura Shoguns were strong enough to turn
    back the two naval invasions by the Mongols.
  • Although this drained the Shoguns treasury and
    loyal samurais werent getting paid.
  • Samurais became attached more closely to their
    local lords and soon local lords were fighting
    each other as fiercely as they fought the

  • Shinto
  • What is Shinto?
  • It was a Japanese religion in which each clan in
    Japan worshipped their own Nature Gods and
  • It was varied because of different customs and
  • Shinto meant way of the Gods
  • It had no rituals or philosophy, but instead
    based on respect for the forces of nature.
  • Worshipers believed in kami or divine spirits in
  • An abnormal tree, rock, waterfall, mountain could
    be home to kami

  • Tokugawa Shogun
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu
  • United Japan in 1600
  • Held landowners (Daimyo) families hostage in the
    capital of Edo to ensure obedience
  • Founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, which continued
    until 1867
  • Society under the Tokugawa Shogun
  • Japan enjoyed over 200 years under the new Shogun
  • Merchant class and rich prospered
  • Rich and poor benefited from a growing Japanese

  • Tokugawa Isolation
  • European traders first arrived in Japan in the
  • In 1600s Tokugawa shoguns had gained control of
  • They brought stability but also banned almost
    all contact with the outside world.
  • They also limited trade.

  • Rise of Mongols
  • Who and where?
  • In the 1200s, a ferocious group of horsemen from
    central Asia fought their way into Russia. These
    nomads were Mongols.
  • They exploded onto the scene under the leadership
    of Genghis Khan, one of the most feared military
    leaders of all time.
  • When Genghis Khan died in 1227 his successors
    continued the conquering that he had begun.
  • Mongols In Russia
  • Under Mongol rule the Russians could follow all
    their usual customs as long as the made no sign
    of rebellion. The Mongols tolerated all the
    religions in their realms, and the Church acted
    as a mediator between the people and the Mongols.
  • The Mongols demanded two things from the
    Russians Extreme Obedience, and massive amounts
    of tribute.
  • Mongol Rule Serves Russian Interests
  • The Mongol rule in some ways helped unite Russia.
    They viewed Russia as their unified Empire. The
    rise of the city of Moscow also began under
    Mongol rule.

  • Genghis Khan
  • In the middle 1200s, a ferocious group of
    horsemen from central Asia slashed their way into
  • These nomads were the Mongols.
  • They had exploded onto the world scene at the
    beginning of the 1200s under Genghis Khan.
  • He was one of the most feared warriors of all
  • When Genghis Khan died in 1227, his successors
    continued the conquering that he had begun.
  • At the fullest extent, the Mongol Empire
    stretched from the Yellow Sea to the Baltic Sea
    and from the Himalayas to northern Russia.
  • After the death of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian
    Empire slowly began to fall apart.

  • Golden Horde
  • During the time of Genghis Khan the Mongols
    invaded Eastern Europe
  • After his time they attacked Russia, Hungary, and
  • His grandson, Batu, led Mongol armies into Russia
    and other lands of Eastern Europe between 1236
    and 1241
  • This group was known as the Golden Horde because
    of the color of there tents
  • They conquered many Russian cities
  • They ruled from a capital on the Volga River for
    240 years
  • The Golden Horde were fierce warriors but
    relatively tolerant rulers

  • Mongol Dynasty
  • Kublai Khan-
  • Khan was another grandson of Genghis Khan,
    completed the job of conquering China. He did so
    by dominating the south, he did not only rule
    China, but also Korea, Tibet, and some of
  • Yuan dynasty-
  • Kublai Khan adopted the Chinese name of the Yuan
    dynasty for his dynasty because he did not want
    the Mongols to become involved with Chinese
  • However, Khan gave his best government jobs to
    Mongol workers and only allowed Mongols to serve
    in the army.
  • But, Chinese officials still governed the

Kublai Khan
Mongol Impact
  • Reached its greatest extent in 1300.
  • Stretched into Russia, Europe, Asia, and China
  • Destruction and Conquest
  • Most of the leaders ruled with tolerance
  • Genghis Khan allowed art and education in his
    conquered countries
  • They ruled Russia for 250 years
  • They cut it off from the rest of Europe

  • Mongol Impact
  • The Mongols were nomadic herders of central Asia.
    By 1300, they controlled much of Asia and eastern
  • The Mongol influence led to increases in trade
    and cultural spread over Asia and Europe.
  • In Russia, the Mongol idea of Absolutist
    government stuck after the Mongols left, but it
    also isolated Russia from Western Europe, leaving
    it behind in arts and science.
  • Mongol rule promoted trade between Europe and
    Asia. The Mongols guaranteed safe passage along
    the Silk Road, which increased trade greatly.

