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Chapter 12 Political Parties

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Title: Chapter 1 The Political Landscape Author: Alixandra Yanus Last modified by: IB Created Date: 8/12/2008 10:00:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12 Political Parties


1
Chapter 12Political Parties
?
To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas
Editions American Government Roots and Reform,
10th edition Karen OConnor and Larry J. Sabato ?
Pearson Education, 2009
2
Political Parties
  • Organized effort to gain power through
    elections.
  • Consist of three entities.
  • Governmental party, or the office holders.
  • Organizational party, or the workers and
    activists.
  • Party in the electorate, or the voters.

3
Roots of the Party System
  • Federalists and Democratic-Republicans were
    earliest.
  • 1820s Era of Good Feelings is relatively
    party-free.
  • Whigs and Democrats after 1832.
  • Development of the Republican Party in 1854.

4
Twentieth-Century Party System
  • 1876-1912 was Golden Age of parties due to
    machines.
  • Parties weakened in the modern era.
  • Development of direct primary system.
  • Changes in civil service laws.
  • Growth of candidate-centered and issue-oriented
    politics.
  • Increase in ticket-splitting.

5
Party Realignment
  • During a realignment, party coalitions change.
  • Critical elections put key issues into
    perspective.
  • 1800, 1860, and 1932 were critical elections.
  • No uniform realignment has occurred since 1932.
  • Political system characterized by secular
    realignment.

6
Functions of the Party System
  • Mobilizing support and building coalitions.
  • Encouraging stability in the political system.
  • Providing accountability for public policy.
  • Running candidates for office.
  • Providing a cue for voters.
  • Formulating policy through a national party
    platform.

7
Minor Parties
  • Winner-take-all system makes it difficult to win
    office.
  • Sharp contrast to proportional systems used
    elsewhere.
  • Rooted in sectionalism, protest, issues, and
    people.
  • Do best when there is little trust in other
    parties.
  • Can have success in putting issues on agenda.

8
Party Organization
  • National committees, which hold conventions.
  • State committees.
  • Local committees.
  • Informal groups, such as PACs and think tanks.
  • Changed dramatically in recent years.
  • New rules about soft and hard money have played
    role.

9
Party in Government
  • Parties play a major role in organizing
    Congress.
  • Parties shape perceptions of presidents.
  • Presidents--to varying degrees--act as party
    leaders.
  • Party may predict some judicial decisions.

10
Party in the Electorate
  • Party identification shapes political worldview.
  • May be shaped by demographic characteristics.
  • South, middle-aged, and white-collar more
    Republican.
  • Evangelicals and married more Republican.
  • Women, minorities, and Jews more Democratic.
  • Unions, advanced degrees, and single more
    Democratic.

11
Dealignment and Party Strength
  • Argument that we are in a period of dealignment.
  • Voters are much less likely to identify with a
    party.
  • Result of the growth in issue-oriented politics.
  • Parties are important in electorate and in
    government.
  • Parties continue to be competitive with one
    another.

12
AV- Partisan Identification
?
Back
13
Figure 12.1- American Party History
?
Back
14
Figure 12.2- Realigning Elections
?
Back
15
Figure 12.3- Party Organization
?
Back
16
Figure 12.4- Political Party Finances
?
Back
17
Figure 12.5- Congressional Party Unity
?
Back
18
Figure 12.6- Gender Gap
?
Back
19
Table 12.1- Party Platforms
?
Back
20
Table 12.2- Party Identification by Group
?
Back
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