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The World before the Opening of the Atlantic

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Title: The World before the Opening of the Atlantic


1
The World before the Opening of the Atlantic
  • Chapter 1

2
Chapter 1 Timeline
End of Ice Age People Invented Writing The First Map Aztec City Teotihuacan
10,000 Years Ago 5,000 Years Ago 2500 BC 500 BC
Waves and currents reshaped Floridas landforms People began writing laws, speeches, battle plans, and other things. The oldest know Map is a Babylonian clay tablet Teotihuacan reached its height, during its time it was the 6th largest city in the world it had a population of 125,000 and covered about 8 square miles
3
Chapter 1 Timeline
4-5 Million Years Ago 2.6 Million Years Ago 500,000 Years Ago 200,000 Years Ago 11,000 Years Ago 10,000 Years Ago
Early humanlike creatures called Australopithecus developed in Africa Hominids make the first stone tools By this time hominids live all across Europe The first modern humans appear in Africa Humans occupy all of the continents except Antarctica Ice Ages end and people begin to develop agriculture
4
Chapter 1 Timeline
Poleolithic Era Mesolithic Era Neolithic Era Lucy Discovered
Until 10,000 Years Ago 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago Begin About 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago 1959 1974 1994
The first part of the Old Stone Age when people began to make tools The Middle Stone Age when people began making more complex tools and shelters The New Stone Age when people learned to make fire and grow crops also called the Agriculture Revolution Mary Leakey found bones in East Africa belonging to a hominid that was more than 1.5million years old Donald Johanson found the bones of a 3 million year old hominid he named Lucy Proved Hominids walked upright Tom White found the remains of a hominid that lived as long as 4.4 million years ago
5
Period of Time Terms
  • Decade a period of 10 years
  • Century a period of 100 years
  • Millennium a period of 1000 years
  • Epoch a long period of time marked by a
    distinctive development
  • Era a long period of time marked by great
    events, developments, or figures

6
Terms Used With Dates
  • Circa or c. unsure date about
  • BC before the birth of Christ
  • AD after the birth of Christ
  • BCE BC dates or before the common era
  • CE AD dates or common era

7
Terms that deal with Government and Society
  • Politics the art of creating government
    policies
  • Economics the study of the creation and use of
    goods and services
  • Movement a series of actions that bring about a
    change in society
  • Campaign an effort to win a political office,
    or a series of military actions
  • Colony a territory settled and controlled by a
    country

8
Section 1 The Earliest Americans
  • The Big Idea
  • Native American societies developed across
    Mesoamerica and South America.
  • Main Ideas
  • Climate changes allowed Paleo-Indians to begin
    the first migration to the Americas.
  • Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and South
    America.

9
Main Idea 1Climate changes allowed people to
migrate to the Americas.
  • Paleo-Indians crossed the Bering Land Bridge from
    Asia to present-day Alaska during the last ice
    age between 38,000 and 10,000 BC.
  • This movement of peoples from one region to
    another is called migration.
  • Paleo-Indians and their descendants moved into
    present-day Canada, the United States, Mexico,
    and South America.

10
Land Migration of Early PeoplePage 7
  • During the Ice Age the seal level dropped and
    people used land bridges to migrate to new areas.
  • People from Asia used the Bering Land Bridge to
    travel to North America.

11
Climate Affects Early Peoples
  • Early peoples in the Americas were
    hunter-gatherers, who hunted animals and gathered
    wild plants.
  • The warming climate created new environments
    climates and landscapes that surround living
    things.
  • Different environments influenced the development
    of Native American societies groups that share a
    common culture.
  • Culture is a groups common values and traditions.

12
Main Idea 2Early societies existed in
Mesoamerica and South America.
  • Developed around 1200 BC in Mesoamerica
  • Known for use of stone in architecture and built
    the first pyramids in the Americas
  • Civilization ended around 400 BC

Olmec
  • Developed after the Olmec
  • By AD 200, were building large cities
  • Created great pyramids, temples, palaces, and
    bridges
  • Civilization ended around AD 900

Maya
13
Maya Civilization page 8
14
Aztec and Inca
  • Conquered central Mexico
  • Founded capital city, Tenochtitlán, in AD 1325
    it became the greatest city in the Americas and
    one of the worlds largest cities.
  • By the early 1500s they ruled the most powerful
    state in Mesoamerica.

