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What is Cartilage? (and a bit of bone review)

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Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) AD (autosomal dominant) eg. Ehlers-Danlos (rubber man) Ehlers-Danlos video Defective endochondral ossification eg. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Cartilage? (and a bit of bone review)


1
What is Cartilage? (and a bit of bone review)
2
Meniscus tear
  • Video of surgery

3
Cartilage
  • Embryo
  • More prevalent than in adult
  • Skeleton initially mostly cartilage
  • Bone replaces cartilage in fetal and childhood
    periods

4
Cartilage is connective tissue
  • Cells called chondrocytes
  • Abundant extracellular matrix
  • Fibers collagen elastin
  • 60-80 water (responsible for the resilience)
  • No nerves or vessels

(hyaline cartilage)
5
Types of cartilage 3
  • (1) Hyaline cartilage
  • flexible and resilient
  • Collagen the only fiber
  • Ends of long bone, costal cartilage of ribs
  • (2) Elastic cartilage
  • highly bendable
  • Matrix with elastic as well as collagen fibers
  • Epiglottis, larynx and outer ear
  • (3)Fibrocartilage resists compression
    and tension
  • Rows of thick collagen fibers alternating with
    rows of chondrocytes (in matrix)
  • Knee menisci and parts of intervertebral discs

6
Hyaline Cartilage
7
Elastic Cartilage
8
Fibrocartilage
9
Locations of the different kinds of cartilage
10
Before we look at collagen pic
  • ???? cartilage flexible and resilient
  • Chondrocytes appear spherical
  • Collagen the only fiber
  • ????? cartilage highly bendable
  • Matrix with elastic as well as collagen fibers
  • Epiglottis and larynx
  • ????? resists compression and tension
  • Rows of thick collagen fibers alternating with
    rows of chondrocytes (in matrix)
  • Knee menisci and intervertebral discs

11
Before we look at collagen pic
  • Hyaline cartilage flexible and resilient
  • Chondrocytes appear spherical
  • Collagen the only fiber
  • Elastic cartilage highly bendable
  • Matrix with elastic as well as collagen fibers
  • Epiglottis and larynx
  • Fibrocartilage resists compression and tension
  • Rows of thick collagen fibers alternating with
    rows of chondrocytes (in matrix)
  • Knee menisci and intervertebral discs

12
Bones
  • Functions- can you name all 5

13
Bones
  • Functions
  • Support
  • Movement muscles attach by tendons and use bones
    as levers to move body
  • Protection
  • Skull brain
  • Vertebrae spinal cord
  • Rib cage thoracic organs
  • Mineral storage
  • Calcium and phosphorus
  • Released as ions into blood as needed
  • Blood cell formation and energy storage
  • Bone marrow red makes blood, yellow stores fat

14
Classification of bones by shape
  • What 4 do you need to know?

(Short bones include sesmoid bones)
15
Classification of bones by shape
  • Long bones
  • Short bones
  • Flat bones
  • Irregular bones

(Short bones include sesmoid bones)
16
(No Transcript)
17
Gross anatomy of bones
  • C????? bone
  • Spongy (???) bone
  • Blood vessels
  • ???? cavity
  • Membranes
  • P?????
  • E?????

18
Gross anatomy of bones
  • Compact bone
  • Spongy (trabecular) bone
  • Blood vessels
  • Medullary cavity
  • Membranes
  • Periosteum
  • Endosteum

19
Long bones
  • Tubular ????
  • or shaft
  • ????? at the ends covered with articular
    (joint) cartilage
  • Epiphyseal line in adults
  • Kids epiphyseal ????? (disc of hyaline cartilage
    that grows to lengthen the bone)
  • Blood vessels
  • Nutrient arteries and veins through nutrient
    foramen

20
Long bones
  • Tubular diaphysis
  • or shaft
  • Epiphyses at the ends covered with articular
    (joint) cartilage
  • Epiphyseal line in adults
  • Kids epiphyseal plate (disc of hyaline cartilage
    that grows to lengthen the bone)
  • Blood vessels
  • Nutrient arteries and veins through nutrient
    foramen

21
Name this structure.
  • Connective tissue membrane
  • Covers entire outer surface of bone except at
    epiphyses
  • Contains osteoprogenitor cells used to make
    osteoblasts (bone building cells)
  • Secured to bone by perforating fibers (Sharpeys
    fibers)
  • Endosteum
  • Covers the internal bone surfaces
  • Is also osteogenic

