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Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management

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Title: Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management Author: Withrow Last modified by: Thomas Davidson Created Date: 3/8/2011 9:51:38 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management


1
Criminal Justice Organizations Administration
and Management
  • Chapter Thirteen Organizational Effectiveness

2
Learning Objectives
  • Be able to define organizational effectiveness
  • Understand the issues underpinning measuring
    organizational effectiveness
  • Discuss the difficulties of the goal model
  • Be able to briefly discuss the three significant
    elements of the process approach
  • Understand variable analysis
  • Understand why ethical problems arise out of
    attempts to measure effectiveness

3
What is Organizational Effectivness?
  • Effectiveness the degree of congruence between
    organizational goals and some observed outcome.
  • Alternative views of organizational
    effectiveness, is it
  • Organizational survival,
  • Environmental adaptability,
  • Based on multiple indicators, or
  • Based on multiple perspectives?

4
What is Organizational Effectivness?
  • Cameron (1981) Reasons for confusion
  • There are important differences in the way
    scholars conceptualize organizations.
  • Goals are often complex, multiple, and
    conflicting.
  • Researchers often use multiple and overlapping
    measurement criteria.
  • Effectiveness cannot be measured as a single
    phenomenon.

5
What is Organizational Effectivness?
  • Why assess organizational effectiveness?
  • Scholars
  • Account for the growth or decline of an
    organization
  • Investigate interactions between organizations
    and their environments
  • Seek to understand the antecedents of
    effectiveness
  • Practitioners
  • Effectiveness influences how organizations are
    managed.
  • Accountability
  • Can lead to the redistribution of resources
    within the agency

6
What is Organizational Effectivness?
  • Effectiveness studies (evaluation research) occur
    in a political context.
  • The organization, program, and offices are
    creatures of a political process.
  • The results of the study feed into the political
    processes that sustain or change the organization
  • The studies themselves are political because they
    involve implicit statements about the legitimacy
    of goals and interests within the organization
    (Lovell, 2004).
  • Effectiveness studies reflect the perspective of
    the organizations dominant coalition.

7
Theories of Organizational Effectiveness
  • Some theoretical perspective must underlie any
    discussion of effectiveness (Hannan and Freeman,
    1977).
  • Even the question of whether an organization is
    regarded as succeeding or failing will depend on
    theory.
  • There are seven commonly used models for
    assessing organizational effectiveness.

8
Theories of Organizational Effectiveness Goal
Model
  • The most common assessment model
  • Defines effectiveness by the extent to which the
    organization achieved its goals
  • Difficulties
  • There are limitations to the rationality of
    organizations.
  • Cannot differentiate between official and
    operative goals
  • Activities not related to goals are not measured.
  • The relationship between goal attainment and
    consequences is not straight forward.

9
Theories of Organizational Effectiveness Alternati
ve Models
  • Internal process effective organizations work
    efficiently
  • Participant-satisfaction or strategic-constituency
    effective organizations serve the interests of
    the key constituencies.
  • Process approach effectiveness is a process,
    not an result
  • Systems view incorporates concern for change in
    the environment
  • Behavioral emphasis focuses on attentiveness to
    the contributions of individual employees
  • Systems resource model extent to which the
    organization can attain the resources it needs

10
Methods of Assessing Effectiveness
  • Variable analysis
  • Highly related to the goal model
  • Studies involve the identification and
    measurement of some goal or goals
  • Most common method used to assess organizational
    effectiveness
  • Attempts to examine causal links in the
    attainment of some goal

11
Methods of Assessing Effectiveness
  • Gross-malfunctioning analysis
  • The target of inquiry is failed of failing
    organizations.
  • The analysis examines the reasons behind the
    failure
  • Usually done following a major event (e.g. prison
    riot)
  • Revelatory analysis
  • Asks who is getting what from an organization
  • How organizations are used by internal and
    external groups.

12
Variable Analysis in Criminal Justice
  • What domain or activity is the target of
    assessment?
  • Using a single dimension is difficult because
    criminal justice agencies do so many different
    things.
  • Differentiate between
  • Performance appraisal processes central to the
    evaluation of an individuals performance
  • Performance measurement the relationship
    between performance and actual goal
    accomplishment
  • Effective studies incorporate multiple
    dimensions.

13
Variable Analysis in Criminal Justice
  • After settling on the domain to focus on, the
    next stop is to identify the variables that will
    be used to measure performance.
  • Validity in variables is the key consideration
    does the variable measure what it purports to
    measure?
  • How the variables are measured is the next
    consideration.
  • Levels of measurement
  • Other measurement rules and procedures (e.g.
    recidivism)

14
Variable Analysis in Criminal Justice
  • Alternatives to outcome measures
  • Process measures measure the activities assumed
    to cause effectiveness within organizations
  • Structure measures measure the organizational
    features or participant characteristics that are
    presumed to have an impact on effectiveness

15
Variable Analysis in Criminal Justice
  • Multiple measures
  • Overcome the difficulties associated with single
    measures of effectiveness
  • Multigoal/multimeasure designs give a more
    comprehensive view of organizational
    effectiveness that single measures.
  • Skogans (1996) logic model of the program
  • Intervention level of effort involved
  • Mechanism how the program is to affect the
    outcome
  • Outcomes anticipated outcomes of the program

16
Ethical Considerations
  • Data can be produced to make it appear that the
    organization is effective.
  • The motivation to manipulate the data
  • Fear of reprisal
  • Competition for resources (internal and external)
  • Avoiding ethical problems
  • The assessment must make sense
  • The goals (evaluative criteria) are realistic
  • Reduce fear of reprisal
  • Judge managers within their domain

17
Chapter Summary
  • Organizational effectiveness is the degree of
    congruence between organizational goals and some
    observed outcomes.
  • Organizations are complex and have complex and
    conflicting goals.
  • The goal model assumes that
  • organizational goals can be identified,
  • members work toward goals,
  • and that goal attainment can be achieved.

18
Chapter Summary
  • The three significant elements of the process
    approach are
  • Multiple goal attainment must be optimized
  • Changes in the organizations environment and
    goals will change,
  • Considers the contribution of employees.

19
Chapter Summary
  • Variable analysis is
  • Selecting separate domains,
  • Finding variables that provide measures of
    success within each domain, and
  • Finding variables that are specific to
    effectiveness within each domain.
  • Ethical problems in organizational effectiveness
    occur because it is relatively easy to produce
    numbers that make an individual or group look
    good, like the goals have been attained.

20
Thinking Point and Question
  • In cooperation with area agencies your department
    recently created a Fusion Center designed to
    collect and disseminate information relating to
    potential terroristic activities.
  • The Fusion Center is staffed with numerous
    intelligence analysts.
  • Using the goal model approach, develop a method
    for assessing the Fusion Centers organizational
    effectiveness.
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