  • Expansion of Chinese Trade
  • Trade in Chine bloomed in the Yuan dynasty in the
  • The Silk Road helped transport goods to Asia
    Minor, Russia, and other lands. Marco Polo used
    the Silk Road.
  • When the Ming dynasty took over China in 1368,
    economic prosperity came over the land and trade
    and cities expanded.
  • China began overseas expansion and in 1404, Zheng
    He traveled to many different lands and promoted
    Chinese trade and culture.
  • Chinese city, Canton, became a global center of
    trade and traders were sent there from all over
    the world.

  • Bubonic Plague
  • Approximately two thirds of the population in
    China were wiped out by a deadly disease called
    the bubonic plague, that also destroyed
    populations of Muslim towns in Southwest Asia and
    killed about one third of Europes population.
  • It started in the 1300s.
  • The Plague began in Asia.
  • The disease became known as the Black Death.
  • It got its name from the purplish or blackish
    spots that it produced on the skin.
  • The disease was spread by black rats that carried
    fleas from one area to another. These fleas were
    infested with a bacillus called Yersinia pestis,
    and because people did not bathe and because of
    unsanitary conditions the bubonic plague spread
    very quickly.
  • Effects of the disease were high fever, chills,
    delirium, and in most cases death.

  • The Effect Of The Bubonic Plague
  • In 1347 approximately one third of Europeans
    population died of the deadly disease known as
    the bubonic plague.
  • The bubonic plague was also known as the black
    death and began in Asia.
  • The black death traveled the trade lines
    infecting Asia, the Muslim world and eventually
  • It got its name by the black spots that produced
    on the persons skin infected.
  • The plague killed almost 25 million Europeans and
    millions in Asia and North Africa.
  • The economic effects of the plague were enormous.
    Town populations fell and so did trade.
  • The church suffered a loss of prestige when its
    prayers and penances failed to stop the plague.
  • The bubonic plague and its aftermath disrupted
    medieval society, hastening changes that were in
    the making.
  • The society of the middle ages was collapsing.

  • The Han dynasty opened a trade route called the
    silk road that eventually linked china with lands
    as far west as Mesopotamia. Silk and other
    Chinese goods moved west, while products such
    as muslin, glass, and new foods came to china.
    The silk road stretched for 4000 miles. Few
    merchants traveled the entire distance. Most of
    the good that were traded were done at markets
    along the way

  • Italian City-States
  • 1300s Northern Italian cities were great places
    of industry and trade.
  • City-states that became rich and powerful
    Venice, Genoa, and Florence.
  • Venice took control of the spice trade with Asia
    due to its location.
  • Venice took up a partnership with Egypt and both
    areas became prosperous.
  • Trade from Italy went as far as Great Britain and
    the Baltic Sea.

  • Renaissance
  • 1300-1600
  • A period of great change throughout Europe that
    involved advances in everything from art to
  • The concept of humanism was developed during the
    early stages of the renaissance, this way of
    thinking focused on the present and individual
  • The artistic mentality of the renaissance was
    much like the art and sculpture of the golden
    ages of Rome and Greece. Architecture also
    returned to Greco-roman fashions.
  • Artisans were supported by rich nobles, princes
    and popes.
  • Some of the most famous artisans include
    Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci and Albrecht
  • Writing also changed during the renaissance,
    common language began to be used. Machiavelli,
    Shakespeare, and Dante were three of the most
    famous for their literary works.
  • The invention of the printing press made books
    more available to common people, literacy
  • The protestant reformation led by Martin Luther
    and John Calvin sought to make changes in the
    church, the result was two churches, Catholic and

  • Humanism
  • During the Renaissance, Europeans developed a new
    way of thinking called humanism.
  • A Renaissance intellectual movement at the heart
    of the Renaissance that focused on worldly
    subjects that the ancient Greeks and Romans had
    studied, rather that religious ones. They hoped
    to use ancient learning to increase knowledge
    about their own times.
  • Humanists influenced artists an architects to
    carry on classical traditions.
  • Philosophers and writers had wondered about life
    after death during the middle ages. Renaissance
    humanists, on the other hand, were more curious
    about life in the present.

