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The Aerospace Industry Today Airplane Design: Past, Present and Future

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Title: Reflections of a Paleoaerodynamicist An Early 21st Century Perspective on Airplane Design Author: jhm9093 Last modified by: Alice Agogino Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Aerospace Industry Today Airplane Design: Past, Present and Future


1
The Aerospace Industry Today Airplane Design
Past, Present and Future An Early 21st Century
Perspective
  • John H. McMasters
  • Technical Fellow
  • The Boeing Company
  • john.h.mcmasters_at_boeing.com
  • and

Affiliate Professor Department of Aeronautics and
Astronautics University of Washington Seattle, WA
April 2007 Ed Wells Partnership Short
Course Based on American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Sigma Xi
Distinguished Lectures
Von Kármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture
Series Innovative Configurations for Future
Civil Transports, Brussels, Belgium June 6-10,
2005
2
Notation and Symbols Used
  • A Area (ft.2, m2)
  • a Speed of sound (ft./sec., m/s)
  • AR Aspect ratio, b/c b2/S
  • b Wing span (ft., m)
  • c Average wing chord (ft.,m)
  • CF Force coefficients (lift, drag, etc.) F/qS
  • Cl Section (2D) lift coefficient
  • CM Moment coefficient M/qSc
  • Cp Pressure coefficient ?p/q
  • D Drag force (lb., N)
  • E Energy (Ft.-lbs., N-m)
  • e Oswald efficency factor
  • ew Wing span efficiency factor ( 1/kw )
  • F Force (lift, drag, etc.) (lbs., N)
  • H Total head (reservoir pressure)
  • I Moment of inertia
  • kw Wing span efficiency factor ( 1/ew)
  • L Lift force (lb., N)
  • q Dynamic pressure (lbs./ft.2) ½?V2
  • R Range (mi., km)
  • Rn Reynolds number (?Vl / µ)
  • S Wing area (ft.2, m2)
  • T Thrust (lb., N)
  • T Temperature (oF)
  • u Local x-direction velocity component
  • V Velocity, Speed (ft./sec., m/s, mph, km/h)
  • v Local y-direction velocity component
  • w Downwash velocity (ft./sec., m/s)
  • z Sink rate (vertical velocity) (ft./sec.,
    m/s)
  • Greek
  • a Angle of attack (deg.)
  • G Circulation
  • ? Climb or glide angle (deg., rad.)
  • ? Ratio of specific heats in a fluid
  • e Wing twist angle (deg.)

3
Presentation Overview
The Aerospace Industry Today
4
The Three Basic Components of Our Business Should
be Viewed as an Integrated Whole
Technology Product Development
Process Development/ Enhancement
Workforce Development (People issues)
The best Technology and Processes in the world
are useless without the right People to develop
and employ them.
5
Johns Twin Professional Passions
Education
Airplanes
Technical Workforce Development Engineering
Education (Reform) Airplane Design (and
Aerodynamics)
  • Hobbies
  • Paleontology
  • Archaeology
  • Cultural
  • anthropology
  • Cognitive
  • psychology

6
A System of Systems Approach to Issues
Important to The Boeing Company Johns Current
Job Description
Aerodynamics (Low-Speed, High Lift)
  • Motivation
  • Knowledge
  • retention

Airplane Design Systems Engineering
Biomechanics of Flight (Reynolds Number
Scale Effects)
Technical Workforce Development (Programs and
Processes)
  • Motivation
  • RD leverage
  • Recruiting
  • Improved preparation
  • for professional practice,
  • Positive company image
  • Enhanced
  • Motivation
  • Utilization
  • Productivity
  • Retention

Technical Education (Enhancement University
Relations)
HEIB
Target A Large-Scale Systems Integration
(LSSI) capable technical workforce.
Future Technology Development Opportunities.
7
Johns Projects and Research (1955-Present)
1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000 -
present
Boeing (1976)
Human-powered Flight
High-Lift System Aerodynamics
Model Airplanes
Hang gliders
DARPA/NASA Morphing Aircraft Programs
V-22 Osprey Vortex Generators
High-Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel Design
Sailplane Aerodynamics and Design
Guided Missile Design (USAF)
Robot Pterosaur (2) Smart Wings
Wind Turbines
NASA Airplane Design Contract
Tent Design
  • Transonic Flow
  • in Turbines
  • Compressors
  • Multi-disciplinary
  • Optimization
  • Large Surface-Effects
  • Vehicle Design
  • Architectural
  • Aerodynamics
  • Drag Reduction on
  • Inter-city Buses

