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Understanding and Promoting Executive Functions in Children

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Title: Understanding and Promoting Executive Functions in Children


1
Understanding and Promoting Executive Functions
in Children
  • Stephen R. Hooper, Ph.D.
  • Department of Allied Health Sciences
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine

2
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the various definitions of Executive
    Functions (EF).
  • Describe the neurological underpinnings and
    associated models
  • Examples of EF assessment strategies
  • Identify the manifestation of EF deficits in
    selected pediatric disorders.
  • Overview specific strategies for managing
    executive dysfunction.

3
Case Example
4
Case Example
  • Joshua was referred for a neuropsychological
    evaluation due to a reported decline in
    intellectual functioning, and to assist in
    identifying neurocognitive contributions to his
    ongoing learning and social-emotional
    difficulties.

5
Case Example
  • Joshua is an 8 year, 8 month old male whose
    history is significant for aggression and
    exposure to family conflict and abuse.
  • At the age of 3 months, Joshua was removed from
    his biological parents care because his parents
    were physically abusive toward each other and
    were abusing a variety of substances.
  • Joshua was adopted at 3 months of age by his
    maternal grandparents.

6
Case Example
  • Joshua is placed in a self-contained classroom
    for emotional/behavioral challenges where he has
    received instruction since Kindergarten due to
    destructive and aggressive behaviors in
    preschool.
  • With respect to specific skills, Joshua is behind
    his peers in all core areas and he is not yet
    able to read or count fluently.
  • His gross motor coordination is reported to be
    poor and he has not yet learned to ride a bike.
  • Concerns have arisen regarding Joshuas language
    abilities as he can be difficult to understand
    and he struggles with sound-symbol associations.

7
Case Example
  • Emotional/behavioral difficulties are long
    standing.
  • His adoptive parents noted that he can be
    aggressive, which includes hitting, biting, and
    spitting at others, and that he is impulsive,
    inattentive, and lacks self-control with few
    self-soothing strategies.
  • He has sensitivity to food textures and has
    difficulty sleeping through the night.

8
Case Example
  • Socially, Joshua is teased by peers, does not
    play well in groups, prefers to organize his own
    play, is unwilling to share, and prefers to play
    with younger children.
  • His adoptive parents noted that it is not
    uncommon for peers to encourage him to become
    angry and act out.

9
Case Example
  • Joshua carries the diagnoses of
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Aspergers Disorder
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

10
Case Example
  • Joshuas medical history is significant for in
    utero alcohol and cocaine exposure for the entire
    duration of his prenatal life, with alcohol
    amounts reaching a bottle of whiskey a day
    according to the DSS report, subsequent premature
    birth, asthma, constipation, and significantly
    delayed developmental milestones.

11
Case Example
  • IQ 77
  • Achievement
  • Reading 64
  • Math 65
  • Spelling 63
  • Motor Right sided dominance, slow fine-motor
    speed bilaterally, fine-motor coordination was
    poor
  • Sensory No major problems with tactile
    perception, discrimination, or sensory
    suppressions
  • Language borderline to low average range
  • Visual Processing Visual discrimination intact,
    but borderline higher-order visual-spatial and
    visuoconstructive functions.

12
Case Example
  • Problem Solving
  • Disproportionately low, with associated poor
    planning and significant cognitive rigidity
  • Characterized by concrete thinking
  • Set-Maintenance/Shifting
  • Highly rigid and prone to frequent perseverations

13
Case Example
  • Inhibitory Control
  • Highly impulsive and poorly regulated
  • Working Memory
  • Disproportionately low verbal and visual working
    memory
  • Processing Speed and Efficiency
  • Overly quick in his responding, consistent with
    his high degree of impulsivity
  • Attention Regulation
  • Selective and sustained attention were poor and
    highly variable

14
Definitions
15
Definitions
  • Of all of the neurocognitive constructs, this one
    is probably the most complex.
  • Is it taught as part of an assessment class
    sequence?
  • The complexity comes not only in its overall
    regulatory functions, but also in how executive
    functions interact with nearly every other
    neurocognitive function.
  • Executive processes have been deemed critical to
    the integrity of many learning and
    social-behavioral functions.
  • Not typically assessed in a routine
    psychoeducational evaluation.
  • There are a number of definitions of executive
    functions, some extending back nearly 50 years.

16
Executive Functions(Luria, 1966)
  • Executive function is defined as the ability to
    maintain an appropriate problem-solving set for
    attainment of a future goal. This involves
  • an intention to inhibit a response or to defer it
    to a later, more appropriate time
  • a strategic plan of action sequences and/or
  • a mental representation of the task, including
    the relevant stimulus information encoded in
    memory and the desired future goal-state.