  • Machiavelli
  • What he did?
  • Machiavelli was the a writer , One of his master
    pieces was The Prince in 1513.
  • Machiavelli said that most rules can gain power
    and keep it in spit of there enemies.
  • In the book The Prince, Machiavelli was not
    concerned with what was morally right, but with
    what was politically effective.
  • He was also a states man and a political

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  • 95 Thesis
  • WHO Written by Martin Luther
  • WHAT Martin Luther posted a list of 95 Theses,
    or formal statements, that he wrote on the door
    of a castle church in Wittenberg,
  • WHERE Posted them on the door of the castle
    church in Wittenberg, became known all over
  • WHEN October 31, 1517
  • WHY he did those because he did not agree with
    how a friar named John Tetzel was raising money
    to rebuild a church in Rome. Tetzel was selling
    indulgences to people who have sinned, which
    would release them from performing the penalty.

  • Mansa Musa
  • He was an African American ruler
  • He may have been the grandnephew of Malis first
    leader, Sandiata
  • Musa was a skilled military leader and exorcised
    royal control
  • He was a devout Muslim, he went on a hajj to
    Mecca from 1324 to 1325
  • Controlled and ruled a vast empire in Africa

  • Songhai
  • The Songhai was a West African empire that
    conquered Mali and controlled trade from the
    1400s to 1591.
  • They built up an army and extended their
    territory to the Niger River near Gao, and gained
    control of all the important trade routes.
  • Until the late 1500s, civil war broke out.
    Invaders from the north defeated the forces of
    Songhai, and caused downfall of the kingdom.

The First Global Age
  • Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire began in the 11th century
  • There were Ottoman Turks, and after the 13th
    century there was a new group of people called
    the Ottoman Empire lead by Osman I.
  • When people were captured by the Ottoman Empire
    they were used for military purposes instead of
    killing them.
  • During the 16th century, the Ottomans gained
    control of Egypt and Syria, then also Iraq,
    Hungry, and Albania, which led to the beginning
    of a naval force in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Ottoman Empire turned into a great power of

  • Suleimans Golden Age
  • First Came to the throne of the Ottoman Empire in
    1520 and ruled for 46 years
  • Known by his own people as Suleiman the Lawgiver
    and in the west as Suleiman the Magnificent
  • The Ottoman conquered all of the eastern
    Mediterranean under Suleimans rule.
  • Suleiman became the most powerful monarch on
  • He required a good form of government for his
    large empire and so he simplified the system of
    taxation and reduced the government bureaucracy
    in order to keep the peace and his people happy.
  • In 1571 this golden age of Suleiman ended when
    his sons fleet was destroyed by Spain and Italy

    Suleimans Mosque

  • Mercantilism
  • Definition
  • An economic policy under which nations sought to
    increase their wealth and power by obtaining
    large amounts of gold and silver and by selling
    more goods than they bought.
  • Ideas of mercantilism
  • The nations ultimate goal under mercantilism was
    to become self-sufficient, not dependent on other
    countries for goods.
  • Two ways to increase the nations wealth,
    according to mercantilism, was to gain as much
    gold and silver as they could and establish a
    favorable balance of trade, in which it sold more
    goods than they bought.

  • Reconquista
  • This was a long effort to drive the Muslims out
    of Spain.
  • The Muslims held a little kingdom.
  • Spain attacked it and they started the crusades.
  • The Spanish drove the Muslims out of Spain

  • Middle Passage
  • The Middle Passage was the voyage that brought
    captured Africans to be used as slaves to the
    west Indies
  • Later they were brought to North and South
  • It was named the Middle Passage because it was in
    the middle leg of the transatlantic trade

  • Hierarchy Triangle
  • Latin America
  • Latin American colonial society was separated
    into classes based on the origins and race of the
  • All the titles of the groups of people made up
    hierarchy Triangle which determined the place in
    the community of the people.
  • The Triangle
  • At the top were the Penninsulares, men who were
    born in Spain. They were the only men who could
    run in office of the government. They made up
    0.1 of the population.
  • Below the Penninsulares were the Creoles,
    Spaniards born in Latin America. They couldnt
    hold high-level in the political office. They had
    pretty much the same rights as the Penninsulares.
    They were about 22.8 of the population.
  • Below the Creoles came the Mestizos, the people
    of European and Native American ancestry.
  • At the bottom were the Mulattos, people of both
    African and European descent.

  • Divine Right
  • The power for the monarch to rule comes from God
    and that the king is an agent of God.
  • Absolute monarchs used this power to justify
    their rule.
  • Divine Right allowed the monarch to control all
    aspects of the government because the people
    believed that monarch was Gods agent on earth.

