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NH RESPONDS: RtI in Behavior (PBIS) Strand A: Readiness Day 2 March 13, 2009

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Title: NH RESPONDS: RtI in Behavior (PBIS) Strand A: Readiness Day 2 March 13, 2009


1
NH RESPONDS RtI in Behavior (PBIS) Strand A
ReadinessDay 2March 13, 2009
  • Presented by
  • Eric Mann, LICSW
  • emann_at_seresc.net
  • (603) 206-6820

2
Professional Development for Excellence in
Education Presentation to School Faculty
3
Support for NH RESPONDSis provided by the NH
Bureau of Special Education, NH Department of
Education under a grant from the US Department of
Education, Office of Special Education and
Rehabilitation Services
4
NH RESPONDS Lead Partners
  • NH Department of Education- Bureau of Special
    Education
  • NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions
    and Supports at SERESC (NH CEBIS)
  • Expertise in Positive Behavior Supports
  • Expertise in integration of mental health and
    school supports
  • Institute on Disability at University of NH
  • Expertise in Literacy within an RtI model
  • Expertise in PBIS and Intensive Interventions
    (RENEW) for Secondary Transition and Dropout
    Prevention

5
RtI in Behavior Strand A
  • Strand A is for schools considering using PBIS as
    a multi-tiered RtI system for behavior support.
  • Presumes participants need basic info about PBIS
    the features it addresses in order to decide
    whether to pursue implementation

6
Broad Outcome
  • After the 2-day session, participants will have
    information necessary to determine whether PBIS,
    as an RtI framework, is a good match for their
    school and whether to work on an action plan to
  • Build a primary systems leadership team
  • Address school readiness and commitments for
    implementation, and/or
  • Access training and support

7
Day 2 Agenda
  • Check-in Whats Happened in Last Month?
  • Review RtI and PBIS
  • Primary Systems Check
  • Data-based Decision Making
  • Systematic Screening
  • PBIS Secondary RtI Systems Features
  • TCCE
  • FBA
  • PBIS Tertiary RtI Systems Features
  • LSCI
  • Wraparound

8
Responsiveness to Intervention
  • RtI is based on a building a continuum of
    support that includes essential systems features
    and evidence-based practices at each tier along
    the continuum
  • Primary/ Universal (Tier 1),
  • Secondary/ Targeted (Tier 2), and
  • Tertiary/ Individual (Tier 3) levels.

9
Big Outcomes for the 3 Tiers Primary System
Outcomes
  • Classroom teacher school-wide systems support
    as many students as possible using effective
    general structures for prevention and response,
    including best instructional behavior
    management practices
  • As few students as possible require higher level
    supports
  • Approximately 80 90 respond to primary
    supports

10
Big Outcomes for the 3 TiersSecondary System
Outcomes
  • Increased opportunities for struggling students
    to succeed by providing additional time,
    strategies, approaches and tools
  • Strategic small group interventions support as
    many at-risk students as possible
  • Social, emotional or academic skill-building
    groups
  • Function-based support groups (designed to match
    student function of behavior)
  • Organized strength/interest based activities
  • Increased monitoring of targeted skills to
    measure intervention progress
  • Level of support is commensurate w/ level of need
  • As few students as possible require tertiary
    system supports
  • Approximately 5-15 of students
  • Most Primary non-responders will respond to
    secondary supports

11
Big Outcomes for the 3 TiersTertiary System
Outcomes
  • Individualized interventions for students w/
    chronic or intensive needs families
  • Positive productive communications amongst
    systems
  • Big needs identified addressed strategically
    respectfully (home, school community needs)
  • Long-term, on-going adaptable supports addressed
    to sustain progress
  • A fix or a cure for the student is not the
    expectation providers accept the complexity and
    challenges of meeting intensive needs
  • Progress is measured over time frequent
    monitoring of target skills
  • Assess symptom reduction or symptom management
  • Assess reduction in frequency or intensity of
    concerning behaviors
  • 4) Safety needs are met
  • De-escalation strategies used
  • Crisis intervention readily accessible
    insight-enhancing strategies used
  • Typically 15 of the student population require
    tertiary level supports

12
School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • 1-5 Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • 5-15 Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • 80-90 Tier 1/Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive

Illinois PBIS Network, Revised Sept., 2008.
Adapted from What is school-wide PBS? OSEP
Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed
at http//pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
13
Basic RtI Philosophy
  • When students demonstrate non-response to
    interventions (strategies, supports, instruction,
    etc), it is the intervention that must be
    changed in order to increase the likelihood of
    achievement

14
Implementing RtI Means
  • Knowing HOW to assess progress (methods must be
    efficient/effective use data-based decision
    making)
  • Knowing WHEN to assess progress (address
    frequency early)
  • Determining criteria /benchmarks for response
    (its working) and non-response (its not
    working)
  • Applying efficient effective supports along a
    continuum so that students receive support
    commensurate w/ their needs (effective/
    efficient/ early practices)

