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The main development theories and the new methods in the substitute care

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: Kirsi-Leena Frigren Created Date: 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: N yt ss katseltava esitys – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The main development theories and the new methods in the substitute care


1
  • The main development theories and the new methods
    in the substitute care

2
Objectives of the lesson
  • To frame the main development theories into their
    historical dimension
  • To introduce the more recent developments to be
    deepened through the self learning
  • Put in common the possibilities of intervention
    that the scientific community currently offers
    and that can support the key worker

3
Fundamental Dynamic
  • Transition from the conception of the child as an
    object to be shaped to the conception of the
    child as a subject protagonist of his/her
    learning that often trespass on the field of the
    computational theory applied to the mind theory
  • Transition from the comparison between Innatist
    and environmentalist theory to a theory based on
    reciprocal interactions between environment and
    genetic patrimony

4
Definitions
  • Social development
  • In which way children modify their capacity to
    interact with the others
  • Range of behaviours, feelings, attitudes and
    concepts that children show towards people and
    the way in which such aspects evolve in the long
    run (SHAFFER 1998)

5
Definitions
  • Emotional development
  • Development of the subjective reactions to a
    salient event characterized by physiological and
    experiential modifications and to explicit
    behavioural whose function is to promote safety
    and the control of the environment (SROUFE 2000)

6
Historical review the roots
  • Behaviourism
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Theory of social learning

7
Historical review the turning points
  • Piaget
  • Theory of the competent child
  • Activity of stimuli selection from the earliest
    age
  • Connection between cognitive development and
    development of social competences
  • In depth examination of the attachment theory

8
Historical review the turning points
  • Bowlby
  • Reprocessing of the ethologic approach (Lorentz)
    down the psychoanalytic line with in-depth study
    of the socio-emotional development theory

9
Contemporary paths
  • Theories of the differential development
  • There are primary emotions already
    differentiated
  • Emotions are innate and structured on the basis
    of growing neural programs preconceived (IZARD
    1997)

10
Development composite theories
  • The individual is used to evaluate continuously
    on the basis of internal and external stimuli and
    is as a processor with his/her own autonomy
    linked to determined developments and neural
    growing (SROUFE 2000)

11
Contemporary paths
  • Computational and neo-cognitive projected towards
    the study of neural in connection with AI
  • References
  • Development Psychology and cognitive anthropology
    (Hirschfeld and Gelman 1994)
  • Evolutionary theory (Barkow et alii 1992)
  • Neurosciences (gallist et alii 1998)
  • Artificial intelligence (Calabrella et alii 2000)

12
New working methods for supporting the child
  • Methodologies based on research and evidence
  • Methodologies based on motivation and emotional
    growing
  • Methodologies based on socialization
  • Methodologies based on creativity
  • Methodologies based on self-reflection
  • Methodologies based on cognitive development

13
Methodologies based on research and evidence
  • Research action
  • Methodologies based on the involvement of people
    with needs in a program of analysis for the
    problem solution

14
Methodologies based on research and evidence
  • Evidence based practices
  • Methodology based on the constant observation of
    behaviours and of the system, on the systematic
    collection (conducted also by tools with high
    levels of standardisation) of data and feedbacks.

15
Methodologies based on research and evidence
  • Working within the community
  • Working methodology focused on the empowerment
    of the local community on a specific field of the
    social fabric

16
New working methods for supporting the child
17
Methodologies based on motivation and emotional
growing
  • Set of practices that give importance to the
    personal development systems with structured
    techniques of self empowerment. In this context
    the worker assumes the role of trainer (fostering
    motivation).

18
Methodologies based on socialization
  • Set of practices focused on the social
    inclusion of the child. The aim of these
    practices is to create occasions for fostering
    the interaction among children and for supporting
    the placement of children in the social
    organizations of the territory

19
Methodologies based on creativity
  • Practices and methodologies that through the
    artistic dimension produce at the same time
    well-being and care for behavioural and emotional
    problems. These methods put emphasis on the body
    and its expressions, on art as release and way of
    communication
  • Art therapy and psychotherapies methodologies
    focused on the body movements and, in a certain
    way, the new techniques of psychomotor are very
    important tools for working with children

20
Methodologies based on cognitive development
  • These methodologies aim to conduct research on
    oneself and on ones own life story as a core
    element of personal growing either on the
    emotional and cognitive sense. They differ from
    each other but have a common emphasis on
    rebuilding the story (written, spoken, enacted,
    played) and on the curative value of the
    metaphoric language of the story-telling

21
Methodologies based on cognitive development
  • This set of methodologies from neobehaviorism to
    neocognitivism are focused on the development of
    the child capacity to interpret, understand and
    transform the reality. Very different realities
    with methods and tools well articulated believe
    in a common concept socialisation and emotional
    development are linked to the information
    processing with mature and flexible cognitive
    structures and when trained these functions
    improve the childrens life
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