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Human Resource Development

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Title: Training: An Introduction Author: Karen J. Crooker Last modified by: Karen J. Crooker Created Date: 11/7/2000 11:47:13 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Resource Development


1
Human Resource Development
2
3 Levels of HRD
  • Training
  • KSAOs for current job
  • Education
  • Preparation for next job
  • months -gt year
  • Development
  • Prepare for wide variety of jobs
  • very long term

3
Type of HRD
Differences in Needs Assessment
Differences in Instructional Design
Different Metrics forEvaluation
4
Training
  • What does it produce?

Performance Indicators
Training
  • What are specific performance indicators you can
    look for in your learner population to measure
    their improved task performance after their
    learning?

5
When should we provide training?
  • New equipment, software
  • New tasks (job changed)
  • New regulations
  • Performance deficiency (gap)

When should we conduct a needs assessment?
  • Performance deficiency (gap)

6
Required Performance
Actual Performance
Performance Gap
-
  • Job study
  • Task analysis
  • Talk to manager
  • Outputs
  • Job description
  • Time studies
  • Performance records
  • Sales
  • Errors
  • Accidents
  • Survey
  • Interview
  • Observation

How can this formula help you in dealing
with training requests?
7
Types of Job Performance Records - 1
  • Outputs
  • output/hour
  • items sold
  • units produced
  • inventory turnover
  • shipments
  • tasks completed
  • work backlog
  • money collected
  • forms processed
  • cases handled
  • productivity
  • Costs
  • sales expense
  • unit costs
  • costs/account
  • cost savings
  • budget variances
  • program costs
  • employee turnover
  • grievances
  • safety violations

8
Types of Job Performance Records - 2
  • Time
  • overtime
  • processing time
  • lost days
  • repair time
  • completion time
  • training time
  • work stoppages
  • order response
  • late completions
  • equipment downtime
  • supervisory time
  • schedules met
  • break-in for new people
  • absenteeism
  • excessive breaks
  • time saved
  • Quality
  • error rates
  • re-work
  • inventory adjustments
  • rejects
  • scrap
  • product defects
  • shortages
  • accidents
  • objectives not met
  • waste
  • deviation from standard
  • product failures
  • customer complaints
  • employee complaints
  • job satisfaction

9
Identify Cause(s) of the Problem
  • Most employees would do it if they knew it.
  • Poor job performance always has a cause. In the
    overwhelming majority of situations, when you
    discover a gap between required performance and
    actual performance, it will be one or more of
    these seven factors of job performance

10
Causes of Performance Problems
  • Knowledge skill
  • Capacity
  • Standards
  • Measurement
  • Feedback
  • Conditions
  • Incentives motivation

11
Solutions for Performance Problems
  • Knowledge skill
  • provide classroom, self-paced instruction
  • provide practice, job aids, coaching
  • Capacity
  • change personnel
  • Standards
  • develop/publicize
  • Measurement
  • develop/revise
  • Feedback
  • provide, improve use
  • Conditions
  • reorganize, upgrade, redesign, reduce
    interference
  • Incentives
  • provide/strengthen positive consequences
  • remove/weaken
  • negative consequences for good performance
  • positive consequences for poor performance

12
When is Training the Solution?
  • Knowledge skill
  • provide classroom, self-paced instruction
  • provide practice, job aids, coaching
  • Capacity
  • change personnel
  • Standards
  • develop/publicize
  • Measurement
  • develop/revise
  • Feedback
  • provide, improve use
  • Conditions
  • reorganize, upgrade, redesign, reduce
    interference
  • Incentives
  • provide/strengthen positive consequences
  • remove/weaken
  • negative consequences for good performance
  • positive consequences for poor performance

13
Is training the best solution?
  • If employees lack the knowledge and skill to
    perform and the other factors are satisfactory,
    training is needed.
  • If employees have the knowledge and skill to
    perform but input, output, consequences, or
    feedback are inadequate, training may not be the
    best solution.

