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Motivation and Emotion

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Title: Motivation and Emotion


1
Motivation and Emotion
  • McElhaney

2
AP Outline
  • VIII. Motivation and Emotion (79)
  • Biological Bases
  • Theories of Motivation
  • Instinct, Drive Reduction, Optimal Arousal,
    Incentive Theories
  • Hunger- Eating Disorders Thirst, Sex, Social
    Cultural Factors, Sexual Orientation and Pain
  • Social Motives, Achievement Motivation,
  • Theories of Emotion, James-Lange Theory,
    Cannon-Cognitive Theory Characteristics, Biology
    of Emotion, Emotional Expressions
  • Stress

3
Basics of Motivation
  • There are links between motives and emotions
  • Basic motives- Hunger-thirst are monitored within
    the brain
  • Activities/motives are related to needs for
    stimulation and to maintain arousal

4
Definition of Motivation
  • The factors that influence? initiation,
    direction, intensity persistence of behavior
  •  
  • Why do we do what we do?
  • Behavior is based partly on the desire to feel
    certain emotions.
  • How is motivation exemplified by Hunger, sexual
    desire and Need for Achievement?
  • Motivation ? effects emotion example- hunger and
    irritibility

5
Motive
  • A reason or purpose that provides a single
    explanation for diverse behaviors.
  • Some psychologists think of motivation as an
    intervening variable-
  • Intervening variable is something that is used to
    explain the relationship between environmental
    stimuli and behavioral responses.

6
4 Categories of Motivation
  • Biological Factors- Autonomic Nervous System
  • Emotional Factors- panic, fear, anger, love,
    hatred
  • Cognitive Factors- perceptions, beliefs,
    expectations
  • Social Factors other people, influence from
    parents, friends, teachers, TV, SiblingsFactors-

7
Theories of Motivation (web)
  • Instinct- (see one page overview)
  • Drive Reduction-
  • Optimal Arousal-
  • Incentive-

8
Basic Model of Motivation
  • Dynamics of behavior in the way actions are
  • Initiated
  • Sustained
  • Directed
  • Terminated

9
Example of Food Seeking
  • Initiated by bodily need
  • Search was sustained
  • Action directed by possible sources
  • Terminated by attained goal

10
The Model (Motives)
  • Motivational Activities- begin with needs
  • Need is an internal deficiency
  • Needs cause -? Drive energized state that
    facilitates a need
  • Drives --?activate a response an action or
    series of actions to attain a goal
  • Goals are targets of motivational behavior

11
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12
Difference between Needs and Drives
  • Needs are stronger than drives
  • Drives fluctuate in strength

13
External Stimuli
  • Motivated behavior can be energized by the pull
    of External Stimuli
  • And push of internal needs

14
Action is a Mix
  • Internal needs and External Incentives
  • (types of conflicts are associated)
  • Incentive value of goals helps us understand
    motives that dont come from internal needs
  • Example success status-approval

15
Types of Motives 3 Categories
  • Primary-(innate)
  • Based on biological needs
  • Must be met for survival
  • Hunger, thirst, pain avoidance
  • Air, sleep
  • Elimination of waste

16
2. Stimulus Motives (not necessarily for survival)
  • Need for stimulation
  • Need for information
  • Activity
  • Curiosity
  • Exploration
  • Manipulation
  • Physical contact

17
Motive 2- Stimulus
  • Not necessary for survival
  • Stimulus Drives reflect need for
  • Need for stimulation
  • Need for information
  • Activity curiosity
  • Exploration- manipulation
  • Physical contact
  • Sensory input

18
3. Secondary Motives (learned motives)
  • Learned needs or drives and goals
  • Making music
  • Competing
  • Learned needs for power
  • For affiliation
  • Status
  • Security
  • Approval
  • Achievement
  • Fear Aggression are learned

19
Arousal Theory
  • Says ideal levels of activation exist for various
    activities
  • Arousal refers to activation of body nervous
    system
  • Zero_at_death.com no arousaldeath
  • Low during sleep or boredom
  • Moderate during daily activities
  • High at times of excitement, emotion, panic, fear
    and anxiety

20
Levels of Arousal
  • We perform best when we have a Moderate level of
    Arousal
  • Not too passive/not too anxiousPerformance
  • Inverted U Function
  • Says at low levels of arousaldecrease
    performance
  • More arousal improved performance

21
Levels of Arousal 2
  • Ideal level arousal depends on complexity of the
    task
  • Simple tasks--?Best for arousal to be high
  • Complex tasks ? best for low/moderate arousal

22
Yerkes-Dodson Law
23
Sensation Seekers
  • People learn to seek particular levels of arousal
  • Sensation seeking scale Thrill adventure
    seeking
  • Experience seeking
  • Disinhibition
  • Boredom Susceptibility

24
Motive 3-Secondary Motives
  • Learned motives
  • Learned needs or drives and goals
  • Making musicCompeting
  • Learned need for
  • Power
  • Affiliation
  • Status
  • Security
  • Approval
  • Achievement
  • Fear aggression are learned