15
PBIS is RtI
  • RtI Model for Behavioral Support

16
PBIS Continuum of Supports A System of Care
and Education
Effective SW Classroom Management Systems
Practices (Prevention Response) Ample
Opportunities for Student Mastery Use of
Strengths High Rate Positive Teacher-Student
Contacts (All Teachers-All Students) Positive
School-Parent Contacts
Frequent Check for Non-Responders to Primary
Systems Address Academic, Social, Emotional,
Physical Risk Factors Implement Teacher
Primary-Plus Interventions Implement an Efficient
Early Systematic Secondary Intervention ( e.g.
Teacher Check, Connect and Expect)
Primary Preven-tion 80
Array of Function-Based, Skill-Based,
Interest/Strengths-Based Group Interventions for
Non-Responders to Primary Systems and Efficient
Early Interventions
Secondary Preven- tion 15
Mann Muscott (2007)
Individualized Function-Based Support Plans for
School-Wide Group Non-Responders
School-based Intensive Supports Coordinator
Intensive Support Plans Crisis Intervention
Links to Wraparound Facilitation
Person-Centered Planning
School-based Intensive Supports
Tertiary Preven-tion lt5
Links to Community Collaboratives
Links to MH and other Community-Based Supports
17
PBIS-NH Supports
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
Supporting Adults/ Staff
Supporting Students and Families
18
SYSTEMS
2. Communication with Staff and Families
1. Universal Team and Processes
Primary Prevention Universal Approaches
8. Systematic Screening
3. School-wide Expectations for All Locations
9. Data-Based Decision Making
4. Classroom Management
7. Responding to Problem Behavior
5. Teach Expectations in Locations
6. Recognize Students for Exhibiting Expected
Behaviors
PRACTICES
DATA
Muscott Mann (2006)
19
Primary System Check
  • A representative Universal Team that includes
    administrator
  • Functions effectively and efficiently
  • Teams mission/ purpose is understood by team
    staff
  • Team regularly reviews school-wide data uses
    data to guide decision-making (data are shared
    with staff regularly)
  • Primary Prevention features are in place
  • Classroom teachers implement classroom behavior
    management instructional strategies at high
    level w/ school-wide consistency
  • Behavioral Expectations established taught
    (visible throughout school)
  • A Behavioral Matrix that displays specific
    expected behaviors in various school locations or
    routines is documented visible
  • Specific behaviors, driven by data, are
    periodically targeted for improvement
    systematically taught with full staff
    participation
  • A system to recognize positive behavior is in
    place used following teaching of specific
    behavior targeted for improvement
  • Recognition system is implemented w/ full staff
    participation
  • Positive school climate is encouraged includes
    emphasis on high rates of positive contacts fm
    adults to students

20
Primary System Check
  • A strategy for proactive positive parent contact
    is implemented
  • Primary Response features are in place
  • Accurate data gathered and summarized for
    efficient decision making
  • An office referral form is in place that
    efficiently provides key information regarding
    discipline system violations
  • Problem behaviors are defined in Major
    (office-handled) Minor (staff-handled) versions
    is practiced accurately by staff
  • Procedures for responding to problem behavior for
    Majors Minors are established implemented
    with accuracy
  • Criteria for identifying students who are not
    responding to general primary supports (i.e.,
    early non-responders) as evidenced by at-risk
    indicators is established known by staff
  • Efficient access to an early secondary tier
    support with on-going progress monitoring is
    available for early non-responders

21
All Begins with Effective Team FunctioningCollab
orative Team Process ChecklistMann and Muscott,
2004
  • Tool to assess team functioning (14 items)
  • Assess status (In place, Partial, Not in Place)
  • Identify Priority (High, Medium, Low)
  • Develop action plan based on priorities
  • Should be completed 2xs a year (Fall, Spring)
  • Team functioning is priority 1!

22
Teaching Social Behavior Requires Whole Staff
Investment!
  • Systematically teach expected behaviors within
    locations using effective instructional practices
  • Develop a strategy to acknowledge students for
    exhibiting desired behaviors to be used
    systematically when (a) targeting specific
    behaviors for improvement and/or (b) improving
    school climate

23
A Consistent Process for Response to Problem
Behaviors Allows Data-Based Decision Making to
Occur and Requires Whole Staff Commitment
  • Definitions of Problem Behaviors
  • a. Majors (office-managed) vs. Minors (staff
    managed)
  • Office Discipline Referral Form or Form for
    Recording Problem Behaviors
  • Process for Responding to Problem Behaviors
  • Continuum of Consequences and Supports
    (Reteaching, Punishments) addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Determine a Data Management System (SWIS)

24
Defining your terms Respect and Disrespect
Classroom Hallway
Respect
Disrespect (Minor) Disrespect (Major)

25
Activity How would you teach Respect in the
Hallway?
  • Instruction
  • Practice
  • Feedback
  • Assessment
  • Monitor
  • How will you know it worked?

26
Discussion Everyone On Board?
  • What challenges would you anticipate in terms of
    getting all staff on board in
  • A teaching/recognition rollout?
  • Consistently defining behavioral expectations
    and problem behaviors?
  • What role would/could data play in gaining staff
    buy-in?