17
Executive Functions(Welsh Pennington, 1988)
  • Executive function is primarily the set
    maintenance required to achieve a future goal.
  • This set maintenance includes the requisite
    skills of planning, organization, inhibition of
    maladaptive responses, self-monitoring, and
    flexibility of strategies contingent on feedback.
  • Goldman-Rakic (1990) would add to this definition
    the concept of working memory.

18
Executive Functions(Zelazo Mueller, 2002)
  • Executive function (EF) describes the control
    processes that affect overall output. This
    collection of abilities involves
  • Regulatory control over thoughts and behaviors
    during goal-directed or intentional actions
  • Problem solving
  • Flexible shifting between actions to meet task
    demands.

19
Executive Functions(Stuss Alexander, 2000)
  • Noted that one important contribution of EF is
    the regulation of affect and social behavior.
  • This notion is supported by the finding that
    abstract reasoning has been linked to
    vulnerability to social anxiety during
    adolescence in typically developing children.

20
Models
21
Models of Executive Functioning
  • Executive functions are generally viewed within a
    multidimensional framework of cognitive abilities
    that provide critical support for goal-directed,
    future-oriented behaviors.
  • These behaviors typically include attention
    regulation, inhibitory control, working memory,
    set shifting/cognitive flexibility, planning, and
    cognitive efficiency.
  • The multiple dimensions of executive functions
    have been embedded within conceptual and
    empirical models that comprise two, three, four,
    and six factors.

22
Executive Functioning(Welsh et al., 1991)
  • Speeded responding
  • Visual search - achieved at age 6
  • Verbal fluency - gt age 12
  • Motor sequencing - gt age 12
  • Set maintenance
  • Wisconsin Card Sort - achieved at age 10
  • MFFT - achieved at age 10
  • Planning
  • Tower of Hanoi (3 disk) - achieved at age 6
  • Tower of Hanoi (4 disk) - gt age 12

23
Executive Functions(Pennington, 1997)
  • Implicated 4 empirical subcomponents of EF using
    Typicals and children with Reading Disabilities.
    Then applied to different disorders
  • Inhibition (ADHDlt FXS, ASD ADHD improves on
    medication)
  • Set Shifting (ADHDgtFXSgtASD)
  • Working Memory (ADHDgtASDgtFXS)
  • Planning (ADHDgtFXSgtASD
  • Both the level and pattern of EF abilities has
    potential to discriminate across disorders.

24
Executive Functioning (Denckla, 1993)
  • Delay between stimulus and response
  • Internal representation of schema
  • Internal representation of action plan
  • Response inhibition
  • Efficiency and consistency of response
  • Active strategies and deployment
  • Flexible strategies and deployment

25
Executive Functioning (Denckla, 1993)
  • Denckla utilized this conceptual framework to
    propose a 4-factor model of executive functions
  • Initiating
  • Sustaining
  • Set-Shifting
  • Inhibiting
  • Has been applied to 4th and 5th grade students
    with Written Language Disorder (Hooper et al.,
    2002).
  • Poor Writers were less proficient at initiation,
    set-shifting, and sustaining than Good Writers.

26
Executive Function Summary
  • There are notable differences between these
    models, but there does appear to be a number of
    specific executive functions that appear across
    the models.
  • Planning and problem solving, inhibitory control,
    set shifting, and set maintenance usually are
    included in some fashion.
  • Speeded responding and working memory also have
    been discussed as subcomponents of executive
    function.
  • Dont forget affective regulation.

27
Executive Function Summary
  • Most of these functions are linked to the
    dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and associated
    brain regions
  • It is important to remember that the emotional
    control functions associated with the
    ventromedial prefrontal cortex also should be
    included in a larger executive function model.
  • This will be especially important for increasing
    our understanding of the childhood
    neurobehavioral difficulties.
  • Applications for both behavioral and affective
    regulatory difficulties in children.

28
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
29
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • Lesion, neuroimaging, and brain function (e.g.,
    EEG) studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex
    (PFC) is primarily involved in executive
    processing.
  • Based upon anatomical connectivity, there are two
    major regions of the PFC
  • Dorsolateral PFC (DlPFC)
  • Ventromedial PFC (VmPFC).

30
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • The so called cool functions of dorsolateral
    prefrontal cortex represent the executive
    functions of motor planning and regulation,
    integration of sensory and mnemonic information,
    working memory, and attention regulation
  • The ventromedial regions of the orbitofrontal
    cortex are involved in planning and
    decision-making, but they also mediate affective
    regulatory functions, or the so called hot
    functions.

31
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DlPFC)
  • Regions within DlPFC influence
  • The selection of behaviors
  • Recognition of context-dependent changes between
    stimuli and behavior
  • Potentiation of sets of stimulus-response
    contingencies related to behaviors in context
  • Flexible, goal-driven control of behavior

32
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • Varying levels of damage to the DlPFC are
    associated with
  • Lack of motivation, creativity, or
    goal-following.
  • Difficulty in initiating or flexibly modifying
    actions, resulting in stereotyped responses.
  • Loss of affect.
  • Inability to assess others mental states
    Theory of Mind.
  • Perseveration and more random-choice errors than
    age-matched controls.
  • Increased distractibility and problems with
    sustained attention.
  • Impaired working memory.
  • Understanding of complex task rules.