  • Louis XIV(14)
  • He was the 14th king of France.
  • He was an absolute Monarch during the 17th
  • Louis XIV was the only one to totally free
    himself from the Parliament, which controlled the
  • Louis XIV coined the phrase L'état, c'est moi,
    which means I am the state.
  • Louis XIV centralized the government and made all
    the laws for France
  • Louis XIV put France into debt by spending money
    building the Palace of Versailles and fighting

  • Peter the Great
  • Peter the Great was an absolute monarch in
    Russia, he was the czar from 1682 to 1725.
  • He worked to centralize royal power
  • Reduced the power of nobility and gained control
    of the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Peter wanted to modernize Russia. He traveled
    from Western European cities to study western
    technology and brought back the ideas to
    westernize Russia.
  • Simplified Russian Alphabet, developed mining and
  • Peter sometimes resorted to force and terror to
    achieve his goals.
  • Created the largest army in Europe in the late
    1600s and used it to expand Russian territory.

  • Westernization under Peter
  • Peter wanted a modernized Russia, went to Western
    Europe to study technology, brought back ideas,
    simplified the Russian alphabet, developed mining
    and textiles, capital at St. Petersburg served as
    symbol of new Russia, used force and terror to
    gain goal

  • Catherine The Great
  • Catherine the Great was also known as Catherine
    II and ruled Russia from 1762-1796.
  • She was well-educated and read the works of
  • She ruled with absolute power, but took steps to
    modernize Russia.
  • In 1767 she proposed that the laws be reformed to
    follow Montesquieu and Beccaria.
  • She wanted to allow religious toleration and
    abolish torture and the death penalty, however
    these goals were not accomplished.
  • She granted limited reforms but did little to
    help the serfs, causing a revolt in 1773 which
    she had brutally put down.
  • She wanted to end serfdom, but she needed the
    support of the Nobles so stay in power, so
    serfdom stayed.

  • Magna Carta
  • Great Charter
  • A document guaranteeing basic political rights in
    England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King
    John in A.D. 1215.
  • This charter was a form of revolt, rebelling
    against the unfair leadership of King John.
  • John failed as a military leader. He was horrible
    to his subjects and tried to squeeze money out of
    them. To finance his wars, John raised taxes to
    an all-time high.
  • The nobles wanted to guarantee certain basic
    political rights and limit the power of the king.
  • Guaranteed rights included no taxation without
    representation, a jury trial, and the protection
    of the law.

  • Petition of Rights(1628)
  • King Charles I had to call Parliament to ask for
  • They refused to give him any until he signed the
    Petition of Rights
  • In the Petition the king agreed to
  • Not imprison subjects without due cause
  • Not levy taxes without Parliaments consent
  • Not house soldiers in private homes
  • Not impose martial law in peacetime
  • The king agreed to the Petition but after he
    ignored it
  • The petition was important because it set forth
    the idea that the law was higher even then the

  • English Civil War
  • Charles I offended the puritans by upholding
    church rituals and a former prayer book
  • Charles tried to force the Presbyterian Scots to
    accept a version of the Anglican prayer book
  • Lead to a conflict between the supporters of
    parliament and the supporters of English monarchy
    from 1642-1649

  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Was a skilled military leader who overthrew the
    British king.
  • King Charles I was put in prison and put on
    trial. He was sentenced to death by way of
    beheading. He was the first king to be executed
    by his own subjects.
  • After the kings execution Parliaments House of
    commons abolished the monarchy, the House of
    Lords, and the official Church of England.
    England became a Commonwealth.
  • Charles II the heir to the throne revolted
    against Cromwell and attacked England from
    Ireland and Scotland. Cromwell sent troops into
    Ireland and Scotland to crush the uprising.
  • Cromwell took the title of Lord Protector. At
    the time of his death in 1658 many people were
    tired of Puritan rule.

  • The Restoration
  • During the year of 1660, Parliament asked Charles
    II to become the King of England.
  • When Parliament asked Charles II to become King
    it marked the restoration of the Stuart monarchy.
  • In 1685 James II, who was Charles brother
    inherited the throne in England.
  • James II who was currently King in England, was
    unpopular to the people because of his
    Catholicism and his Absolutist policies.

  • The Glorious Revolution (1688)
  • Parliament feared Catholic dominance
  • Mary and William (Dutch) take English throne.
  • Both protestant.
  • When they arrived, James II fled.
  • Bloodless overthrow of power.

  • English Bill of Rights
  • The bill was drafted in 1689.
  • England had become a constitutional monarchy
    meaning there were laws that limited the rulers
  • The English Bill of Rights listed the things the
    leader could not do.
  • There were four laws- 2 dealt with not
    interfering with Parliament speech or laws and 2
    dealt with not taxing the citizens without the
    consent of Parliament and letting the citizens

  • Limited monarchy (1660)
  • Started after the restoration
  • Passing of habeas corpus act
  • Parliament passed the bill of rights in 1689
  • No monarch could rule without parliaments consent
  • Also called a constitutional monarchy

  • Scientific Revolution
  • Period of time in which a new way of thinking
    came about. The beliefs held by many for so long
    were now being questioned.
  • Use logic and reason to solve the problems of the
    world (Secular not church thought)
  • New ideas about the solar system such as
    Copernicus Heliocentric theory and inventions
    like Galileos telescope allowed scientists to
    learn more about the universe.
  • Also, many new medical discoveries were made.
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope and first
    saw red blood cells.

