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Introduction to Biochemistry

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Introduction to Biochemistry Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Relationship between Biochemistry and Medicine Proteins ---- Kwashiorkar, marasmus, Sickle cell anemia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Biochemistry


1
Introduction to Biochemistry
2
Biochemistry Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry is the study of life on a molecular
    level and is concerned with
  • the chemical constituents of living cells
  • the reactions and processes that make the cell
    alive

3
Relationship between Biochemistry and Medicine
  • Proteins ---- Kwashiorkar, marasmus,
    Sickle cell anemia
  • Lipids ---- Ahterosclerosis
  • Carbohydrates ---- Diabetes mellitus
  • Nucleic acid ---- Genetic diseases

4
  • Knowledge of Biochemistry is essential to all
    life sciences
  • Understanding causes of diseases at molecular
    level Physical agents, Chemical agents,
    Biologic agents, Oxygen lack, Genetic disorders,
    Immunologic reactions, Endocrine imbalances or
    deficiency diseases etc
  • Understanding mechanism diseases- aid in
    diagnosis, prevention and treatment Scurvy,
    Kwashiorkar, Phenyketonuria, Cystic fibrosis,
    Cholera, Diabetes mellitus, Ahterosclerosis
    leading to Coronary artery diseases (heart
    attack), Cancer etc.

5
  • How does biochemistry impact us?
  • Medicine
  • Agriculture
  • Industrial applications
  • Environmental applications

Principle Areas of Biochemistry Structure and
function of biological macromolecules
Metabolism anabolic and catabolic processes of
life Molecular Genetics How life is
replicated and regulated?
6
History of Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry is a fairly new field of science,
    developed largely in the 20th century
  • First landmark of biochemistry was Wohler's
    synthesis urea This demonstrated that the
    building blocks of life were the same as those of
    non-living things (no vitalism needed)
  • The DNA Breakthrough Avery et al. showed that
    DNA is the genetic material that determines the
    traits (phenotype) of organisms
  • In1953, Watson and Crick made the discovery of
    the double helical structure of DNA
  • The sequence of base pairs in a double helical
    structure provided an explanation for how
    information could be stored and reproduced
  • Crick's Central Dogma DNA gtRNAgtProteingtbody

7
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY
  1. DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURES OF BIOMOLECULES
  2. ELUCIDATION OF FUNCTION OF MANY BIOMOLECULES
  3. RECOMBINANAT DNA TECHNOLOGY
  4. ISOLATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR
    INTRACELLULAR ORGANELLES
  5. ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ENZYMES AND
    RIBOZYMES
  6. DELINEATION OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS AND THEIR
    FUNCTIONS
  7. DETERMINATION OF MAJOR PRINCIPLES OF METABOLIC
    REGULATION
  8. MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
  9. MECHANISM OF HORMONE ACTION
  10. INSIGHTS INTO MOLECULAR BASIS OF MANY DISEASES

8
STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
  • Studies at whole animal level
  • Tissue slice
  • Homogenate
  • Isolated sell organelles
  • Subfractionation of organelles
  • Isolation and characterization of metabolic
    enzymes
  • Cloning of genes and proteins

9
Chemical Elements of earth are 113


10
But how many of them exist in life?
  • There are 6 primary elements found in living
    organisms
  • Element Human dry wt
  • Oxygen 20
  • Carbon 50
  • Hydrogen 10
  • Nitrogen 8.5
  • Phosphorus 2.5
  • Sulfur 0.8

11
Ions
  • 5 common ions found in all organisms
  • Ion Human dry wt
  • Calcium (Ca2) 4
  • Potassium (K) 1
  • Sodium (Na) 0.4
  • Magnesium(Mg2) 0.1
  • Chloride (Cl-) 0.4

12
Organization of Life
  • elements
  • simple organic compounds (monomers)
  • macromolecules (polymers)
  • supramolecular structures
  • organelles
  • cells
  • tissues
  • organisms

13
Biomolecules in living organisms
14
Major complex biomolecules of cells
  • Biomolecule building block major
    functions
  • Protein amino acids structure
    function
  • Carbohydrate monosacharide storage
    energy (short term)
  • Lipids fatty acids storage energy
  • glycerol (long term)
  • DNA deoxyribonuclotides hereditory
    information
  • RNA ribonuclotides protein
    biosynthesis

15
Composition of life
  • Chemical composition for a man weighing 65 kg

kg
Protein 11.0 17.0
Fat 9.0 13.8
Carbohydrate 1.0 1.5
Water 40.0 61.6
Others 4.0 6.1
16
Biochemistry and Evolution
  • The theory of evolution, as put forth by Charles
    Darwin in the 19th century, and subsequently
    developed by others, is fundamental for enabling
    a deep understanding of biochemistry
  • The evidence for evolution is overwhelming, and
    continues to increase over time, as detailed
    comparisons of genomic sequences from diverse
    species reveals common evolutionary origins and
    histories
  • This recent molecular data builds upon and
    confirms earlier macroscopic support for
    evolution from comparative anatomy, population
    genetics and paleontology

17
Origin of life
  • Fossil records indicate the emergence of
    primitive cellular organisms at least 3 billion
    years ago
  • Commonalities in 'core' metabolic pathways and
    the near universality of the genetic code
    indicate that all modern life descended and
    diverged from a common ancestor billions of years
    ago
  • Genetic analysis reveals three main branches of
    modern life archaebacteria, eubacteria and
    eukaryotes
  • Both archaebacteria and eubacteria are
    prokaryotes (lacking a nucleus and other complex
    cellular features) while multicellular organisms
    such as humans have eukaroyotic cells

18
The cell is the smallest unit of life that is
considered to be 'alive Prokaryotic
Cell Eukaryotic Cell
19
Human Chromosomes, Karyotype, Genome
Chromosomes painted with different
DNA-fluorescent dyes
20
What do we study in Biochemistry?
  1. Chemical constituents of life
  2. Physiological Biochemistry
  3. Metabolism
  4. Genetics Molecular Biology
  5. Clinical Biochemistry

21
1. Chemical constituents of life
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins Plasma proteins
  • Amino acids
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic acids
  • Enzymes
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

22
2. Physiological Biochemistry
  • Digestion Absorption
  • Plasma proteins
  • Hemoglobin porphyrins
  • Biological oxidation
  • Energy rich compounds
  • Biological oxidation
  • Respiratory chain
  • Oxidative phosphorylation

23
3. Metabolism
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates
  • Metabolism of proteins amino acids
  • Metabolism of lipids
  • Metabolism of minerals
  • Metabolism of Hormones
  • Metabolism of nucleic acids nucleotides
  • Metabolism of Hemoglobin
  • Metabolism of Prostaglandins
  • Metabolism of Xenobiotics
  • Integration of metabolism

24
4. Genetics molecular biology
  • Genetics introduction
  • Nucleotides
  • Replication
  • Transcription
  • Translation
  • Recombinant DNA technology
  • Human genome project
  • Gene therapy

25
5. Clinical chemistry
  • Insulin Diabetes mellitus
  • Liver function test
  • Kidney function test
  • Nutrition Nutritional disorders
  • Myocardial infraction
  • Tumor markers Cancer Biochemistry
  • Jaundice Porphyrias
  • Free radicals Antioxidants
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Water, Electrolyte Acid-Base balance
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