Aztec
  • Began as a small tribe in the Andes Mountains in
    South America
  • Capital city was Cuzco.
  • By the 1500s, the empire stretched along much of
    the western South American coast.
  • Known for a strong central government, their
    architecture, and their art

Inca
15
Aztec, Maya, and Inca CivilizationsPage 9
  • Inca Civilization was in South America along the
    Andes Mountains
  • The Maya Civilization was mainly in the Yucatan
    Peninsula
  • The Aztec Civilization was in Central and
    Northern Mexico

16
Civilization Location/Leaders Characteristics/Culture Achievements/Technologies
Maya 1000 BC began farming 200 AD began forming cities 250-900 AD began forming large cities 1500 AD power had faded Mexico, Honduras, Belize, Guatemala Capital None King Pacal Religion many gods, Sun God, Moon God, Maize God, human sacrifice Government Theocracy studied the stars Crops beans, squash, avocados, maize Resources cotton, cacao, obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold, deer, rabbits, monkeys Stone pyramids, temples, statues 365 day calendar, 260 day calendar Calendars that determined length of the year Observatories Number system and symbol for 0 Writing system of Detailed Written Records Books Canals, terraces, Hieroglyphics
Aztec Began in Mid-1100 AD 1521 AD Empire Ended Mexico Capital Tenochtitlan built in 1325 AD on Lake Texacoco Emperor Moctezuma II Religion many gods, human sacrifice Crops cotton, maize Formed alliances, controlled trade, collected tribute Huge Military Resources cotton, gold, silver, gems, bright feathers Stone pyramids, temples, statues Causeways, canals, Hieroglyphics Chinampas (floating gardens) Calendar Study astronomy Detailed Written records Jewelry and mask Artisans used gold, gems and bright bird feathers Women embroidered colorful designs of cloth they wove
Inca Began in Mid-1400s AD In 1537 AD Spanish began to rule the Empire South America Capital Cuzco Ruler Pachacuti Language Quechua Andes Mountains Religion many gods, rarely human sacrifice, mummies Crops maize, peanuts, potatoes, Resources -llamas Stone pyramids, temples, masonry Largest empire (over 12 million people) Advanced highway system of 10,000 miles of stone roads and bridges Terraces, Hieroglyphics Gold and silver jewelry Records kept with knotted cords called quipus Fine textiles, pottery
17
Section 2 Native American Cultures
  • The Big Idea
  • Many diverse Native American cultures developed
    across the different geographic
    regions of North America.
  • Main Ideas
  • Several early societies developed in North
    America long before Europeans explored the
    continent.
  • Geographic areas influenced Native American
    cultures.
  • Native American cultures shared beliefs about
    religion and land ownership.

18
Native American Culture AreasPage 13
  • Geographical and climatic conditions may have
    limited the size of groups or tribes
  • The ability to grow food and hunt also affected
    the size of the population
  • Mountains, rivers, and lakes served as natural
    boundaries between the native groups of people

19
Main Idea 1Several early societies developed in
North America long before Europeans explored the
continent.
  • Earliest people in North America were
    hunter-gatherers.
  • Learned to farm around 5,000 BC.
  • The Anasazi was an early farm culture in
    Southwest.
  • Grew maize, beans, and squash
  • Developed irrigation methods
  • Lived in pueblos, aboveground houses made of
    heavy clay called adobe
  • Built kivas, underground ceremonial chambers, for
    religious ceremonies
  • Built cliff dwellings for protection against
    enemies
  • Began to abandon villages around AD 1300

20
Anasazi Cliff Dwellings page 11
21
Mound Building Cultures
  • Lived in Mississippi, Ohio, and lower Missouri
    river valleys
  • Supported population with agriculture, fishing
    and trade
  • Built large burial mounds to honor the dead

Hopewell
  • Developed later in same area as the Hopewell
  • Built hundreds of mounds topped with temples for
    religious ceremonies

Mississippian
  • Developed throughout eastern North America
  • Cultures declined and by the 1700s, no longer
    existed

Others
22
Main Idea 2 Geographic areas influenced Native
American cultures.
  • Researchers use culture areas to help describe
    ancient Native American peoples.
  • Culture areas are geographic locations that
    influence societies.
  • North America is divided into several culture
    areas, including the Far North, Pacific Coast,
    California, West, Southwest, Great Plains, and
    East.