  • 1500s when people started to challenge the old
    ideas about the world
  • The Scientific Method approach to science using
    experimentation and observation
  • Copernicus Heliocentric (theory that the world
    revolves around the sun)
  • Galileo helped proved Heliocentric theory
  • Isaac Newton Newtons Laws of Physics
  • Brought upon Enlightenment!
  • Copernicus Heliocentric Theory

  • Secular
  • Secular teachings occurred during the Renaissance
    in Italy
  • Secular teachings were more concerned with
    worldly matters rather than spiritual
  • Secular teachings went against the church
  • Some church leaders though became more worldly
    rather then sticking with the church
  • They began to live in mansions, lavish banquets,
    and wore expensive clothing

  • Geocentric Theory
  • The belief that the earth was the center of the
    universe and everything else revolved around it.

  • Heliocentric (mid- 1500s)
  • Nicholas Copernicus was a Polish scholar who
    challenged the common belief that the Earth was
    the center of the universe.
  • Copernicus suggested that the universe actually
    revolved around the Sun.
  • This theory was called heliocentric.
  • At the time most scholars rejected Copernicuss

  • Copernicus-1500s
  • Developed the Heliocentric or sun-centered theory
  • Theory stated that the sun is the center of the
    universe and that everything revolves around it
  • It took Copernicus 25 years of studies to come up
    with this theory
  • He wrote a book on his findings but feared
    persecution. He therefore didnt publish it until
    1543. He received a copy of his book on his death

  • Galileo
  • Galileo Galilei was a young Italian scholar, who
    discovered the law of the pendulum and proved
    Aristotles idea to be wrong, by watching a
    chandelier swing on its chain, and timing it with
    his on pulse and discovered that each swing of
    the pendulum took the exact same amount of time.
  • In another study, Galileo found that falling
    objects accelerate at a fixed and predictable
    rate. He again proved Aristotles findings to be
    wrong. Aristotle had stated that heavier objects
    fall faster than lighter ones. From the Tower of
    Pisa, Galileo dropped items of different weights,
    and calculated how fast each one fell. Contrary
    to Aristotles belief, the objects fell at the
    same speed.
  • Galileo had found out that a Dutch lens marker
    had built an instrument that would allow the
    looker to enlarge far-off objects. Galileo had
    not even seen this device, yet he was able to
    build his own, and with a few adjustments he was
    able to use his version of the telescope to study
    the stars.
  • In 1610, Galileo had a series of newsletters
    published called the Starry Messenger, which
    described his astronomical discoveries. He
    described his findings on the planets, the
    constellations, etc.
  • Galileos findings led to major conflict with the
    Church, since his findings proved the Church
    wrong. The Church did not want its followers to
    believe Galileo, because if they had known that
    they were wrong about the Solar System, they
    might be wrong about religion too.

  • Born January 4, 1643 Died March 31, 1727
  • At 25 years old he began revolutionary advances
    in math, physics, astronomy and optics.
  • Sir Isaac Newton created the law of gravity and
    disproved Aristotles idea that every object
    attracts every other object
  • In 1967 Isaac Newton published his book
    Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
  • This book is one of the most important scientific
    books ever written.
  • He discovered that most everything in the
    universe could be expressed mathematically

  • Scientific Method (1600s)
  • It is a logical procedure for gathering and
    testing ideas.
  • It begins with a question or problem arising from
    an observation.
  • Next you form a hypothesis
  • Then test the hypothesis by doing experiments and
    collecting data
  • Lastly, analyze and interpret data to reach a
    conclusion, that conclusion either proves or
    disproves your hypothesis
  • The work of two important thinkers helped to
    advance the new approach
  • Francis Bacon
  • An English politician and writer
  • He criticized the way both Aristotle and medieval
    scholars arrived at their conclusions
  • He felt that they should experiment first and
    gather information, and than use that information
    to draw their conclusions (this is called the
    experimental method)
  • Rene Descartes
  • Developed analytical geometry, which linked
    algebra and geometry
  • Like Bacon he believed scientists needed to
    reject old assumptions, but by using mathematics
    and logic
  • Everything should be doubted until proved by
  • I think, therefore I am