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Job design and work organization

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Predetermined motion time systems ... Time study A term used in work measurement to indicate the process of timing (usually with a stopwatch) and rating jobs. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Job design and work organization


1
Chapter 9
Job design and work organization
Source Bettman/Corbis
2
Key Terms Test
  • Job design
  • The way in which we structure the content and
    environment of the jobs of individual staff
    members within the workplace and the interface
    with the technology or facilities that they use.
  • Ergonomics
  • A branch of job design that is primarily
    concerned with the physiological aspects of job
    design, with how the human body fits with process
    facilities and the environment can also be
    referred to as human factors, or human factors
    engineering.
  • Human factors engineering
  • An alternative term for ergonomics.

3
Key Terms Test
  • Repetitive strain injury (RSI)
  • Damage to the body because of repetition of
    activities.
  • Anthropometric data
  • Data that relates to peoples size, shape and
    other physical abilities, used in the design of
    jobs and physical facilities.
  • Division of labour
  • An approach to job design that involves dividing
    a task into relatively small parts, each of which
    is accomplished by a single person.

4
Key Terms Test
  • Scientific management
  • A school of management theory dating from the
    early twentieth century more analytical and
    systematic than scientific as such, sometimes
    referred to (pejoratively) as Taylorism, after
    Frederick Taylor who was influential in founding
    its principles.
  • Method study
  • The analytical study of methods of doing jobs
    with the aim of finding the best or an improved
    job method.
  • Work measurement
  • A branch of work study that is concerned with
    measuring the time that should be taken for
    performing jobs.

5
Key Terms Test
  • Work study
  • The term generally used to encompass method study
    and work measurement, derived from the scientific
    management school.
  • Principles of motion economy
  • A checklist used to develop new methods in work
    study that is intended to eliminate elements of
    the job, combine elements together, simplify the
    activity or change the sequence of events so as
    to improve efficiency.
  • Qualified worker
  • The term used in work study to denote a person
    who is accepted as having the necessary physical
    attributes, intelligence, skill, education and
    knowledge to perform the task.

6
Key Terms Test
  • Standard performance
  • The term used in work measurement to indicate the
    rate of output that qualified workers will
    achieve without over-exertion as an average over
    the working day, provided they are motivated to
    apply themselves, now generally accepted as a
    very vague concept.
  • Basic time
  • The time taken to do a job without any extra
    allowances for recovery.
  • Time study
  • A term used in work measurement to indicate the
    process of timing (usually with a stopwatch) and
    rating jobs. It involves observing times,
    adjusting or normalizing each observed time
    (rating) and averaging the adjusted times.

7
Key Terms Test
  • Rating
  • A work study technique that attempts to assess a
    workers rate of working relative to the
    observers concept of standard performance. It is
    controversial and now accepted as being an
    ambiguous process.
  • Standard time
  • A term used in work measurement that indicates
    the total time taken to do a job, including
    allowances for recovery and relaxation.
  • Allowances
  • The term used in work study to indicate the extra
    time allowed for rest, relaxation and personal
    needs.

8
Key Terms Test
  • Synthesis from elemental data
  • A work measurement technique for building up a
    time from previously timed elements.
  • Predetermined motiontime systems (PMTS)
  • A work measurement technique in which standard
    elemental times obtained from published tables
    are used to construct a time estimate for a whole
    job.
  • Job rotation
  • The practice of encouraging the movement of
    individuals between different aspects of a job in
    order to increase motivation.

9
Key Terms Test
  • Job enlargement
  • A term used in job design to indicate increasing
    the amount of work given to individuals in order
    to make the job less monotonous.
  • Job enrichment
  • A term used in job design to indicate increasing
    the variety and number of tasks within an
    individuals job. This may include increased
    decision making and autonomy.
  • Empowerment
  • A term used in job design to indicate increasing
    the authority given to people to make decisions
    within the job or changes to the job itself.

10
Key Terms Test
  • Multi-skilling
  • Increasing the range of skills of individuals in
    order to increase motivation and/or improve
    flexibility.
  • Flexi-time working
  • Increasing the possibility of individuals varying
    the times during which they work.
  • Annual hours
  • A type of flexi-time working that controls the
    amount of time worked by individuals on an annual
    rather than a shorter basis.
  • Teleworking
  • The ability to work from home using
    telecommunications and/or computer technology.
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