33
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (VmPFC)
  • The VmPFC is critical for elucidating the
    relation between stimuli and reinforcers, and for
    explaining the inability of individuals with
    vmPFC damage to learn reward contingencies.
  • Important for affective regulation.

34
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • Varying levels of damage to the vmPFC are
    associated with
  • Impulsivity
  • Sensitivity to immediate rewards
  • Lack of self-control
  • Disruption of both affective and nonaffective
    stimuli
  • Tendency to select behaviors with the highest
    perceived reward, not the highest perceived
    utility

35
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
Frontal Pole
Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
36
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • All of the various executive functions have a
    developmental basis that will have differential
    effects on learning and behavior over time.
  • There is a sequential unfolding of various
    executive functions over the course of
    development.
  • Contemporary findings from typical developmental
    studies, lesion studies, and primate studies
    suggest that the PFC is operational, at a basic
    level, by the end of infancy (i.e., 24 months),
    with some evidence of even earlier emergence.

37
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • While executive functions appear to develop from
    infancy into early adulthood, it appears that the
    period of most rapid development occurs
  • Between the ages of 6 and 8 years of age
  • More modest gains between the ages of 9 and 12
  • Differential development continues through
    adolescence into early adulthood depending on the
    specific task or behavior.
  • An injury during any of these periods of
    development will have an effect on specific
    functions along with the developmental
    trajectories of these functions.

38
Neurodevelopmental Underpinnings
  • Disruption to the neurological underpinnings of
    any of these brain regions of the prefrontal
    cortex could trigger specific executive
    dysfunctions in cognitive and/or
    behavioral-emotional functioning.
  • Given the developmental trajectories of many of
    these functions, it also is possible for an
    earlier injury to lie silent until they are
    developmentally required, and a specific
    executive dysfunction could emerge at a later
    developmental epoch (e.g., during middle school).
  • This can create the apparent emergence of a new
    learning or behavior problem, and requires that
    evaluators routinely inquire about brain injuries
    in their developmental history for any given case.

39
Executive Function Assessment Strategies
40
Assessment
  • Most psychoeducational measures do not assess
    executive functions.
  • Intellectual measures have rarely assessed EF,
    although recent efforts have tried to extend into
    this area. For example
  • WISC-IV and WISC-IV-I
  • K-ABC-2
  • Stanford-Binet V
  • WJ-III Cognitive Abilities Test

41
Assessment
  • Executive deficits can appear in a myriad of
    medical conditions and disorders.
  • Can impact both learning and social-behavioral
    functioning in these situations.
  • In this regard, the inclusion of executive
    functions measures should be considered in any
    assessment of neurocognitive abilities.
  • In the past, there were few instruments available
    to clinicianseven neuropsychologistsfor the
    assessment of executive functions.
  • This was accentuated by the lack of training in
    these types of assessments.

42
Assessment
  • Over the past 20 years or so the assessment of EF
    has seen the development of a number of tools,
    many of which are normatively based,
    standardized, and span a wide age rangeincluding
    the preschool years.
  • Assessment tools even have been developed to
    assess EF using qualitative approaches and rating
    scales in an effort to increase ecological
    validity.
  • The value added may be critical to treatment
    planning and developmental surveillance.

43
Assessment
  • There are a number of standardized measures that
    provide estimates of selected executive
    functions.
  • Executive function batteries and ratings scales
    also have been developed.
  • Regardless of the measurement, remember the s
    in executive functions i.e., this is a highly
    multidimensional construct.

44
Assessment
  • When one considers the various subcomponents of
    executive functions, there are measures of
  • Planning and problem solving
  • Set maintenance and set-shifting
  • Inhibitory control
  • Working memory
  • Speeded responding
  • Attention regulation

45
Assessment
  • Problem Solving and Planning
  • Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
  • Test of Problem Solving Skills-Revised
  • HRNB Category Test (Booklet version)
  • Tower of Hanoi
  • Tower of London
  • Porteus Mazes
  • WJ-III Planning Subtest

46
Assessment
  • Set Maintenance and Set-Shifting
  • Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
  • Stroop Color and Word Test
  • Ruff Figural Fluency Test
  • Verbal Fluency Test
  • Trail-Making Test (Part B)

47
Assessment
  • Inhibitory Control
  • Continuous Performance Tests
  • Matching Familiar Figures Test
  • Go No-Go tasks
  • Stop Signal Test
  • Stroop Color and Word Test