Robot Pterosaur(1)
Under-Sea Gliders
Engineering Education
8
The Curriculum Vitae of an AerodynamicistJohn
H. McMastersTechnical FellowBoeing - Seattle
Once upon a time there was a mother duck and a
father duck who had five baby ducklings. The
first was a really ugly duckling who knew that
one day he would probably grow up to be a swan.
Well, the really ugly duckling never did grow
up he only matured into just a really ugly
duck. And so it goes (going on 87).
John at age 21
He had only one vanity, he thought he could give
advice better than any other person.
Mark Twain (writing about
John McMasters)
9
Basic Premises
It is suicidal to create a society dependent on
science and technology in which hardly anyone
aside from a small, numerate elite knows
anything about science and technology.
Carl Sagan The scientist discovers
that which exists, the engineer creates that
which never was. Theodore von Kármán
10
Non-Systems Thinking In a Global Environment
Im sure glad the hole isnt in our end
Thanks to Peter Synge
11
Professor McMasters illustrates his famous
brain-stapling technique in a seminar for
compulsive thinkers.
Its all about thinking, dummy A.
Einstein Thinking is the one skill that never
becomes obsolete. Paul B. MacCready
Thanks to Gary Larson The Far Side
12
The Airplane Business Today
  • Aerospace was a poster child for technological
    progress for much of the 20th century
  • Now considered a mature industry with a spate
    of studies decrying its declining state in the
    U.S. despite recent signs of new prosperity
  • end of the Cold War globalization
  • a sense of been there, done that
  • explosive growth in other newer technologies (IT,
    bio-, nano-)
  • competition for resources (money and talent)
  • We need to replenish a rapidly aging technical
    talent pool (particularly in design and systems
    engineering)
  • Uncertain long-term consequences of
    globalization, the war on terrorism,
    environmental concerns, resource limits, etc.??

13
The Traditional View of Aviation History
Proliferation
  • Experimentation


Realization
Inspiration
Farther, faster, higher
14
Absolute Airplane Speed Record(As One Measure of
Progress in the First Century of Flight)
Lindberg crosses Neil Armstrong
Atlantic on the Moon
Wright Bros.
Hypersonic
40 years
25 years
SR-71
Jets
Mach 1
Commercial Transports

Farther, faster, higher
15
The Post-Cold War Aerospace Industry
Boeing
Lock Mart
Airbus
16
Consolidation of U.S. Military Aircraft
Manufacturers
Kaman Douglas McDonnell Hughes Helicopter Vertol B
oeing North American Chance-Vought Vultee Consolid
ated Lockheed Martin Northrop Grumman Republic Fai
rchild Hiller Sikorsky United Aircraft Bell Curtis
s-Wright
Kaman
McDonnell-Douglas
Boeing
Rockwell
Lockheed Martin
Martin Marietta
Northrop Grumman
Raytheon
UTC
UTC
Textron
Textron
1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995
2000 2005
17
World Views of The Boeing Company
  • Emerging Boeing Global Enterprise

1997-98
  • Heritage
  • Boeing
  • (Puget Sound-centric)
  • McDonnell Douglas
  • (St. Louis So. Cal.)
  • North American
  • (So. Cal.)
  • Hughes
  • (So. Cal.)

