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The Use of GIS and Handheld GPS Integration for the Preparation of Quick Plans


The Use of GIS and Handheld GPS Integration for the Preparation of Quick Plans Can Ayday Satellite and Space Sciences Research Institute Anadolu University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Use of GIS and Handheld GPS Integration for the Preparation of Quick Plans

The Use of GIS and Handheld GPS Integration for
the Preparation of Quick Plans
  • Can AydaySatellite and Space Sciences Research
    InstituteAnadolu UniversityEskisehir-TURKEY
  • Erman AydayElectrical and Electronic Engineering
    DepartmentMiddle East Technical
    UniversityAnkara-TURKEY email

  • GIS and GPS Integration
  • Definition of GIS
  • Definition of GPS
  • Methodology
  • The aim of the study
  • Studied Areas
  • Equipment, Software and Data Collection
  • Preparation of Maps and Plans
  • Preparation of quick GIS map of touristic area
  • Preparation of quick GIS map of industrial area
  • Results and Recommendations

GIS and GPS Integration
Definition of GIS
  • The glossary of GIS books generally describes the
    GIS as An organized collection of computer
    hardware, software, geographic data, and
    personnel designed to efficiently capture, store,
    update, manipulate, analyze, and display all
    forms of geographically referenced information.
  • Every interested person can find different GIS
    definitions which might be useful for their
  • Each data for GIS must have geographic reference
    value and identify the location of it on the

  • Many users have been using computers for
    manipulation of spatial data since 1960s.
  • During the 1980s, advances in computer hardware,
    particularly processing speed and data storage,
    catalyzed the development of GIS software for
    handling spatial data.
  • GIS is filling a very real need in the face of
    the rapid growth of digital spatial data in a
    wide application fields, from social to technical

  • Data capture and storage is the most vital
    component of GIS.
  • Collect and capture data from many different
  • Especially by using GPS technology,
  • Aerial photographs,
  • Scanned maps,
  • Conventional surveys,
  • Digitized maps,
  • By remote sensing technology

  • The GIS manager can organize this data and assign
    different layer names and define different
    feature classes.
  • GIS combines layers of information about a place
    to give you a better understanding of that place.
  • One of the main benefits of GIS is improved
    management of your organization and resources.

Definition of GPS
  • All navigators including Magellan, Marco Polo and
    Piri Reis (who is known as very famous old
    Turkish sailor) had tried to find their positions
    more quickly and accurately.
  • The most important way for the navigation whether
    it is for land or sea, is getting information
    about the location and finding the best route
    between the target and the destination.
  • Today with the help of GPS this problem was
  • Today Global Positioning System (GPS) is known
    the most advanced technology in the navigation

  • GPS is also defined as an aerospace technology
    that uses satellites and ground receiver to
    determine position anywhere on the earth.
  • Many years ago walking pace and some famous
    natural indicators, landmarks were used to find
  • In the 19th century the sextant is used for
    accurate position definition by measuring height
    of stars, sun and planets.

  • In recent years the availability of global
    positioning system technology has permitted
    convenient, inexpensive, and accurate measurement
    of absolute location.
  • GPS, another increasing useful form of GIS
    technology, was initially developed by the U.S.
    military but now is widely used for both military
    and civilian applications around the world, often
    in conjuction with GIS.
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) refers to the
    group of 24 geosynchronous satellites owned and
    maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense

  • The first GPS satellite put into orbit in 1978,
    then second generation satellites was launched in
    1989. The GPS system became fully operated in

GPS Satellite
GPS Constellation
... cont.
  • These GPS satellites have been launched on six
    different orbits around the world, and each orbit
    has four satellites.
  • The altitude of the satellites orbit is 20.200
    kms and each satellite revolves in every 12 hours
    at this altitude.
  • Each satellite with atomic clocks in it and each
    satellite transmits a unique signal that is
    received by a GPS receiver on earth.
  • A high precision quartz clock in a GPS receiver
    is calibrated to a satellites atomic clock via
    information imbedded in the GPS signal.

... cont.
  • Each GPS receiver on the earth generates the same
    code at the same time as satellite, this property
    which GPS has the ability to measure the time
    difference between the signals transmitted and
  • It is known that these radio signals travel at a
    constant speed, 299,460 km/s in the atmosphere.
  • So, it is possible to locate the precise location
    of the standing point with the GPS, for the
    intersection of four spheres with the known
    distance between GPS receivers and GPS satellites
    as radii.

... cont.
Dash lines, actual intersection points, Buffer
zone, area of uncertainty, Due to no atomic clock
in the receiver
Solid lines indicates where the GPS receiver are
located on the spheres. Because of the errors in
the receivers internal clock, the spheres do not
intersect at one point.
Determining Position
The GPS receiver must change the size of the
spheres until the intersection point is
... cont.
  • Theoretically a minimum of four distance
    measurements is needed to find the precise X, Y
    and even Z location of the given point on the
  • It is possible to see at least four satellites on
    the ground at any time.
  • At least 3 satellites are needed for
    2-dimensional horizontal navigation.
  • At least 4 satellites are needed for altitude
    (elevation) measurements.
  • In the old days 95 of all positions were
    accurate to within 25-100 meters.
  • Nowadays, civilian users can expect 15 meters of
    horizontal accuracy or better 95 of the time.