48
Assessment
  • Working Memory
  • Span Tasks
  • Digit Span
  • Word Span (words and pseudowords)
  • Spatial Span
  • Dane-Carpenter task
  • Delayed recall types of tasks
  • WRAML-2 Design Memory
  • Manipulation tasks
  • Mental arithmetic
  • WJ-III Auditory Working Memory Subtest

49
Assessment
  • Attention Regulation
  • Continuous Performance Tests
  • Visual search tasks
  • Auditory Sequencing tasks

50
Assessment
  • Speeded Processing
  • Rapid Naming tasks
  • Motor sequencing tasks
  • Verbal fluency (e.g., Controlled Oral Word
    Association Test)
  • Nonverbal fluency (e.g., Ruff Nonverbal Fluency
    Test)
  • WJ-III Processing Speed Cluster
  • Reaction Time

51
Assessment
  • Working Memory Battery for Children
  • 9 subtests based around the Baddelley Working
    Memory model
  • Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System
  • 9 subtests that adapt classic EF measures
  • Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive
    Syndrome for Children

52
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
53
Tower Task
54
Tower Task
55
WISV-IV Integrated Spatial Span
56
Stroop Color and Word Test
57
Stroop Color and Word Test
58
Stroop Color and Word Test
59
Assessment
  • Additionally, there are relatively new measures
    becoming available to assess selected executive
    functions in the preschool population, with tasks
    going down to two years of age.
  • Several of these tasks include
  • The Shape School, which assesses inhibitory
    control
  • The IS Task, which measures set-shifting
  • Working memory span tasks
  • The Tower Task, which assesses planning and
    problem solving
  • Continuous performance tests (e.g., Kiddie
    Conners CPT) are available for use for children
    ages 3 to 5

60
Assessment
  • To assess affective regulation, there are
    emergent tasks that extend from the laboratory
    into the clinical arena
  • Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test
  • Benton Facial Recognition Test
  • The Awareness of Social Inference Test
  • NEPSY-II Social Perception Domain
  • Affect Recognition
  • Theory of Mind

61
Assessment
  • A number of the measures to assess affective
    regulation are now computerized.
  • The Penn Neuropsychological Battery
  • Emotional Recognition Task
  • The Affective Go No-Go Task from the Cambridge
    Neuropsychological Automated Battery
  • The individual is asked to inhibit responses to
    selected targets
  • The Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Abilities
    (DANVA)
  • Provides estimates of emotional regulation and
    control via visual and auditory pathways.
  • Scores provide an indication of both receptive
    and expressive affective regulation.

62
Assessment
  • There are several ratings scales available to
    assess executive functioning in children and
    adolescents.
  • These measures are not direct assessment
    batteries per se, but rather comprehensive rating
    scales that provide estimates of both cognitive
    and affective regulatory functions in a
    multi-rater, multi-setting framework and in a
    time efficient manner.
  • Examples include
  • The Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children
    (DEX-C), which is part of the larger Behavioural
    Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for
    Children
  • The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive
    Function (BRIEF)
  • The Delis Rating of Executive Functions uses
    online administration, scoring, and reporting
    (ages 5 to 18 years)

63
Assessment
  • The BRIEF
  • Three overall summary indices
  • Metacognitive Index
  • Behavioral Regulation Index
  • Global Executive Composite
  • Eight different empirically derived scales
  • Inhibit
  • Shift
  • Emotional Control
  • Initiate
  • Working Memory
  • Plan/Organize
  • Organization of Materials
  • Self-Monitor

64
Assessment
  • Qualitative tasks that involve real-life
    simulations
  • Video-taped vignettes of social situations
  • The Party Planning Task
  • The Child-Kitchen Task
  • The School Assessment of Motor and Process Skills
  • Provides an appraisal of skills that children
    need to function in the classroom setting.
  • The Childrens Cooking Task
  • An adaptation of an adult task that was designed
    to determine the childs ability to follow a
    checklist without being distracted, evaluate the
    outcomes with respect to the initial goals for
    cooking, and make adjustments for any errors.
  • Comprised of making a chocolate cake and a fruit
    cocktail performed in a kitchen.
  • Variables of interest include the number of
    errors and an overall qualitative analysis of the
    task.
  • Children with TBI made more errors in the cooking
    process as compared to aged matched controls.

65
Assessment Summary
  • There are a variety of measures that currently
    exist that cross age boundaries from preschool
    through adulthood.
  • Employ one of the theoretical models of EF in
    your assessment approach.
  • Which constructs will you employ?
  • How does it align with known brain function?
  • Dont hesitate to employ both quantitative and
    qualitative assessment methods.