22
Periosteum
  • Connective tissue membrane
  • Covers entire outer surface of bone except at
    epiphyses
  • Contains osteoprogenitor cells used to make
    osteoblasts (bone building cells)
  • Secured to bone by perforating fibers (Sharpeys
    fibers)
  • Endosteum
  • Covers the internal bone surfaces
  • Is also osteogenic

23
Bone markings reflect the stresses
24
Compact bone
  • O??? pillars
  • L??? concentric tubes
  • Haversian canals
  • Osteocytes

25
Compact bone
  • Osteons pillars
  • Lamellae concentric tubes
  • Haversian canals
  • Osteocytes

26
Isolated osteon
  • Nutrients diffuse from vessels in central canal
  • Alternating direction of collagen fibers
    increases resistance to twisting forces

27
Spongy bone
  • Layers of lamellae and osteocytes
  • Seem to align along stress lines

28
Chemical composition of bones
  • Cells, matrix of collagen fibers and ground
    substance (O?? 35)
  • Contribute to the flexibility and tensile
    strength
  • Mineral crystals (I??? 65)
  • Primarily calcium ph??????
  • Lie in and around the collagen fibrils in
    extracellular matrix
  • Contribute to bone hardness
  • Small amount of water

29
Chemical composition of bones
  • Cells, matrix of collagen fibers and ground
    substance (organic 35)
  • Contribute to the flexibility and tensile
    strength
  • Mineral crystals (inorganic 65)
  • Primarily calcium phosphate
  • Lie in and around the collagen fibrils in
    extracellular matrix
  • Contribute to bone hardness
  • Small amount of water

30
Bone development
  • Osteogenesis formation of bone
  • From osteoblasts
  • Bone tissue first appears in week 8 (embryo)
  • Ossification to turn into bone
  • Intramembranous ossification (also called
    dermal since occurs deep in dermis) forms
    directly from mesenchyme (not modeled first in
    cartilage)
  • Most skull bones except a few at base
  • Clavicles (collar bones)
  • Sesamoid bones (like the patella)
  • Endochondral ossification modeled in hyaline
    cartilage then replaced by bone tissue
  • All the rest of the bones

31
Endochondral ossification Video
Stages 1-3 during fetal week 9 through 9th month
Stage 5 is process of long bone growth during
childhood adolescence
Stage 4 is just before birth
32
  • Organization of cartilage within the epiphyseal
    plate of a growing long bone

33
Epiphyseal growth plates in child, left, and
lines in adult, right (see arrows)
34
Factors regulating bone growth
  • Vitamin D increases calcium from gut
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases blood
    calcium (some of this comes out of bone)
  • Calcitonin decreases blood calcium (opposes PTH)
  • Growth hormone thyroid hormone modulate bone
    growth
  • Sex hormones growth spurt at adolescense and
    closure of epiphyses

35
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36
Bone remodeling
  • Osteoclasts
  • Bone resorption
  • Osteoblasts
  • Bone deposition
  • Triggers
  • Hormonal parathyroid hormone
  • Mechanical stress
  • Osteocytes are transformed osteoblasts

37
Terms (examples)
  • chondro refers to cartilage
  • chondrocyte
  • endochondral
  • perichondrium
  • osteo refers to bone
  • osteogenesis
  • osteocyte
  • periostium
  • cyte refers to cell
  • osteocyte

38
Repair of bone fractures (breaks)
  • Simple and compound fractures
  • Closed and open reduction

39
Disorders of cartilage and bone
  • Defective collagen
  • Numerous genetic disorders
  • eg. Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) AD
    (autosomal dominant)
  • eg. Ehlers-Danlos (rubber man)
  • Ehlers-Danlos video
  • Defective endochondral ossification
  • eg. Achondroplasia (short limb dwarfism) - AD
  • Inadequate calcification (requires calcium and
    vitamin D)
  • Osteomalacia (soft bones) in adults
  • Rickets in children

Note AD here means autosomal dominant
inheritance
40
(continued)
  • Pagets disease excessive turnover, abnormal
    bone
  • Paget's Disease Video
  • Osteosarcoma bone cancer, affecting children
    primarily
  • Osteoporosis usually age related, esp. females
  • Low bone mass and increased fractures
  • Resorption outpaces bone deposition

41
Normal bone
Osteoporotic bone
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