23
North and Northwest Culture Areas
  • Arctic
  • Inuit people in present-day Alaska and Canada
  • Aleut people in Alaska
  • Fished and hunted large mammals
  • Subarctic
  • Dorgrib and Montagnais peoples
  • Hunters followed migrating deer.
  • People lived in temporary shelters made of animal
    skins.
  • Pacific Northwest
  • Carved images of totems, ancestor or animal
    spirits, on tall, wooden poles
  • Held feasts called potlatches
  • Thrived on abundant game animals, fish, and wild
    plants

24
West and Southwest Culture Areas
  • California
  • Many food sources, such as acorns, fish, and deer
  • People lived in isolated family groups of 50 to
    300.
  • More than 100 different languages were spoken.
  • Groups included the Pomo, Hupa, and Yurok peoples.
  • Southwest
  • Dry climate
  • Groups included the Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo.
  • The Pueblo irrigated land to grow crops.
  • The Apache and Navajo hunted game and raided the
    villages of other groups.

25
Great Plains and Eastern Culture Areas
  • Great Plains
  • Stretched from Canada to Texas and from the
    Mississippi Valley to the Rocky Mountains
  • Mainly grasslands, with game such as buffalo
  • Used buffalo skins for shields, clothing, and
    coverings for teepees, cone-shaped shelters
  • Matrilineal societies that traced ancestry
    through their mothers, not their fathers
  • Groups included the Mandan, Pawnee, Arapaho,
    Blackfoot, and Comanche.
  • Northeast and Southeast
  • Region rich in sources of food and shelter
  • Southeastern groups, such as the Cherokee and
    Creek, lived in farming villages.
  • The Algonquian and Iroquois were the main groups
    in the Northeast.
  • The Iroquois formed the Iroquois League, a
    confederation that waged war against non-Iroquois
    peoples.

26
Native American Homes
North and Northwest West and Southwest Great Plains Northeast and Southeast
Their homes were igloos, hide tents, and huts. They built two storied houses out of adobe bricks. They used animal skins and buffalo hides to make teepees, or cone shaped shelters. They built longhouses or rectangular homes make from logs and bark, that housed 8-10 people
27
Main Idea 3 Native American cultures shared
beliefs about religion and land ownership.
  • Shared religious beliefs
  • Religion linked to nature
  • Spiritual forces were everywhere even in plants
    and animals.
  • Shared beliefs about property
  • Individual ownership applied only to the crops
    one grew and was temporary.
  • Land was for the use of everyone in the village.
  • Believed they should preserve the land for future
    generations
  • Despite shared beliefs, Native Americans on the
    North American continent were independent culture
    groups and did not form large empires.

28
Section 3 Trading Kingdoms of West Africa
  • The Big Idea
  • Using trade to gain wealth, Ghana, Mali, and
    Songhai were West Africas most powerful
    kingdoms.
  • Main Ideas
  • West Africa developed three great kingdoms that
    grew wealthy through their control of trade.
  • Slaves became a valuable trade item in West
    Africa.

29
Main Idea 1West Africa developed three great
kingdoms that grew wealthy through their control
of trade.
  • For hundreds of years, trade routes run by
    Berbers, a northern African group, crisscrossed
    West Africa.
  • Eventually though, trade routes were taken over
    by a succession of West African kingdoms
  • Ghana
  • Mali
  • Songhai

30
Empires of West Africa page 18
31
Kingdom of Ghana
  • Began around 300 AD as farmers banded together
    for protection
  • Developed into a trading center
  • Salt from the Sahara in the north
  • Gold mined from Ghana itself
  • As trade increased, so did Ghanas power. By 800
    it controlled all of West Africas trade routes.
  • Used wealth to build an army and an empire
  • In the 1060s, Muslim groups attacked Ghana in an
    effort to force its leaders to convert to Islam.
    This cut off many trade routes and led to the
    decline of the Ghana empire.
  • Islam eventually became the most practiced
    religion in the region.

32
Ghana was an ideal Trading Center
  • Ghana had many valuable items to trade. The
    Sahara Desert to the north was a source of
    valuable salt, and Ghana itself was rich in gold.
    Because of its geographic location, nearly all
    trade between northern and southern Africa passed
    through Ghana.

33
Kingdoms of Mail and Songhai
  • Mali
  • Developed along the fertile banks of the upper
    Niger River
  • Controlled trade along the river
  • King Mansa Musa led the kingdom to the height of
    its wealth, power, and fame by building important
    trade cities like Timbuktu.
  • Mansa Musa also encouraged the spread of Islam in
    West Africa by building mosques, buildings for
    Muslim prayer, and by making a hajj, or
    pilgramage to Mecca.
  • Declined after the death of Mansa Musa
  • Songhai
  • Lived along the Niger River
  • Came to power as the Mali empire weakened
  • Greatest ruler was Askia the Great. He was a
    devout Muslim, supported education and learning,
    and worked to develop a strong government.
  • After Askias death, the kingdom declined and was
    invaded by Moroccans from the north.

