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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates Mini Lecture AP Biology/Radjewski Macromolecules Most biological molecules are polymers (poly, many ; mer, unit ), made by covalent bonding of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates
  • Mini Lecture
  • AP Biology/Radjewski

2
  • Carbohydrates
  • Source of stored energy (spaghetti dinners)
  • Transport stored energy within complex organisms
    (food ? glucose ? travels through bloodstream)
  • Structural molecules that give many organisms
    their shapes (chitin forms exosksletons)
  • Recognition or signaling molecules that can
    trigger specific biological responses (control
    gene expression in plants)

3
Monosaccharides
  • simple sugars
  • Pentoses are 5-carbon sugars
  • Hexoses (C6H12O6) include glucose, fructose,
    mannose, and galactose.

Know how To number A sugar!
4
Know how To number A sugar!
5
Mono ? Di
  • Monosaccharides are covalently bonded by
    condensation reactions that form glycosidic
    linkages.
  • Sucrose is a disaccharide.

6
Common Disaccharides
7
Polysaccharides
  • large polymers of monosaccharides the chains can
    be branching.
  • Starchesa family of polysaccharides of glucose
    main energy storage molecule in plants
  • Glycogenhighly branched polymer of glucose main
    energy storage molecule in mammals
  • Cellulosethe most abundant carbon-containing
    (organic) biological compound on Earth stable
    good structural material

8
Cellulose
9
Starch
10
Glycogen
11
Modeling
  • 12 carbons
  • 12 oxygens
  • 2 groups
  • Make a ring shaped glucose (use book/phone for
    research if needed)
  • Dehydration Synthesis
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