... cont.
  • Some new advanced systems in GPS, Wide Area
    Augmentation System (WAAS) have the ability to
    pick up correction signals and reduce the
    position error up to a couple of meters.
  • Differential GPS can produce 1-2 cm of horizontal
    accuracy for property and cadastral surveys.
  • In spite of the fact that all systems depend on
    high or low positional accuracy, all these data
    are used for mapping and GIS data collection
  • GPS can be used as a data capture tool for
    features, attributes and attribute values in GIS

Aim of the study
  • Nowadays the data from cheap GPSs can be used to
    make plans and maps and the GPS data can be
    converted into the GIS environment more easily.
  • GIS and GPS integration systems have some useful
    applications for the rapid preparation of plans
    and maps of small areas.
  • The main aim of the study is try to explain
    GIS-GPS integrated systems and apply this
    methodology for two different aplication fields.

Studied Areas
  • Two different areas were selected as the studied
  • One of the areas belongs to industrial area and
    the other belongs to touristic area according to
    land use classification.
  • Industrial area of Eskisehir, which is located in
    the middle of Anatolia was selected as for the
    preparation of quick GIS map of industrial area,
  • The second area, Gundogan, located in the north
    part of Bodrum is selected for the preparation of
    quick GIS map of touristic area.

Location maps of the studied areas
Aerial photos of the industrial area of Eskisehir
from S to N
from W to E
General view of Gundogan touristic area
Equipment, Software and Data Collection
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become an
    essential tool for GIS users,
  • Low cost, Magellan 315 type handheld GPS is used
    for collecting GPS data,
  • There is a wide variety of free and low cost
    software packages on the market which allows data
    communications between GPS receivers and your
    computer, including full data editing and storage

Handheld GPS used for this study
... cont.
  • GPS TrackMaker is one of them and it is used in
    this study.
  • GeoMedia Pro. 4.0 is used for GIS software in
    this study.
  • More than 50 waypoints were collected at the
    Gundogan touristical area.
  • The UTM coordinates of the waypoints were
    recorded in the GPS and the attributes of the
    hotel, restraurant and private site were obtained
    at the same time.
  • More than 100 waypoints were collected in the
    industrial Area of Eskisehir.
  • Factories and common utility buildings were
    selected as feature class.

Preparation of Maps and Plans
Preparation of quick GIS map of touristic area
  • The waypoints which define the feature classes
    were collected for industrial and touristic
  • Registered Landsat ETM satellite image was used
    as background for Gundogan touristic area,
  • Hotel classes and restaurant types were selected
    as attributes for tourist site,
  • All the collected waypoints were imported in the
    GIS GeoMedia Pro software and it is seen that
    there is a good match between the collected GPS
    waypoints and registered satellite image,
  • Non-graphic data which are the attributes of the
    touristic places were prepared in a simple
    database environment and jointed with the graphic

Collected waypoints of touristic locations as
feature classes on the satellite image of Bodrum
GIS based map of the studied area by using GPS
Selected feature class (hotels) from the GIS
based map
Attribute query according to the name of the
hotel (Hotel Baia)
Attribute query for the Galimera Restaurant
Attribute query according to the name of the
hotel (Hotel Catamaran)
Selection of common place (mosque) by using
attribute query
Selection of common place (beach) by using
attribute query
Preparation of quick GIS map of industrial area
  • Types and categories of factories are selected as
    the main attributes for industrial site,
  • Aerial photograph and satellite images were
    registered to the UTM coordinates before
    overlapping operation,
  • The waypoints which were collected from the
    industrial area were overlapped on the aerial
    photograph and satellite images,
  • At the end of these two applications it is seen
    that, good match was reached between the
    background registered images and the collected
    GPS data,
  • Non-graphic data which are the attributes of the
    factories were prepared in a simple database
    environment and jointed with the graphic objects.

Collected waypoints as feature classes from
industrial area on the satellite image
GIS based map of the industrial area by using GPS
Selected category (food indst.) of feature class
(firm) from the GIS based map (aerial photo is
used as registered background)
Selection of administrative and common places by
attribute query
Attribute query of the selected food industry
(Yasin Cakir Flour Factory)
Attribute query of the selected food industry
(Eti Biscuit and Craker Factory)
Different direction views of the selected junction
Query result link between map and data windows
(Kilicoglu Tile and Brick Factory)
Query result link between map and data windows
(Clothes factories)
Results and Recommendations
  • At the end of these studies it is seen that, the
    collected waypoints by using handheld GPS
    receiver can be used easily for rapid data
  • These data have the ability to transfer rapidly
    from the GPS environment to the GIS environment,
  • The maps and plans which are obtained by using
    handheld GPS and GIS softwares can be used
    effectively for getting information, querying and
    analysing the feature classes.
  • Maps are used by the municipalities of these
    touristic places for giving information to the
    tourists and for planning and also for the
    interested person to find the factories which he
    is interested in.
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