25
Primary Motive is Homeostasis
  • Biological needs- direct much of our behavior
  • Are used to maintain body balance Homeostasis
  • Hunger (motive) is a regular cycle each day
  • Good example of how internal and external factors
    direct behavior
  • Liver affects hunger

26
Hunger 2
  • Stomach size some indication of hunger
  • Glucose- level in blood and
  • hypoglycemia low blood sugar level
  • Feeling of hunger causes stomach contractions
  • Liver sends nerves signal to brain ? desire to eat

27
Primary Motives Continued
  • Thirst, Sex, and pain avoidance
  • Thirst 2 kinds
  • Extra-cellular thirst- when water is lost from
    fluids surrounding cells
  • Bleeding, vomiting, sweating, drinking alcohol
  • Intra-cellular thirst
  • Salt level
  • Draws fluid out of cells

28
Pain-
  • Drive to avoid painepisodic
  • Takes place at certain episodes when body is or
    is about to be damaged
  • Prompts us to avoid pain
  • Pain tolerance- is learned- raise of lower
    tolerance

29
Brian Mechanisms
  • There are many parts of brain associated with
    motivation

30
Hypothalamus
  • does regulate motivation and emotion
  • Thirst, hunger, sexual behavior
  • Is sensitive to sugar in the blood
  • Receives neural messages from liver and stomach
  • One part signals hunger feeding system
  • Which initiates eating

31
Hypothalamus 2
  • Lateral hypothalamus- (hunger feelings)
  • When electrified causes animals to eat
  • If destroyed no eating

32
Ventro-Medial Hypothalamus
  • Part of Hypothalamus relates directly to Satiety
    (fullness) feelings stop mechanism
  • If destroyed overeating
  • (Bottom medium part of the hypothalamus)
  • Marijuana-Mary-Jane causes a hypothalamic
    response Munchies

33
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34
Paraventricular Nucleus of Hypothalamus
  • Affects hunger helps keep blood sugar level
    steady
  • Both- starts and stops eating
  • Sensitive to Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
  • Large amount hunger

35
Glucagon -Like Peptide 1 (GLP1)
  • Causes eating to cease
  • Released by intestines
  • After eating a meal
  • In blood then to brain
  • 10 minutes after eating- (eat slow eat less)

36
Set Point- Thermostat
  • When fat levels rise
  • Leptin- Fat cells release-?tells brain to stop
    eating.
  • The body is homeostatic when we are at the set
    point and then it is activated to reach the set
    point when we fall below.

37
Taste Aversion
  • Associated with nausea
  • Classical conditioning
  • Biological tendency- associate food with sickness
  • Protective

38
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Adolescent Females lt5-10 malegt
  • Severe Dieting
  • Compulsive attempt to lose weight
  • Do not seek or desire food
  • 1 in 20 die of malnutrition
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Gorge on food then vomit
  • Take laxatives to avoid weight gain

39
Causes of Bulimia Anorexia
  • Women dissatisfied with bodies
  • Distorted view of themselves
  • They think theyre fat, exaggerated fears of
    becoming fat.
  • Distorted Messages from media
  • Compulsion- comparing to models
  • Distorted body image
  • Perfect daughter control issues
  • Shame, guilt, self contempt, anxiety

40
Treatment of Eating Disorders
  • Medical diet
  • Behavioral Counseling- self monitoring of food
    intake
  • Extinction training (to end the learned behavior)
    urge to vomit
  • Cognitive approach-
  • Change the thinking patterns belief system
    about weight body image
  • Usually people need outside support and urging
    from family

41
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42
Sex Drive
  • Sex Drive ones motivation to engage in sexual
    behavior
  • Mammals- female-hormone- Estrus Heat
  • Caused by Estrogen
  • Male animals
  • Ready to mate
  • sex drive aroused by behavior sent of
    receptive female

43
Human Sex Drive
  • Non-Homeostatic- it works independent of bodily
    need
  • Sex drive in men is related to ?amount of
    Androgens male hormone
  • Produced by testes
  • (puberty- increases supply of androgens)

44
Women Sex Drive
  • Produce Androgens? causes increase in sex drive

45
Human Sex Drive
  • Human sex Drive can be aroused at anytime
  • Sexual activity- does not prevent sexual desire
  • Sex drive can be aroused Reduced
  • The Coolidge Effect
  • Male sex drive can be aroused repeatedly with new
    sexual partners.