66
Disorders Showing Executive Dysfunction
67
Disorders with Executive Dysfunction
  • The presence of EF deficits can appear in a
    variety of disorders and conditions.
  • Chronic illness (e.g., diabetes, CKD)
  • Pediatric neurological conditions (e.g.,
    traumatic brain injury, stroke)
  • Pediatric Genetic Disorders (e.g., Prader-Willi
    Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome)
  • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., bipolar disorder,
    schizophrenia, substance abuse, childhood
    maltreatment)
  • Developmental disabilities (e.g., Autism Spectrum
    Disorder, Learning Disabilities, ADHD)

68
Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
69
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Along with attention impairments, one of the most
    common findings in pediatric traumatic brain
    injury is the presence of various types of
    executive dysfunction.
  • This is not unexpected given that many cases of
    TBI will evidence some degree of frontal lobe
    involvement.

70
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Empirical studies have documented the presence of
    impairments in
  • Planning and problem solving
  • Abstract thinking and analogical reasoning
  • Set-shifting and cognitive flexibility
  • Inhibitory control
  • Metacognitive capabilities
  • Processing speed
  • Working memory

71
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Given the regulatory role of the ventromedial
    prefrontal cortex in social and affective
    functions, a number of studies have documented
    the difficulties of self-regulation and social
    cognition in children following a traumatic brain
    injury.
  • These impairments have been documented in
    moderate to severe brain injuries up to five
    years post injury.
  • Self-regulatory abilities also can serve as
    mediators of the effects of traumatic brain
    injury and the emergence of social-behavioral
    difficulties in this population.

72
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Children sustaining a TBI also have evidenced
    problems in
  • Identifying emotions
  • Labeling emotions
  • Extracting meaning from non-literal social
    communication
  • Evaluating problem solving outcomes
  • Higher-order language impairments have been
    reported such that both expressive and receptive
    language pragmatic skills (e.g., understanding
    proverbs, figurative sayings).

73
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • In general, following a TBI, nearly all of these
    executive functioning components will evidence
    some degree of impairment that is dictated, in
    part, by the severity of the brain injury.
  • These findings have been reported for children
    with a mild TBI, although results were not as
    striking.
  • These deficits also have been reported to be
    persistent in some fashion 7 to 10 years post
    injury.

74
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Executive function ratings have been associated
    with
  • Psychiatric status
  • Family burden
  • General family functioning
  • Adolescents with severe TBI tended to report
    fewer problems in executive functioning, when
    compared to their parents, particularly in their
    metacognitive abilities.
  • Assessment and treatment issues?

75
Autism Spectrum Disorder
76
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Individuals with Autismboth low and high
    functioningappear to manifest significant
    impairments when compared to various comparison
    groups.
  • These deficits included
  • Planning and organization
  • Set-Shifting and perseverative tendencies
  • Abstract thinking
  • Executive dysfunction has been correlated with
    both the quality of joint attention and social
    interactions.

77
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • In contrast, individuals with brain injuries to
    the frontal region are not autistic.
  • Neuroimaging studies have not documented clear
    frontal lobe brain injuries, but neurological
    abnormalities have been reported (e.g., early
    white matter tracts).
  • Neurocognitive findings have not been universally
    supportive of a global executive dysfunction in
    Autism.

78
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Studies of older children have converged to
    suggest that working memory is not a deficit in
    Autism, and this is the only EF domain with
    consistent results.
  • Several research groups reported deficits in
    problem solving and self-monitoring, perhaps
    secondary to a lack of verbal self-regulation,
    but his has been contested.
  • Deficits in cognitive flexibility were documented
    in some studies but, again, not in others.
  • Independent of verbal IQ or present even after
    controlling for verbal IQ.
  • Intact cognitive flexibility also has been linked
    to improvements in social competence.

79
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Several research groups have reported deficits in
    inhibition, while others reported no deficits.
  • Could they be related to poor verbal abilities or
    are they unrelated?
  • Regarding attention, children with Autism
    performed similarly to children with
    developmental language delays matched on
    nonverbal IQ on a sustained attention task,
    although their modulation of arousal levels has
    been implicated.
  • This was not consistent with the high prevalence
    of ADHD symptoms in individuals with Autism.
  • Individuals with Autism also seem to experience
    less encroachment on their functioning during
    divided attention tasks.

80
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • A model of executive functioning may prove to be
    useful in linking selected executive functions to
    core and associated symptoms.
  • Working memory, cognitive flexibility, and
    response inhibition have been variably related to
    restrictive and repetitive symptoms, but planning
    and fluency were not.
  • Verbal fluency difficulties could be another
    contributor to communication impediments in
    individuals with Autism.
  • Organizational deficits have been noted, but not
    thoroughly studied.
  • Baron-Cohen Empathizing-Systemizing (ES) theory
    would suggest otherwise.

81
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • While this theory can explain some aspect of each
    of the core problems with Autism, they are not
    universally supported and account for small
    amounts of the variance of the core symptoms.
  • Executive dysfunction also is not exclusive to
    Autism and, consequently, is not the sole cause
    of autistic behaviors.
  • These deficits also cannot explain some of the
    assets that many children with Autism can
    manifest (e.g., savant skills).