27
Data-Based Decision-Making Process Mann
Muscott (2006) Adapted from Horner (2003)
  • Begin w/ Broad Outcomes and Key Questions
  • Broad terms What do we want to achieve? (e.g.
    Want Safe Classrooms)
  • Identify scope of Problem (scope context) using
    Data
  • (e.g. assess current safety of classrooms - who,
    what, when, where?)
  • Translate Broad Outcomes into Specific Objectives
    w/ Criteria for Success
  • With precision, what we want to achieve by when
    (e.g. 98 of students daily demonstrate safe
    hands and feet by 11/1)
  • Identify Action Plan to get to the outcomes
  • Who does what by when? (Strategic Plan)
  • Monitor and Evaluate progress
  • Use post-data to assess your progress (Did it
    work?)

(Adapted for Webinar, 9/16/2008)
28
Use Data to guide decision-making
  • Accurately gathered summarized data leads you
    to identify of trends and patterns that will
    allow you to target behaviors, locations,
    individuals, routines and contexts in need of
    improvement.
  • School-wide teaching strategies are developed
    and post-intervention data is generated to assess
    and display progress

29
ABC Middle School
  • A NH Middle School (grades 5-8) approximately
    450 students.

30
ABC MIDDLE SCHOOLS DISCIPLINE DATA
COMPAREDThis graph looks at the average
referrals per day per month per 100 students so
that school years can be comparedThe average
number of referrals per month has decreased 43
in school year 2004-2005 compared to 2003-2004.
31
ABC MIDDLE SCHOOLS TOP PROBLEM BEHAVIORSThe
most frequently reported problem behaviors are
disrespect/defiance, disruption, inappropriate
language, and physical contact/fighting.The
middle school chooses to report both minor and
major offenses.There has been a decrease in
reporting of disruption and disrespect from
2003-4 to 2004-5 in both minor and major
categories. Note the increase in Aggression/
Fighting.
32
ABC MS Where is Physical Aggression Happening?
33
ABC Middle School Are referrals for
Aggression/Fighting distributed evenly by Grade?
34
ABC MS 8th Grade Where are 8th Graders
engaging in aggression?
35
ABC MS Are referrals for HALLWAY aggression
distributed evenly by Grade?
36
ABC MS 8th Grade AggressionTargeted or
Universal Support?
  • 54 Separate incidents (14 in Hallway)
  • 33 Different students reported
  • 110 total 8th graders 33/11030
  • 44 of 54 referrals were male
  • 27 different males (27 / 55(total number of 8th
    grade males) 49 of males w/ a referral for
    major aggression)
  • 10 males with 2 or more referrals
  • 1 student with 7 referrals

37
Targeted (Secondary System) Readiness
  1. Identification of at-risk indicators (i.e.
    concerns that are predictive of risk for future
    social, emotional, behavioral, academic problems)
  2. For at-risk indicators, identify primary
    interventions/supports that should exist in
    response to at-risk indicators
  3. Document the criteria/benchmarks for when a
    student demonstrates non-response to primary
    system interventions/supports (i.e. higher level
    supports are needed)

38
At-Risk Categories
  • What common categories of concern indicate risk
    for future chronic problem behavior, academic/
    social disengagement, or school failure?
  • Major office disciplinary referrals?
  • Attendance/ Late to school?
  • Frequent nurse visits?
  • Homework not completed?
  • Other academic indicators (literacy, numeracy
    development)?
  • Behavioral concerns not addressed through
    discipline system (e.g. social withdrawal,
    internalizing) ?
  • Other?

39
Activity At-Risk Indicators and Non-Response
Criteria
  • For one at-risk indicator other than ODR
  • Imagine it is September1, 2009 and determine
  • When should we be concerned?
  • Consider frequency, duration, intensity variables
  • What initial steps will be taken by primary staff
    once concern is established
  • Classroom teacher, nurse, guidance, administrator
  • Consider a continuum of primary interventions and
    supports
  • Consider timeframe for primary interventions
  • Consider when you would check to determine
    effectiveness
  • Determine how and when you would know that the
    student is non-responsive to primary
    interventions
  • Determine how secondary system supports could be
    activated and what would occur at a secondary
    level to support the student or family

40
Possible Behavior Categories to Address for
Non-Response Criteria (Benchmarks)Mann Muscott
(2008)
Possible Category Consider Non-Response Criteria
ODR Disruption Disrespect/ Non-comply Language , Time Frame, Teacher/ Admin response continuum, parent partnership 3 Majors/ repeated minors - no improvement after steps on response continuum (includes parent connection)
Nurse Visits , Time Frame, Reason, Nurse response process 4 visits to nurses office in 1st month w/ soft signs of illness, followed nurse primary response procedures
Attendance or Tardies , Time Frame, Admin Response Process 4 absences in 1st month of school 8 overall SW response process in place
Homework Completion , Time Frame, Teacher Response Process, TGI Not complete 2/6 assignments 2 per wk teacher or team response process refer to HW club
Hygiene , time frame, intensity, response and support process, TGI Continued occurrence following parent contact, teacher conference, nurse consult referral to guidance Address frequency and intensity criteria, referral social skill club
Other Behavioral Concerns Includes retreat/ withdrawal/ internalizing (Teacher initiated or addressed through Systematic Behavior Screening) Behavior(s), teacher response, school system response (guidance, family worker), parent partnership Continued occurrence following parent contact, observation refer to guidance Address frequency intensity criteria
41
Why Screen for Behavior?Kauffman (2001)
  • To find youngsters whose problems are not
    immediately obvious and identify early problems
    with a high degree of accuracy.
  • Early identification leads to early intervention
  • Early intervention is effective, efficient and
    humane