34
Accomplishments of Askia the Great
Government Religion Education
set up five provinces appointed governors loyal to him created departments to oversee task was a devout Muslim built mosques opened schools and universities encouraged study of mathematics, medicine, science, grammar, and law
35
Main Idea 2 Slaves became a valuable trade item
in West Africa.
  • Slavery existed in Africa for centuries and
    involved black Africans, who were both
    slaveholders and slaves.
  • People who were captured by warring groups,
    criminals, and even relatives of people who owed
    money, were sold into slavery.
  • Beginning in the 600s, Arab Muslims and Europeans
    became interested in the slave trade.
  • Slave market increased as Muslim traders bought
    or seized black Africans to sell in North Africa.
  • Slave trade became important part of West African
    economy because slaves were traded for valuable
    goods.
  • West Africa was home of many enslaved Africans
    brought to the Americas.

36
Section 4 Europe before Transatlantic Travel
  • The Big Idea
  • New ideas and trade changed Europeans lives.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Greeks and Romans established new forms of
    government.
  • During the Middle Ages, society eventually
    changed from a feudal system to a system with a
    middle class of artisans and merchants.
  • The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts
    and in learning.

37
Main Idea 1The Greeks and Romans established
new forms of government.
  • Greek Government
  • Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and
    Aristotle worked to teach people to think and
    question their beliefs and to live lives based on
    reason, or clear and ordered thinking.
  • Greeks established the first democracy, a form of
    government in which people rule themselves.
  • Citizens vote on every issue.
  • Ideas are debated at an assembly of citizens.
  • Roman Government
  • Established a republic
  • Citizens elect representatives to vote on issues.
  • Ideas are debated at an assembly of
    representatives.
  • Laws, which protected citizens rights, were
    written and kept on public display.

38
Democracy and Republic page 23
39
(No Transcript)
40
Plato
  • Plato was a student of Socrates.
  • He started a school called The Academy.
  • Platos writing took the form of a dialogue
    between teacher and student.
  • Plato wrote the Republic, which described an
    ideal society.

41
The Middle Ages
  • After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe began
    to divide into many smaller kingdoms.
  • Feudalism, a system of agreements between lords,
    and vassals, including knights, developed. The
    lord promised to give lands to his knights in
    exchange for military service. The knight
    promised to support the lord in battle.
  • Knights allowed peasants to farm land on their
    large estates, called manors. In return, the
    peasants had to give the knights food or goods as
    payment.
  • The Catholic Church served as a strong unifying
    force between kingdoms.
  • The Crusades, a long series of wars beginning in
    the 1000s between European Christians and Muslims
    in Southwest Asia, helped create trade links
    between Europe and Asia.

42
Main Idea 2 During the Middle Ages, society
eventually changed from a feudal system to a
system with a middle class of artisans and
merchants.
  • As travel became safer, more trade routes opened
    and spread all across Europe.
  • Trade brought not only goods, but also diseases
    like the Black Death that spread across Europe,
    killing nearly 25 million people.
  • Worker shortages meant that peasants and serfs
    could demand payment. They moved to cities for
    work, and the cities grew.
  • The growth of trade and cities led to the decline
    of feudalism.
  • A new middle class of artisans and merchants
    developed.
  • Trade cities became commercial centers.

43
Main Idea 3 The Renaissance was a time of
rebirth in the arts and in learning.
  • The Renaissance period brought new ways of
    thinking to Europe.
  • Began in Italy and spread to other parts of
    Europe
  • European rulers began to increase their power
    over the nobles in their countries.
  • Fewer invasions from the outside helped bring a
    period of peace and stability.
  • Renaissance means rebirth.
  • The growth in trade and services sparked a
    commercial revolution. This also brought a rise
    in mercantilism, an economic growth system, that
    unifies and increases the power and wealth of a
    nation.

44
Growth of Knowledge and Learning
Classical writings were found and scholars
rediscovered the glories of ancient Greece and
Rome.
Ancient Texts
Focus shifted from religion to the importance of
people and human value.
Humanism
Great artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da
Vinci reflected the ideals of the Renaissance in
their sculptures and paintings. Writers also
penned great works of literature during this time.
Art and Literature
Advances were made in mathematics and astronomy.
German-born Johannes Gutenberg invented the
printing press which allowed thousands to read
the same books and share ideas about them.
Science and Invention
45
Trading Centers page 26
46
Joint-Stock Companies
  • business in which a group of people invest
    together
  • allowed investors to make money more quickly.
  • investors share in the companies profits and
    losses
  • allowed investors to take fewer risk

47
Chapter 1 Review page 31
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