82
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Current theorizing indicates that while executive
    dysfunction can be present early in development,
    it also can surface as a secondary deficit as
    children with Autism increase in age.
  • There also may be environmental contributors to
    the executive dysfunctions, such as a caregiver
    unintentionally reinforcing cognitive rigidity in
    an interaction.
  • Further, given the prolonged developmental
    trajectory of many executive functions, might an
    extended window for neurorehabilitation be
    present?

83
Fragile X Syndrome
84
Fragile X Syndrome
  • Most common known inherited cause of ID, and the
    second most frequent chromosomal cause of ID
    after Down Syndrome.
  • The Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene (FMR-1)
    was been isolated and identified in 1991.
  • Prevalence 1/1250 males 1/2500 females in the
    general population.
  • Fragile X is an X-linked disorder, named for a
    mutation or fragile site on the long arm of the X
    chromosome at locus Xq27.3.

85
Fragile X Syndrome
  • This mutation is associated with an elongated
    sequence of trinucleotide repeats (CGG) within
    the FMR-1 gene.
  • Normal 5 to 52 repeats
  • Premutation 52 to 200 repeats (the person is
    usually unaffected)
  • Full mutation gt 200 repeats (full expression)
  • A full mutation is associated with an abnormal
    methylation of the FMR-1 gene, and will affect
    cells where the FMR protein is expressed.

86
Fragile X Syndrome
  • Because it is an X-linked disorder, its effects
    are more severe in males than females.
  • Fragile X gene affects physical features (e.g.
    macrocephaly, elongated face, prominent jaw, and
    long protruding ears), behaviors (e.g., ADHD,
    anxiety), and overall development.
  • Associated problems include mitral valve prolapse
    (80), orthopedic problems (73), recurrent
    otitis media (63), and seizures (20).

87
Fragile X Syndrome
  • Many of the behavior problems in FXS can be
    traced to possible EF deficits.
  • The available literature has pointed to problems
    in
  • Attention modulation
  • Impulsivity/Inhibition
  • Problems managing transitions
  • Perseveration
  • Sequencing problems
  • Working memory
  • EF in FXS has received moderate examination, but
    few studies directed to children.

88
Fragile X Syndrome
  • Problem Solving/Cognitive Flexibility
  • NEPSY Tower
  • Contingency Naming
  • WJ-III Rapid Picture Naming
  • WJ-III Planning
  • Inhibition/Attention Regulation
  • Auditory CPT False Alarms
  • Auditory CPT d-prime
  • Visual CPT False Alarms
  • Visual CPT d-prime
  • Day-Night Task
  • Working Memory
  • Leiter-R Reverse Memory
  • WJ-III Auditory Working Memory
  • N-Back Task
  • Processing Speed
  • Auditory CPT Reaction Time (to hits)
  • Visual CPT Reaction Time (to hits)

89
Tower Task

Hooper et al., 2008
90
Auditory Continuous Performance Test

Hooper et al., 2008
91
Auditory Continuous Performance Test
Hooper et al., 2008
92
What Happens Over Time?
93
Hooper et al., 2013
94
Hooper et al., 2013
95
Hooper et al., 2013
96
Hooper et al., 2013
97
Fragile X Syndrome
  • These findings support the available literature
    identifying EF deficits in children and adults
    with FXS.
  • These deficits manifest primarily in
  • Problem solving/Cognitive flexibility
  • Working memory
  • Inhibition/attention regulation
  • These functions are disproportionately low even
    when compared to MA matched typicals, and change
    more slowly over time.

98
Written Language Disorder
99
Written Language Disorder
  • A number of studies have begun to document the
    importance of executive functions to the writing
    process.
  • Hooper et al. (2002) showed that fourth and fifth
    grade students with and without writing problems
    manifested specific differences in their
    executive functions, with the poor writers being
    less proficient at initiation, set-shifting, and
    sustaining.
  • From a developmental perspective, it would seem
    that executive functions will carry more variance
    with respect to written language production as
    students move into their middle school years,
    perhaps serving as moderators to specific types
    of writing interventions.

100
Executive Functions of Good Writers vs. Poor
Writers
101
Written Language Disorder
  • One key executive function that has been the
    target of scientific investigations is working
    memory.
  • The cognitive workspace, or working memory, is
    important to written expression because it is the
    function that underlies the active maintenance of
    multiple ideas, the retrieval of grammatical
    rules from long-term memory, and the recursive
    self-monitoring that is required during the act
    of writing.
  • Working memory contributes to the management of
    these simultaneous processes, and a breakdown may
    lead to problems with written output.

102
Written Language Disorder
  • Reduced working memory capacity has been reported
    in poor writers when compared to good writers,
    and it appears to have both general and
    domain-specific contributions to the writing
    process.
  • Recent work by our group with fourth and fifth
    grade students with and without writing problems
    has documented not only working memory deficits,
    particularly in verbal working memory and its
    development, but also broader memory problems
    that could undermine the entire writing process.