42
  • Of the young children who show early signs of
    concerning behavior, it has been estimated that
    fewer than 10 receive services for these
    difficulties.
  • Kazdin Kendall, 1998

Center for Evidence Based Practice Young
Children with Challenging Behavior
www.challengingbehavior.org
43
What is Screening? Salvia Ysseldyke (1988)
  • Screening is an initial stage of assessment
  • Those who may evidence a particular problem,
    disorder, disability or disease are sorted from
    the general population.
  • Those who perform below standard thresholds on
    screening measures are considered at-risk.

44
Types of Screening Already used in Many School
  • Readiness
  • Academic (in many forms)
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Dental
  • Scoliosis
  • ________?
  • Why Not Social Behavior?

45
Office Discipline Referrals Are Not Sufficient as
a Screening ToolCheney, et al.
  • Office discipline referrals typically involve
    acting out, noncompliance, and disruption --
    externalizing types of behaviors
  • Students with less disruptive, more internalizing
    behavior problems are often not identified for
    support
  • Internalizing examples extreme shyness,
    withdrawal, depression, social inhibition, social
    anxiety
  • Internalizers are equally in need of supports and
    intervention perhaps more so.

46
Stage OneNominating Externalizing Students
  • Displaying aggression towards objects or persons
  • Forcing the submission of others
  • Defying the teacher
  • Being out of seat
  • Not complying with teacher instructions or
    directives
  • Arguing
  • Having tantrums
  • Being hyperactive
  • Disturbing Others
  • Stealing
  • Not following teacher or school-imposed rules

47
Stage OneNominating Internalizing Students
  • Having low or restricted activity levels
  • Not talking with other children
  • Extreme shyness
  • Very timid and/or unassertive
  • Avoiding or withdrawing from social situations
  • Preferring to play or spend time alone
  • Acting in a fearful manner
  • Not participating in games or activities
  • Being unresponsive to social initiations by
    others
  • Not standing up for ones self.

48
Multiple Gate Screening
  • Stage 1 (15-20 minutes of teacher time) teachers
    rank order their students along two dimensions of
    behavior internalizing externalizing.
  • Stage 2 (about 60 minutes of teacher time)
    teachers complete the BASC-2 Behavioral Emotional
    Screening System (BESS) for the 3 highest ranked
    students for internalizing externalizing.
  • Students whose elevated scores exceed the cut off
    on the BESS move to Stage 3.
  • Stage 3 (no teacher time) students are referred
    to the appropriate school-based team to determine
    additional diagnostic assessments and/or
    appropriate interventions

49
Systematic Screening for Behavior
DisordersHill Walker Herb SeversonOregon
Research Institute
50
SSBD and the Beacons ProjectCheney, et al
  • Results of this project suggest that students who
    receive early support intervention have
  • fewer referrals to teams to evaluate special
    education eligibility
  • shown improvements in social and academic
    functioning based on reviews of report cards and
    state achievement test scores
  • improved on-task behavior
  • reduced level of disruptive behaviors to a level
    comparable to their typically developing peers.

51
BASC-2Behavioral and Emotional Screening System
Randy Kamphaus Cecil Reynolds Pearson
Publishers
52
Stage Two Administration of BASC-2 Behavioral
Emotional Screening
  • Administer the BASC-2 BESS Teacher Form Level
    Child/Adolescent (K-12)
  • 27 Questions 5-10 minutes per student
  • Each item rated Never, Sometimes, Often and
    Almost Always
  • Never means that you have not observed it
  • Rater must be familiar with student daily
    contact for a month or more
  • Mark every item with best estimate

53
Stage Three Referral to Appropriate School-Based
Team
  • Students who are deemed at elevated risk or
    extremely elevated risk should be referred to the
    appropriate school-based team

54
Antrim Elementary School (K-4th Grade)
  • Enrollment 133 students in 9 classrooms
  • 98 Caucasian 1 Hispanic 1 African American
  • 15 Free and reduced lunch
  • NECAP Reading 84 (3rd) 81 (4th) 71 (5th)

55
Antrim Elementary School Screening Example
  • 9 classrooms screened
  • Teachers each identified 3 internalizers and 3
    externalizers (Gate 1)
  • Six students from each of 7 classrooms were
    assessed using the BESS
  • Kindergarten teacher screened all students using
    BESS in am and pm sections
  • 23 of 130 students or 18 scored elevated or
    extremely elevated