46
Circadian Rhythms
  • Internal Biological Clocks
  • 24 hour cycle
  • Guide Body Activity
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Blood Pressure
  • Endocrine Glands

Peak During Day Adrenaline is 3-5x higher
47
Test Anxiety Pg 445
48
Learned Motives
  • We learn to pursue excellence
  • Reinforcers-
  • Praise money, success--?affect goals and desires

49
Opponent Process Theory
  • Richard Solomon (1980)
  • Explains learned motives
  • Example drug addiction
  • If a stimulus causes a strong emotion ltFear or
    Pleasuregt an opposite emotion tends to occur when
    stimulus ends
  • Stimulus of pain Pain ends ?relief

50
Opponent Process Theory 2
  • Pleasure Drug use end of drug use
  • Pleasure ends craving discomfort develops
  • In love feel good when lover is present
  • Take away lover discomfort when they are not
    there
  • If stimulus is repeated- our response is
    habituated (gets weaker)
  • Emotional after affects get stronger with
    repetition (example- depression when drug use
    ends)

51
Social Motives
  • Success, money, possessions, status, love,
    approval, grades, power
  • Acquired through conditioning socialization
  • Due to learned needs

52
Need For Achievement (nAch)
  • A desire to meet an internal standard of
    excellence
  • People strive to do well- in any situation which
    evaluation takes place
  • People for high need for achievement enjoy
    challenges chances to test abilities

53
Need For Achievement (NACH)
  • Mclelland- could predict behavior of high and low
    achievers.
  • Characteristics of
  • People with high (nAch) dont seek goals that are
    too easy
  • Avoid goals that are too risky
  • Complete difficult tasks to get grades
  • Excel in occupations
  • Work harder when they dont do well

54
Achievers- Key To Success
  • Benjamin Bloom
  • Identified via a study
  • Found ? drive and determination success

55
Achievers- Parents Support Success in Children
  • Parents expose children to music, swimming,
    science, (ideas for fun) (Stimulating
    environment more synapses)
  • Talent is nurtured by dedication hard work
  • Support childs special interest
  • Emphasize doing ones best at all times
  • Coaching and encouraging practice

56
Achievers- Self Confidencepeople believe they
can reach a goal
  • Set goals that are specific and challenging but
    attainable
  • Visualize the steps you need to reach your goal
  • Advance with small steps
  • Get expert instruction
  • Find skilled models to emulate
  • Get support encouragement
  • If you fail- regard it as a sign you need to try
    harder

Self Confidence affects Motivation--- Duh
57
Abraham Maslow
Described a Hierarchy of Human needs
Self actualizing Full use of personal potential
58
  • Base of Pyramid Necessary for survival
  • Pre-potent Dominant over higher needs
  • Deficiency Motives- Activated by a lack of
    food, water, security, love, esteem, or other
    basic need.

59
  • Growth needs-
  • Positive- life enhancing for personal growth.
  • Meta needs-
  • Higher needs, Tendency for self-actualization

60
Meta Needs
  • We tend to move up to Meta needs
  • A person who meets survival needs then moves to
    meta needs if these are unfulfilled
  • They are in a Syndrome of Decay
  • Characterized by despair, apathy, and Alienation

61
  • Syndrome of decay- when we cannot reach our
    higher other needs
  • Most people are concerned with esteem, love,
    security, but they dont get much past that.

62
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motives
  • Intrinsic motivation- we act without any obvious
    external rewards. You are motivated on your own
    part. high achievers
  • Extrinsic- external rewards enhance motivation-
    ex money, grades, approval

63
Creativity Motivation
  • Creativity is enhanced by personal interest and
    freedom of choice. Killed when you are limited
    (surveillance, rules, conforming)
  • Working to get money not being creative

64
Children and intrinsic motivation
  • If basic skill is lacking, extrinsic activity can
    help develop intrinsic motivation.

65
Basics of Emotion
  • Emotions help us to adapt to environment
  • physiological arousal
  • Emotional Knowledge self awareness
  • Empathy
  • Can manage feelings
  • We can use emotions
  • Romantic love is in this chapter

66
Emotions
  • Help and can cause problems- hate, anger, fear
  • Disrupts behavior and damages relationships
  • Physiological- bodily responses
  • Posture, tone, facial expressions, body language
    emotional outward expressions

67
Sympathetic nervous system
  • ANS responses to emotion. Sympathetic activates
    emotion, arousal, fight or flight
  • Parasympathetic- opposite. Slows down the
    reaction and conserves energy.

68
Plutchik
  • Plutchiks 8 primary emotions
  • Fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger,
    anticipation, joy, and trust/ acceptance
  • They fluctuate in intensity and can be mixed and
    yield to another emotion (hybrid emotion)
  • Moods are tied to circadian rhythms.

69
Brain and Emotion
  • Positive emotion left hemisphere.
  • Negative emotion right hemisphere.
  • Some emotional processing cerebral cortex
  • Amygdala fear

70
Facial Expressions
Expressing Emotions Psychologists believe that
emotional expressions evolved to communicate our
feelings to others which aids survival People
more sensitive to angry, scheming thinking,
faces Basic Facial expressions seem to be
universal
71
Cultural Differences in Emotion
  • Asian cultures- group harmony is important
  • -? Anger is not a public emotion
  • America and Western Europe Anger is common
  • ?reflects values of independence rights
  • justice

72
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