103
Written Language Disorder
  • A contemporary model of written expression, the
    Not-So-Simple View of Writing, incorporates three
    major components
  • Transcription (handwriting or letter production
    and spelling or word production)
  • Executive functions (planning, monitoring,
    revising)
  • Text generation (i.e., the main writing goal of
    the beginning writer)
  • Text generation occurs at the word, sentence, and
    text levels consequently, automatic production
    of letters is necessary, but not sufficient, as
    spelling words via the alphabetic principle and
    related orthographic elements are necessary for
    writing proficiency. Working memory provides a
    mechanism for linking all of the components.
  • The Not-So-Simple View of Writing Model
    postulates that neuropsychological, linguistic,
    and related cognitive functions will be recursive
    throughout the development of the writing
    process, but that each of these functions will
    exert relatively more influence at different
    points in the developmental process.

104
Written Language Disorder
  • According to this model, early elementary school
    students will be constrained by fine-motor output
    (e.g., letter formation), memory for letters and
    words, emergent working memory capacity, and
    linguistic capabilities.
  • By middle school, many but not all children have
    sufficient transcription skills, and their
    writing skills will progress with increased
    emphasis being placed on the development of their
    executive functions.
  • We have demonstrated the general utility of this
    model, particularly with respect to the stability
    of the cognitive components over time, with the
    impact of executive functions being noted even in
    first grade.

105
Neurocognitive Components
Fine Motor
Attention/ Executive Function
Language
WIAT II Written Expression and Spelling
PAL Letters
PAL Word Choice
Elision/PAL Phonemes
PAL Finger Succession Dominant
PAL Finger Succession Non-Dominant
Verbal Working Memory
WJ-III Retrieval Fluency
WJ-III Planning
VIGIL Omissions
VIGIL Commissions
Visual Working Memory
106
Executive Function Management Strategies
107
Management Strategies
  • Problem Solving
  • Develop a guide to help the individual through
    the stages of problem solving
  • Identifying the problem
  • Acquire relevant information
  • Generate several possible solutions
  • List pros and cons for each solution
  • Identify best solution
  • Create a plan of action
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
  • Encourage generalization

108
Management Strategies
  • Problem Solving
  • Raise questions about alternatives and
    consequences (Can they predict outcomes?)
  • Allow the child to bring up relevant real-life
    problems that are appropriate for group
    discussions, and promote brainstorming
  • Introduce roadblocks and complications to
    encourage flexibility
  • Provide ongoing, non-judgmental feedback

109
Management Strategies
  • Problem Solving
  • Computerized intervention for problem solving
    have received some support
  • Teen Online Problem Solving Program for pediatric
    traumatic brain injury
  • Computerized interventions for attention
    regulation have been mixed.

110
Management Strategies
  • Organizational Processes
  • Limit the number of steps in a task
  • Provide part of a sequence and have the student
    finish it
  • Give cues such as, Correct, but what do you
    think will happen next?
  • Structure thinking processes graphically (e.g.,
    time lines, outlines, flow charts, graphs, etc.)

111
Management Strategies
  • Organizational Processes
  • Use categories to focus on one topic at a time
  • Identify the main idea and supporting details,
    categorize them, and encourage student to do the
    same
  • Have the student practice organizational skills
    in other settings

112
Management Strategies
  • Speed of Information Processing
  • Recognize as the student fatigues, speed of
    processing declines
  • Recognize speed of processing can be negatively
    affected by some medications
  • Eliminate timed measures to assess learning
  • Reduce the amount of work required

113
Management Strategies
  • Speed of Information Processing
  • Provide a reader for text materials and tests
  • Permit the student the use of an aide or peer
    tutor to take notes for them, or a computer for
    written language
  • Lower difficulty level until speed of processing
    improves

114
Management Strategies
  • Speed of Information Processing
  • Allow extra time for the completion of tests and
    assignments
  • Frequent breaks allow the student to recharge
  • When necessary, allow the student extra time to
    travel between classes

115
Management Strategies
  • Working Memory
  • Making lists
  • Graphic organizers
  • Automatization of information
  • This frees up other cognitive resources (e.g.,
    driving a car)
  • Overlearning and rehearsal training
  • Environmental manipulations
  • Chunking, repetition
  • Use of technology (e.g., iPads, iPhones)
  • Computerized training programs
  • Cogmed Working Memory Training Program

116
Management Strategies
  • Social Skills Curricula
  • ICPS-I Can Problem Solve Preschool,
    Kindergarten, and Elementary
  • Skillstreaming in Early Childhood, Elementary,
    and Adolescence
  • Second Step Preschool through 9th grade
  • Positive Action Elementary grades
  • The ACCEPTS Program Elementary
  • The PREPARE Curriculum Middle and High School
  • The ACCESS Program Middle and High School
  • Teaching Social Skills to Youth A curriculum for
    child-care providers
  • Innovative Programming addressing
  • Affective Training
  • Family involvement
  • Field needs more evidence-based treatment
    approaches to the management of EF deficts.