Customer/Supplier Network
Phantom Works
TBC HQ Chicago
IDS Military/ government
BCA Civil/ commercial
Other
Growth ?
  • Boeing Core Competencies
  • Large-Scale System Integration
  • Lean Global Enterprise
  • Detailed Customer Knowledge and Focus

Global Societal/Political/Economic Context
18
Douglas DC-3
Boeing Model 247
Boeing B-17
Boeing B-29
McDonnell Douglas Harrier and F-15
Douglas DC-8
Boeing Model 367-80 (the first 707)
Delta 4
Hughes Anik A satellite
International Space Station and Rockwell North
American Space Shuttle
North American XB-70
AH-64 Apache
A Sample of What are Now Boeing Products
19
Boeing Sites in the United States
Chicago
Everett
Puget Sound
St. Charles
Seattle Renton
Aurora/Colorado Springs/ Pueblo
Fallon
Bellevue
St. Louis
Kent Auburn Fredrickson Portland
Ogden
Wichita
Heath
Fairfield
Philadelphia
Palmdale/ Edwards
VAFB
Washington, DC
Canoga Park/West Hills/ Santa Susanna
So. Cal.
Huntsville/ Decatur
El Segundo/Torrance/Sylmar
Charleston
Long Beach/Carson
Macon
Mesa
Jacksonville
Seal Beach
Albuquerque
KSC
Huntington Beach
Altus
El Paso
Anaheim
Ft. Walton Beach
Oklahoma City/ Midwest City
Houston
Meridian
San Antonio
Bay St. Louis
Kingsville
Dallas/Richardson
Maui
- Only shows Mainland USA and Hawaii sites with
population greater than 100 - Excludes some
Phantom Works sites
20
Boeings Business Transformation
1996-2006
  • Commercial Airplane Manufacturer
  • Product Focused
  • Hardware Platforms
  • Exporter
  • Balanced Aerospace
  • Company
  • Business Focused
  • Systems Solutions
  • Global


21
The Promise of Global Commerce
Made Possible by
Information and Communications
Technology Revolution
Global Transportation System
Economic Prosperity for a Growing World
Population ? (Barring a collapse of the world
economic system, etc.) Implication A
potentially vast redistribution of the worlds
wealth on an unprecedented scale some will win,
others will lose.
22
Boeings Global Presence Countries with Regional
VPs
N. Europe
Russia/CIS
EU-NATO
UK
Germany
Canada
C. Europe
France
Korea
Spain
Turkey
Italy
Japan
Israel
M. East
China
Mexico
S. Arabia
India
SE Asia
Latin America
Africa
Brazil
Australia
Total 21 Locations
23
International Team to Build the New Boeing
787plus engines, systems, etc.
Boeing 747 Dreamlifter
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
24
Up the Value ChainChanging Emphases for the
Core Technical WorkforceBased on Jack Welchs
famous GE Model or Apple iPod
1980
2000
2010
System Architects/ Integrators
Requirements
Requirements
Requirements
Integration
Integration
Integration
Configurators
Design
Design
Design
Technical Specialists
Methods
Methods
Methods
Basics
Basics
Basics
Father, faster, higher Quicker, better,
cheaper Leaner, greener ?
Knowledge Management (Knowledge Capturing
Re-Use) Future Knowledge-based Engineering
and other mechanized tools
25
Boeing Growth Strategy
New Frontier (Based on Core Competencies)
Network Centric Operations
Look for System Solutions Rather than
Specific Product/Service Solutions
Connexion by Boeing
Future Combat Systems
New Opportunities within Traditional Customer Base
IDS
BCA
  • Boeing Core Competencies
  • Large-Scale System Integration
  • Lean Global Enterprise
  • Detailed Customer Knowledge and Focus

Maintain Healthy Core Business
26
Milestones in Boeing Airplane Development
(1927-1954)
1927-8
Boeing Model 40
1947
1936-44
Boeing B-17 / B-29
Boeing B-47 Bomber
1954
1945-7
Boeing Stratocruiser
Boeing 707 (Model 367-80)
27
Must All Transport Airplanes Look Pretty Much
Alike In Perpetuity ?
Boeing Airbus
28
Variations on the Boeing 747
Queen of Passenger Airliners
Freighters
Ballistic Missile Killer (via an airborne laser)
Fire Bomber
29
Aeronautics Technology Progress
Theoretical Upper Bound
  • Index of
  • Performance
  • (Measure of Progress)

Good
Digital microprocessor
Log scale ?
Possible Achievement
Jet engine Swept wings
?
Aluminum
Without Continued Major RD Effort
Speed, Range, Altitude, Operating Cost, Life
Cycle, etc.
Actual Achievement
- Increasing customer requirements -
Increasing regulatory stds. - Increasing
environmental concerns
1900 1950 2000
Historical Time
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