14
Wrong Reasons for Training
  • MAFIA
  • HEIDI
  • SILI
  • SYC
  • BOC
  • RATS

15
Wrong Reasons for Training
  • MAFIA
  • Management asked for it again
  • HEIDI
  • Hey everybody else is doing it
  • SILI
  • Spend it or lose it
  • SYC
  • Show you care
  • Save your can
  • BOC
  • Butts on chairs, rumps in the room
  • RATS
  • Random acts of training

16
When you go to ER, what do you want the doctor to
do?
  • Ask questions
  • Run tests
  • Analyze data
  • Diagnosis
  • Prescribe treatment

You have to know the disease to get the right
cure.
17
Needs Assessment
Organization
Task
Person
18
The Needs Assessment Process
Outcomes
Reasons or Pressure Points
  • What Trainees Need to Learn
  • Who Receives Training
  • Type of Training
  • Frequency of Training
  • Buy Versus Build Training Decision
  • Training Versus Other HR Options Such as
    Selection or Job Redesign

What is the Context?
  • Legislation
  • Lack of Basic Skills
  • Poor Performance
  • New Technology
  • Customer Requests
  • New Products
  • Higher Performance Standards
  • New Jobs

Organization Analysis
In What Do They Need Training?
Task Analysis
Person Analysis
Who Needs the Training?
19
Needs Assessment Techniques
20
Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment
Techniques (1 of 3)
21
Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment
Techniques (2 of 3)
22
Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment
Techniques (3 of 3)
23
Use more than two methods for collecting
information to increase the validity of the
analysis
Use multiple sources of information to increase
the validity of the analysis
24
Key Concerns of Upper- Midlevel Managers
Trainers in Needs Assessment
25
The Needs Analysis Process
Person Analysis
  • Person Characteristics
  • Input
  • Output
  • Consequences
  • Feedback
  • Organizational Analysis
  • Strategic Direction
  • Support of Managers Peers for Training
  • Training Resources

Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training?
  • Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model
  • Work Activity (Task)
  • KSAs
  • Working Conditions

26
Organizational Needs Assessment
  • Companys Strategic Direction
  • Support of Managers Peers
  • Resources
  • budget
  • time
  • training

Organization
27
Questions to Ask in an Organizational
AnalysisTable 3.3, p. 81
  • How might the training content affect our
    employees relationship with our customers?
  • What might suppliers, customers, or partners need
    to know about the training program?
  • How does this program align with the strategic
    needs of the business?
  • Should organizational resources be devoted to
    this program?
  • What do we need from managers and peers for this
    training to succeed?
  • What features of the work environment might
    interfere with training?
  • Do we have experts who can help us develop the
    program content and ensure that we understand the
    needs of the business as we develop the program?
  • Will employees perceive the training program as
    an opportunity? reward? punishment? waste of time?

28
Person Needs Assessment
  • Determine source of performance deficiency
  • Identify who needs training
  • Determine readiness

Person
29
When is Training the Best Solution?
  • Cost of Deficiency
  • Performance
  • Knowledge/Behavior
  • Expectations, Obstacles
  • Rewards
  • Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • Strategy

30
Task Needs Assessment
  • Job Analysis
  • Job Description
  • TDRs
  • Job Specifications
  • KSAOs

Task
31
Steps in a Task Analysis
  • Select the job(s) to be analyzed.
  • Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by
    the job.
  • Validate or confirm the preliminary list of
    tasks.
  • Identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities
    necessary to successfully perform each task.

32
Key Points to Remember When Conducing a Task
AnalysisTable 3.7, p. 95
  • Task analysis should identify both what employees
    are actually doing and what they should be doing
    on the job
  • Task analysis begins by breaking the job into
    duties and tasks
  • Use more than two methods for collecting task
    information to increase the validity of the
    analysis
  • For task analysis to be useful, information needs
    to be collected from subject matter experts
    (SMEs) job incumbents, managers, employees
    familiar with the job
  • In deciding how to evaluate tasks, the focus
    should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the
    companys goals and objectives
  • These may not be the tasks that are the most
    difficult or take the most time

33
Speedy needs assessment How to do a needs
assessment when you think you dont have time
  • Articles from Training Development Training
    with practical suggestions regarding needs
    assessment

34
Speedy needs assessment8 Basic Questions
  • 1 What are the OPERATING problems?
  • 2 Are the operating problems caused or
    contributed to by HUMAN BEHAVIOR?
  • 3 Could the employees perform correctly if they
    had to
  • Have they done so lately?

35
8 Basic Questions cond
  • 4 Is the desired performance now BEING DEMANDED
    by employees manager?
  • 5 What evidence shows that present PERFORMANCE
    is a PROBLEM?
  • 6 What OTHER ISSUES might be contributing to
    this operating problem?

36
8 Basic Questions cond
  • 7 Based on this analysis, IS TRAINING NEEDED?
  • 8 If training is needed, WILL MANAGERS COMMIT
    THEMSELVES TO ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT in the training
    process
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