117
Management Strategies
  • Feeney Ylvisaker (1995) developed an
    empirically-based approach to reduce maladaptive
    behaviors and increase on-task efforts
  • Analysis and restructuring of the individuals
    daily routine wherein the sequencing of the
    routine was negotiated (e.g., task analysis)
  • Liberal use of visual cues to facilitate the
    sequencing
  • Liberal rehearsal prior to each component,
    accompanied by a performance review

118
Management Strategies
  • Feeney Ylvisaker found that this program
  • Promoted predictability and orderliness
  • Gave the individuals a sense of control
  • Promoted goal setting
  • Lessened oppositionality and impulsivity
  • Increased decision-making
  • Increased problem solving efforts

119
Management Strategies
  • Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is a
    model wherein individuals are taught an
    overarching strategy to learn specific
    strategies.
  • SRSD comprises three major areas
  • Six stages of explicit instruction (i.e., Develop
    background knowledge Discuss it Model it
    Memorize it Support it Independent performance)
  • Explicit instruction in self-regulation
    strategies including goal setting,
    self-monitoring, and self-instruction
  • Develop positive self-efficacy about strategy use

120
Management Strategies
  • Written language is considered a problem solving
    process that involves planning, knowledge
    transfer, and various skills.
  • The SRSD model distinguishes itself from
    alphabetic principle-based intervention
    strategies (e.g., PAL) as the focus is on
    advancing higher-order executive functions versus
    developing phonological processes, vocabulary, or
    other language functions.
  • Developmentally appropriate for middle school.
  • Significantly positive data for students with
    writing disabilities and behavior disorders.
  • Holds promise for teaching other self-regulatory
    skills (e.g., behavior).

121
Management Strategies
  • Math Curriculum Solve It!
  • A research-based instructional program in which
    teachers explicitly teach the processes and
    strategies that underlie mathematical problem
    solving.
  • Incorporates the cognitive processes critical to
    mathematical problem solving, with a particular
    focus on strategies
  • Reading the problem and developing math
    vocabulary
  • Paraphrasing
  • Visualizing
  • Hypothesizing about problem solutions and their
    order
  • Estimating and predicting the answer
  • Computing via procedures and calculations
  • Checking the problem
  • Students learn a metacognitive strategy that they
    apply at each step
  • Say aloud or to themselves what the problem is
    asking them to do
  • Ask themselves if they understand the problem
  • Check their progress
  • Data on students with MDs are encouraging.

122
Conclusions
123
Conclusions
  • There are numerous definitions and models of
    executive function to consider, but the available
    evidence clearly indicates that this a complex,
    multidimensional construct that evolves over the
    course of development.
  • There is a clear linkage to underlying
    neurological integrity and neurodevelopmental
    processes that is critical to understanding
    executive functions and dysfunctions.

124
Conclusions
  • The assessment of executive functions has come a
    long way over the past two decades, with many
    measures moving out of the laboratory into the
    clinical setting
  • Affective regulatory measures
  • Even with these advances, the assessment of EFs
    is not conducted as part of a routine
    psychoeducational or psychological evaluation, or
    as part of other types of evaluation (e.g.,
    speech/language, OT, etc.).

125
Conclusions
  • Given the regulatory aspects of many of the EFs,
    it is not uncommon to see functions such as
    expressive and receptive language, sensory-motor
    functions, or academic achievement skills
    appearing to be unaffected by a brain injury, yet
    the child is not able to access the preserved
    information accurately and/or efficiently
    secondary to executive dysfunction.
  • Given the relatively high prevalence of frontal
    lobe involvement in children and adolescents with
    a wide variety of disorders, this oversight could
    leave a significant hole in the overall profile
    of the impact of a specific disorder or condition
    on cognitive functioning, adherence to care,
    response to treatment, and quality of life.

126
Conclusions
  • Without the assessment of executive functions,
    those working with the child are left with other
    assumptions about the nature of the childs
    capabilities (e.g., lazy, unmotivated,
    uninterested, behavioral problems, etc.).
  • Consequently, it is essential for the examiner to
    include executive function measures as part of
    any assessment of a child as part of a larger
    assessment.

127
Conclusions
  • As a final note, it is suspected that the
    administration, scoring, and interpretation of
    executive function measures are rarely taught
    across the various professional training programs
    (e.g., clinical psychology, school psychology,
    speech and language, occupational therapy, etc.),
    and it is time for these types of assessment
    procedures to become part of training programs.
  • This is important not only from an assessment
    perspective, but also with respect to how
    executive dysfunctions can impact upon
    therapeutic activities of children and the
    understanding of how these deficits can emerge
    later in development.
  • Field needs more evidence-based treatments!

128
Questions
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