56
Antrim Elementary School Process
  • Assessment team met with every teacher of the 22
    students for 15-20 minutes to discuss results and
    other data including quick FBA (1 student moved)
  • Attendance, tardies, nurse office visits, NWEA
    academic scores, office discipline referrals and
    teacher judgments about academic performance
  • All families contacted and decision ws made to
    offer group intervention support for all 22
    students
  • 21 of 22 families agreed to accept supports

57
Antrim Elementary School
  • This was the best public relations activity Ive
    ever done. I told the families we were offering
    their child support before there were problems at
    school, before they got frustrated and before
    they would lose ground academically and socially.
    The families were grateful.
  • James Elder, Assistant Principal

58
Antrim Elementary School Seven Group
Interventions
  • Teacher Check, Connect and Expect
  • Check In and Check Out
  • Buddy Group 11 with Younger Child
  • Changing Families Groups (2)
  • Anxiety, Stress, Coping Skills Group
  • Social Skills Using Direct Instruction Group
  • Self-Esteem Group

59
Antrim Elementary School 07-08A Piloting of
Practices Year
  • Enrollment is approximately 150
  • The Triangle for 07-08
  • 85 Green 13 Yellow 2 Red
  • Teacher Check, Connect, Expect
  • Targeted Groups
  • Math Club Walking, Running Club, Mural Makers
    Club
  • Mural Makers Six students
  • 9/1 2/28 22 ODRS or 3.7 month
  • 3/1 5/21 1 ODR of .3 month

60
Discussion Screening for Behavior
  • What issues may arise for staff, administrators,
    or community members if you consider implementing
    a systematic screening process for behavior?

61
Targeted (Secondary) System of Support
  • Efficient access to supports for at-risk
    population
  • At-risk for social, emotional, academic failure
    and/or disengagement

62
SYSTEMS
2. Data-Based Decision Making
1. Targeted Team and Processes
Secondary Prevention Targeted Approaches A
Function-Based Perspective
8. Behavior Support Planning
3. Communication with Staff and Families
7. Functional Assessment
4. Early Identification and Referral Processes
Muscott Mann (2007)
DATA
6. Targeted Group Interventions
PRACTICES
5. Teacher Check, Connect and Expect (TCCE)
63
Primary to Secondary Supports Staff Needs
  • Staff implement primary systems and practices
    with fidelity
  • Staff know at-risk concerns that trigger
    secondary level supports
  • Staff know what steps to take (primary
    supports) prior to referral to secondary support
    system
  • Staff know how to initiate referral process to
    secondary system what to expect when a student
    is referred
  • Staff know what function of behavior means
  • Staff think about how to influence predictors
    before a referral is made (part of primary
    response process)
  • Staff are trained in conflict cycle and implement
    de-escalation techniques with fidelity (initial
    response to conflict crisis prevention
    techniques)
  • Staff are trained in effective parent contact
    practices/ school addresses proactive positive
    contact strategies

64
Targeted (Secondary System) Readiness
  • Determine how secondary system is activated and
    what happens with activation of secondary system
    (for example)
  • Information form data go to a Quick Integrated
    Screen Team to
  • Assign to an early systematic intervention (e.g.
    Teacher Check, Connect and Expect (TCCE)
  • Assign to Function-based or Skills-based or
    Strength/Interest-based Targeted Group
    Intervention
  • Request Functional Assessment or intensive
    planning
  • Monitor Progress Systematically

65
Teacher Check, Connect and Expect (TCCE)
  • An Early Systematic Intervention for Primary
    Non-Responders

66
Teacher Check, Connect and Expect Process
Student is Nominated for Teacher Check, Connect
and Expect Meets a criterion for non-response to
primary systems of support
Mann Muscott (2007) Adapted from Crone, Horner
Hawken (2004)
Quick Screen is performed by Integrated
Screen-Team (academic behavioral sub-set of
Targeted Team)
Parental Permission/ Coach Assigned Review
Meeting Date Set Teacher(s) Coached in
Greeting, Feedback Review TCCE Implemented
TCCE Coach Summarizes Data Keeps Targeted Team
informed
TCCE Card with Behavioral Expectations Provided
in AM
TCCE Coach meets after 20 School Days with
Student, Teacher, Parent to Review Progress
Classroom Teacher(s) provide feedback at set
intervals throughout day
One Minute Review at end of day with Last
Teacher or Lead Teacher TCCE Card to Coach
Consider Different Support
Exit Program
Revise Program
67
Bear Tracks Card Bear Tracks Card Be Safe, Respectful and Responsible! Be Safe, Respectful and Responsible! Be Safe, Respectful and Responsible! Be Safe, Respectful and Responsible! Be Safe, Respectful and Responsible!
3 Strength 2 Showed Mostly Strength/Some Need 2 Showed Mostly Strength/Some Need 2 Showed Mostly Strength/Some Need 1 Need 0 Office Referral 0 Office Referral 0 Office Referral
Subject/ Period Safe Respectful Responsible Total Points Home Home  
A       _____ /9 Date _______ Date _______ Date _______
B       _____ /9 Ttl Points Ttl Points Ttl Points
C       _____ /9 _____ /54 _____ /54 _____ /54
D     _____ /9 Goal Met Goal Met Goal Met
E     _____ /9 ____ Yes ____ No ____ No
F       _____ /9      
Total ____ /18 ____ /18 ____ /18 ___ /54 Goal ___ points Goal ___ points Goal ___ points
Strength 14-18 Strength Strength Strength    
Some Need 10-13 Some Need Some Need Some Need      
Need lt 9 Need Need Need        
68
Function of Behavior
  • Function of Behavior What is gained or avoided
    as a result of the behavior (i.e. what reinforces
    the behavior, making it likely the behavior will
    repeat given similar context)

