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The Medieval Synthesis in the Arts

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Chapter 13 The Medieval Synthesis in the Arts Hallmarks of Romanesque Solidity and simplicity of structure A form marked by severity and military masculinity Norman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Medieval Synthesis in the Arts


1
Chapter 13
  • The Medieval Synthesis in the Arts

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  • Romanesque
  • Architecture

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  • The primary impulse for Romanesque architecture
    came from the church.
  • Geography The Romanesque center of gravity is in
    Italy and those lands north of the Alps.
  • Chronology The Romanesque period extended from
    the Carolingian to the Holy Roman epochs (the 8th
    and 12th centuries).

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  • Basic motifs an multistory interior, with a dome
    and round arches set on columns
  • Basic form a basilica built with a transept in
    front of the choir

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  • The Benedictine abbey of Cluny, Southern France

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  • Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, southern France

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Hallmarks of Romanesque
  1. Solidity and simplicity of structure
  2. A form marked by severity and military
    masculinity

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Norman Romanesque
  • The Normans were Vikings who settled in northern
    France in 911, Britain in 1066, and later in
    southern Italy and Sicily.
  • The term Norman Romanesque designates the style
    as it developed under French influence, not only
    in France itself, but throughout the area under
    Norman influence.

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Norman Romanesque
  • Characteristics the organization of wall
    surfaces, an emphasis on pure ornamentalism, and
    development of the groin vault, in which two
    barrel vaults intersect at right angles.
  • All of these developments foreshadow the Gothic.

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  • Speyer, Germany (built 1024-1106)

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  • The Cathedral of Durham, England (1091-1120)

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  • The Compo dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy (began in
    1063 and took two centuries to complete)

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  • Romanesque Sculpture

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  • Gothic Architecture

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  • The term gothic, derived from the barbarian
    Goths, was originally used to discredit a
    supposedly degenerate architectural style.
  • It describes the errors typically found in
    large church and state buildings north of the
    Alps starting around 1300.
  • The gothic architecture was widely prevalent in
    the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe.

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Symbolic Meaning
  • a shift of intellectual life from the monastery
    to the town

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Characteristics
  • Size often large enough to hold the entire
    population of a town
  • Height soaring heavenward
  • Light stained glass, the illuminated nave

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  • Mauvais Cathedral, France (begun 1220)

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Notre Dame, Paris
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Milan
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Salisbury, England
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Salisbury, England
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Flying Buttress
  • This device allowed masons to carry as much
    weight as they could away from cathedral walls.
    The higher the walls, the greater the span of the
    buttresses.

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Soaring Spires
  • If the French aimed high with the naves of their
    cathedrals, abetted by the flying buttress, the
    English and Germans reached for the sky in the
    guise of spires.

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Tracery
  • A pattern wrought by the interweaving or
    branching out of lines in the head of a gothic
    window
  • Two periods
  • The Decorative naturalistic and flowing, full
    of swoops and curves
  • The Perpendicular geometric, refined, and
    mechanical

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  • Stained Glass

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  • Rose Window

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  • Gargoyles

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  • The End
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