69
Function To Get or Avoid, that is the question
To Get (gain access to) To Avoid (escape from)
Attention
Activity/ Task
Tangible
Sensory
70
Functional Assessment Looks at Repeated Patterns
of Behavior
  • Functional assessment answers the question
  • Why would the child continue to engage in problem
    behavior, rather than simply why did (s)he
    exhibit the behavior?

71
Functional AssessmentSugai, 1998
  • Functional Assessment identifies the reliable
    predictors of behavior resulting in a hypotheses
    of the function of behavior

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Testable Hypothesis Simple Behavior Pathway
Maintaining Consequence
Triggering Antecedents
Problem Behavior
Setting Events

Function? (What is the child getting or avoiding
as a result of the behavior)
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Testable Hypothesis Simple Behavior Pathway
Maintaining Consequence
Triggering Antecedents
Problem Behavior
Setting Events
Sent out of class to Hallway or Office
Teacher random call up to complete board problems
Escalating disruption throws object, calls out,
swears
Weak Calculation Skills History of feeling
embarrassed when in front of class
Function (What is the child getting or avoiding
as a result of the behavior)?
74
FBA to Behavior Support Plan
Once a reliable pathway is determined, a
function-based plan is developed by influencing
the components along the pathway and by assuring
that function can be efficiently met through
positive rather than problem behavior
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Typical Result
Desired Behavior
COMPETING PATHWAYS
Maintaining Consequence
Problem Behavior
Setting Event
Trigger
Replacement Behavior
Function?
Behavior Support Planning
Setting Event Manipulations (Make Problem
Behavior Unnecessary)
Antecedent Manipulations (Make Problem Behavior
Unnecessary)
Behavior Teaching (Make Problem Behavior
Inefficient)
Consequence Manipulations (Make Problem Behavior
Ineffective)
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5 Critical and Common Omissions in Behavior
Support Plans
  1. Plan is not Function-Based
  2. Plan is not calculated to provide socially
    acceptable ways for student to efficiently
    achieve the function
  3. Response to problem behavior does not account for
    function (problem behavior is not made less
    effective in achieving function student is
    reinforced when they exhibit problem behavior)
  4. Teaching socially acceptable replacement behavior
    or new routines is not part of the plan
  5. Plan for how/when to assess whether the plan is
    successful is unclear or missing
  6. Acknowledgement (reinforcer) is not meaningful to
    the student
  7. The plan doesnt consider student
    strengths/interests

77
FBA/BSP Fidelity of Implementation Evaluation
ToolMuscott, Benjamin, Bradley, Gersten, and
Mann (2007)
  • 20 item tool to evaluate features and skills
  • Five Features
  • Develop a Behavior Pathway and Summary Statement
  • Developing Replacement Behavior Based on Function
  • Identify Strategies For Behavior Support Plan
  • Develop a Plan to Monitor Progress
  • Develop a Detailed Action Plan to Implement the
    BSP

78
Targeted Group Interventions and Functions of
Behavior
  • Access Adult Attention/Support. Examples
  • Check-In/ Check-Out
  • Adult Mentoring Programs
  • Access Peer Attention/Support. Examples
  • Social Skills Instruction
  • Peer Mentoring
  • Self-monitoring system with Peer Share Component
  • Academic Skills Support (function academic task
    escape)
  • Organization/ Homework planning support
  • Homework Completion Club
  • Tutoring
  • Strength/ Interest Based Activities. Examples
  • Basketball Club
  • Mural Makers

79
Continuum of Support for Tier 2/Secondary - Tier
3/Tertiary Level Systems
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised Sept., 2008
  1. Small group interventions Check-in Check-Out
    (CICO), social/academic instructional groups
    (SAIG), tutor/homework clubs, etc.
  2. Simple individual interventions A simple
    individualized function-based behavior support
    plan for a student focused on one specific
    behavior, e.g. brief FBA/BSP-one behavior
    curriculum adjustment schedule or other
    environmental adjustments, etc.
  3. Multiple-domain FBA/BSP A complex function-based
    behavior support plan across settings, e.g.
    FBA/BSP home and school and/or community
  4. Wraparound A more complex comprehensive plan
    to address multiple life domain issues across
    home, school and community, e.g. basic needs, MH
    treatment, behavior/ academic interventions, as
    well as multiple behaviors

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SYSTEMS
Staff Trained in Intensive Supports MH Issues
Intensive Supports Coordinator
Emergency Planning Team
Tertiary Systems Features
School-Based Referral Processes
De-escalation/ Crisis Response Team
Community- Based Referral Processes
Date-Based Decision Making
Home-School-Mental Health Communication Processes
81
PRACTICES
Person-Centered Planning Wraparound
Mental Health Primer
Community Resource Mapping
Tertiary Practice Features
Intensive FBA BSP
Facilitated Referrals to Community Supports
Conflict Cycle/ Escalation Cycle/ Life Space
Crisis Intervention
Build Relationships with Families Students
Emergency Response Plans
82
CONFLICT CYCLENicholas J. Long
STUDENTS SELF CONCEPT IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
1. A Thoughts
83
The Sequence of the Conflict CycleNicholas J.
Long
  1. Self-Concept as a Setting Event
  2. A Stressful Event Occurs
  3. The Event Activates Irrational Beliefs
  4. Negative Thoughts Trigger Feelings
  5. Negative Feelings Drive Inappropriate Behavior
  6. Behavior Incite Staff
  7. Staff Pick Up Students Negative Feelings and
    Frequently Mirror Student Behavior
  8. Staff Behavior Increases Student Stress and
    Escalates Cycle
  9. Students Self-Fulfilling Prophesy is Reinforced

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Boston 24
86
The Six Reclaiming Interventions of LSCI
  • Red Flag Intervention
  • Imported Problems
  • Reality Rub Intervention
  • Errors in Perception
  • Symptom Estrangement
  • Justifying Harmful Behavior

87
The Six Reclaiming Interventions of LSCI
  • Massaging Numb Values Intervention
  • Behavior Driven by Guilt
  • New Tools Intervention
  • Poor Social Skills
  • Manipulation of Body Boundaries
  • Exploitation of Peers

88
The Six Stages of LSCI
DRAIN OFF
1
Drain off the students intense emotions by
acknowledging feelings.
89
The Six Stages of LSCI
DRAIN OFF
1
TIMELINE
2
By using affirming and listening skills, discover
the students point of view.
90
The Six Stages of LSCI
DRAIN OFF
1
TIMELINE
2
CENTRAL ISSUE
3
Identify the students vital interest and select
the appropriate LSCI Reclaiming Intervention.
91
The Six Stages of LSCI
DRAIN OFF
1
TIMELINE
2
CENTRAL ISSUE
3
INSIGHT
4
Use one of the Reclaiming Interventions to to
help the student recognize his pattern of self
defeating behavior.
92
The Six Stages of LSCI
Teach the new skills which lead to more
responsible behavior.
2
DRAIN OFF
1
TIMELINE
2
3
CENTRAL ISSUE
3
4
INSIGHT
4
NEW SKILLS
5
93
The Six Stages of LSCI
Prepare the student to re-enter the ongoing
activity and setting.
2
DRAIN OFF
1
TIMELINE
2
3
CENTRAL ISSUE
3
INSIGHT
4
NEW SKILLS
5
TRANSFER OF TRAINING
6
94
The Six Stages of LSCI
DRAIN OFF
1
TIMELINE
2
CENTRAL ISSUE
3
INSIGHT
4
NEW SKILLS
5
TRANSFER OF TRAINING
6
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Wraparound
  • Wraparounds fit on the SW-PBS Continuum
  • Developing a Wraparound Team
  • BIG Needs and Strengths Voice/Ownership
  • A Context for Function-based Interventions
  • How is wraparound similar/different than the
    FBA/BIP process? IEP process?

97
What Do we Know about the Tertiary Level
  • Requires real talent and skills (Rob Horner)
  • Applies Art (of engagement) and Science (of
    interventions)
  • Needs to happen sooner for many
    students/families
  • Gets tougher with each system failure
  • Requires thinking differently with kids and
    families
  • Is easier in schools proficient with school-wide
    PBIS
  • Includes system/practice/data components

L. Eber 2005
98
Unique Fit
  • Tertiary-tier intervention plans should be
    uniquely designed to fit individual students
    needs as opposed to making a student fit into a
    prescribed program.

99
What is Wraparound?
  • Wraparound is a process for developing
    family-centered teams and plans that are strength
    and needs based
  • (not deficit based)
  • across multiple settings and life domains.

100
Wraparound and PBIS
  • The wraparound process is a key component on the
    continuum of a school-wide system of PBIS.

101
Value Base
  • Build on strengths to meet needs
  • One family-one plan
  • Increased parent choice
  • Increased family independence
  • Support for youth in context of families
  • Support for families in context of community
  • Unconditional Never give up

P.Miles, 2004
102
Who is Wraparound for?
  • Youth with multiple needs across home, school,
    community
  • Youth at-risk for change of placement (youth not
    responding to current systems/practices)
  • The adults in youths life are not effectively
    engaged in comprehensive planning (i.e. adults
    not getting along very well)


103

Features of Wraparound
  • individual students and family
  • built upon strengths
  • voice, priorities of youth and family
  • based on unique youth and family needs
  • culturally relevant teams and plans
  • plans include natural supports
  • traditional and non-traditional interventions
  • multiple life domains
  • unconditional

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Life Domain Areas to Consider
  • Physical Needs/Living Situation
  • Family/Attachment
  • Safety
  • Socialization
  • Cultural/Spiritual
  • Emotional/Psychological
  • Health
  • Educational/Vocational
  • Legal

105
Interpreting Data for Students in Need of
Tertiary
  • Universal Data by Student (ODRs, of absences,
    of ISS or OSS, Grades, Tardies, etc.)
  • Universal Screening Data, (i.e., SSBD, BASC 2
    BESS)
  • Secondary/Tier 2 Team Referral (based on data
    such as Daily Progress Report, scatter plot, etc)
  • Needs across home, school, community (HSC Tool

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Four Phases of Wraparound Implementation
  • Team Development
  • - Get people ready to be a team
  • - Complete strengths/needs chats
  • Initial Plan Development
  • - Hold initial planning meetings
  • - Develop a team culture
  • Plan Implementation Refinement
  • - Hold team meetings to review plans
  • - Modify, adapt adjust team plan
  • Plan Completion Transition
  • - Define good enough
  • - Unwrap

107
The A FamilyJon Drake of APEXWraparound
Facilitator
  • Mrs. A
  • General health/ safety needs
  • Blind Chronic illness affecting functioning
  • Transportation needs
  • Initial interest in process
  • A way to get some control over her life
  • Intrigued that process could be about her/
    familys needs
  • Hoped it could help with issues she is
    struggling w/ around handling her son other
    personal/community needs
  • Hoped it could help her do more things she wants
    to do (spend time with friends go out for
    coffee)
  • Hoped it could help her do less of the things she
    doesnt want to do (school meetings, taking care
    of 17 year old son all day long)

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History of DisconnectingYoure Fired
  • Interviews HSC revealed social strengths with
    friends/family
  • Natural supports a strength
  • But, needs revealed re disconnection w/
    community organizations
  • Spoke often of firing agency/organizational
    supports because they would not follow through on
    their tasks
  • picking her up, driving her
  • coming into the home to clean
  • Help with self-care
  • On the brink of "firing" the school because
  • Not doing their job in keeping J in school."

109
Rapport and Team Building
  • Shortly after initial meeting, Jon attempted to
    build a team around a series of needs
  • transportation, mental/physical health, J's
    needs
  • Resulted in series of no shows (passive
    firing?)
  • Though discouraging, Jon persisted in contacting
    them
  • Used Work till is Works Mantra
  • Used benign outreach -- letting family know he
    wanted to help

110
Peer Consultation
  • In consultation w/ Wrap facilitator support team
    (peer support team) at Strafford Learning Center,
    Jon was supported to calmly persist
  • Work until it works, unconditional concern
    (non-judgment), thinking strengths-based
    encouraged Jon
  • Naming of the family pattern of disengagement
    resulting in release from the agency or
    frustration/ anger leading to firing helped to
    frame the challenge offer something different
  • For improved likelihood of engagement, family
    needed to see process as something different as
    something they could control

111
Re-Engagement!
  • Jon found that Work Until it Works philosophy
    of Wraparound worked (for the time being)
  • After benign outreach phase, the family popped
    back onto the radar and began follow through on
    meetings and tasks
  • The family has not "fired" Jon yet and
    acknowledge that this is the longest period of
    time that any family system support has been
    engaged with the family

112
Utilizing Natural Supports
  • Natural supports were revealed as a strength
  • Mrs. A began utilizing these strong supports to
    access some of the community/school supports
    needed to achieve the families goals (which were
    established based on the familys stated needs).
  • Team is active in helping the family follow
    through on commitments (meetings appointments)
  • Team helps Mrs. A to brainstorm options to
    overcome challenges
  • Mrs. A has a need to see her son succeed in
    school, this desire has driven Mrs. A to step
    back from a history of hard feelings w/ school
    members to do what it takes to get business done
  • Team provides emotional support needed to be
    productive with school

113
Transportation Issues
  • Transportation issues addressed using natural
    supports
  • Most friends/family cannot drive or do not have
    access to vehicles
  • One person does has agreed to help -- has been
    willing to adjust her schedule to help the family
  • Though this support is not sustainable long-term,
    it provides a temporary support until the team
    can brainstorm how to spread the weight among
    other natural or community-based supports

114
Jons Reflections and Learning
  • A good learning experience.
  • This is a family that has been disconnected and
    disengaged with every community support theyve
    encountered for a long time
  • Took patience and persistence (and peer supports
    for Jon)
  • Process is one that naturally engages and
    empowers families
  • Facilitates a problem solving process rather than
    attempting to define and solve problems for a
    family
  • The process itself has been a key to keeping this
    family and their supports moving forward
  • Big issues for child often cannot be addressed
    directly until family/ parent needs are supported

115
Baseline Data
  • HSC Tool data revealed significant needs that can
    begin to be addressed with J now that some of
    the families needs/stressors are addressed

116
Discussion Next Steps
  • What is your next step?
  • Admin/ Staff Buy-in Commitment?
  • Team Development?
  • Features Development?
  • 2.2 Checklist
  • Access to Training and Support (Coaching)
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