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The Age of Imperialism


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Title: The Age of Imperialism

The Age of Imperialism
  • 1750-1900

  • Imperialism had existed since 1492.
  • Age of Exploration
  • The New World, colonies in South Asia, coasts of
    China Africa
  • Little European influence on lives in these areas
  • European nations developed strong nations,
    militaries, and economies, thanks in part to

Imperial Means Empire
  • Diplomacy - http//
  • Warfare - http//
  • http//

Imperial Guards
Imperial Army
New Imperialism
  • a path of aggressive expansion
  • due to Europes new economic and military
  • due to its rapid industrialization
  • the need for natural resources (rubber, oil,
    manganese, palm oil)
  • the need for new markets to sell goods

Why take over other regions?
  • Needed natural resources
  • Rubber, petroleum, manganese, palm oil
  • Hoped for new markets
  • Halt expansion of some countries
  • Prestige in the world
  • Help their little brothers
  • Like children, they needed help guidance
  • Spread the blessings of the Western civilization
  • Medicine, law, the Christian religion

  • The necessity that is upon us is to provide
    for our ever-growing population either by
    opening new fields for emigration, or by
    providing work and employment and to stimulate
    trade by finding new markets.
  • Lord Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire

Write this quote in your notesLets analyze.
Political Military Interests
  • merchant and naval ships needed bases to
  • lands was taken to build these bases around the
  • Nationalism rival nations like GB and Germany
    seized land to stop Frances expansion
  • colonies were needed for national security
  • ruling an empire increase global prestige (Hey,
    look how great we are!)

Humanitarian Goals
  • concern for little brothers
  • Like children, they needed our help and
  • duty to spread the blessings of western
  • belief of
  • missionaries
  • spread the Christian faith to the heathens
  • doctors
  • my medicine is better than yours
  • colonial officials

Social Darwinism (see p. 561)
  • idea taken from Charles Darwins Origin of
    Species (1859)
  • social theory of the time based on evolution
    natural selection
  • survival of the fittest
  • applied to social change
  • superiority wealth success
  • led to feelings of racial superiority among
  • non-Europeans
  • lower on scale cultural physical development
  • did not have European technology
  • imperial conquest destruction of weaker races
  • Natures way of improving the human race

Charles Darwin
(No Transcript)
Weaknesses of Land-Based Empires
  • decline of older civilizations
  • Ottoman Empire, Mughal India, Qing China
  • internal wars slave trade undermined
    established nations
  • newer states couldnt resist western imperialism

Western Advantages
  • stronger economies
  • well-organized government
  • powerful armies navies
  • superior weapons vs. outdated weapons
  • Maxim gun (1889)
  • 1st automatic machine gun
  • railroads steamships
  • interior travel upstream
  • communications
  • cure for malaria
  • disease caused by mosquitoes
  • invention of quinine as an anti-malarial

Lets Begin With
Africa Before Imperialism
  • North Africa
  • under rule of declining Ottoman Empire
  • West Africa
  • Islamic reform movement lead by Usman dan Fodio
    jihad to purify Islam
  • Asante kingdom traded with Europeans Muslims
  • East Africa
  • Mombasa Kilwa traded goods (ivory, copper,
    slaves) for cloth and guns from India

Africa Before Imperialism
  • Southern Africa
  • in turmoil
  • Shaka united Zulu tribes
  • conquests set off migrations wars (chaos)
  • 1830s battled Boers for control
  • The Slave Trade
  • early 1800s, Europeans were outlawing
    transatlantic slave trade
  • eastern slave trade in M.E. Asia still going
  • 1787 Sierra Leone (British) Liberia (U.S.)set
    up as colonies for former slaves
  • 1847 Liberia gains independence

Previous European Contact
  • 1810 only 10 land explored
  • geography
  • coastal areas only (no interior exploration)
  • lack of navigable rivers
  • rapids cataracts
  • trade
  • lack of European control
  • Steam ships and medicine change this!

Africa (in general) before Imperialism
  • Divided into ethnic/ linguistic groups
  • 1,000 different languages
  • Empires ? independent villages
  • Rugged diverse geography
  • Trade networks

Interest in Africa Grows
  • Explorers
  • Mungo Park Richard Burton
  • trade profit
  • Missionaries
  • David Livingstone
  • religious conversions
  • children in need of guidance
  • Humanitarians
  • opposed slave trade
  • Reporters/ Authors
  • Henry Stanley
  • search for adventure, mystery, excitement

  • If it be friendship that you desire, then I am
    ready for itbut to be your subject, that I
    cannot beI do not fall at your feet, for you are
    Gods creature just as I am.
  • Chief Machemba, Letter in Swahili to German
    officer Herman von Wissman

Write this quote in your notes. Well analyze
the quote in class together.
Belgiums in the Congo
  • 1882 Claimed Congo River Valley
  • King Leopold II of Belgium
  • Motive? To free the slaves of course
  • A civilizing mission to carry the light that
    for millions of men still plunged in barbarism
    will be the dawn of a better era. (King Leopold
  • Privately dreamed of conquest and profit (duh!)
  • Other European nations see potential

King Leopold II of Belgium
King Leopold with
(No Transcript)
Leading to
The Scramble for Africa
(No Transcript)
What did the Europeans want?
  • Africas vast natural resources
  • Peanuts
  • Cocoa
  • Rubber
  • Copper
  • Tin
  • Gold
  • Diamonds

Belgian Congo
South Africa
Berlin Conference (1884 1885)
  • took place in Germany
  • divided Africa among European nations
  • recognized Leopolds claim to Congo Free State
  • called for free trade on Congo Niger rivers
  • how to make a claim
  • 1. notify nations
  • 2. set up a government
  • 3. show you could control an area
  • redrew map of Africa w/ little thought on
    distribution of
  • African ethnic/linguistic groups, patterns of
    settlement, or ethnic boundaries
  • later leads to a rise of nationalism in Africa

Map of Africa
Geography Skills
  • 1. In which part of Africa were most of Frances
    colonies located?
  • 2. Why was the exploration of Africa difficult?
  • 3. How can you tell from the map that Africans
    did not willingly accept European domination?

Write the questions in your notes. Be sure to
answer the questions!
Britains Settler Colony and White Dominions
  • West East Africa, Egypt, the Sudan
  • Boer War (1899 1902)
  • fought the Boers (Dutch farmers) for southern
  • acquired the Cape Colony from the Dutch in 1815
  • many Boers fled British rule (went north set up
    own republics)
  • late 1800s gold diamonds discovered in Boer
    lands Britain wanted it they got it
  • 1910 GB united the Cape Colony former Boer
    republics into the Union of South Africa
  • new constitution set up govt. run by whites
  • based on complete racial segregation (apartheid)
  • ends in 1993 with election of Nelson Mandela as

Boer Guerrillas during the
2nd Boer War (aka Afrikaners)
dead British soldiers on battlefield after battle
of Spion Kop (1900)
Boer War Commandos
Cecil Rhodes (see p. 664)
  • successful businessman
  • built a fortune in diamond fields (at 40, one of
    the richest men in the world)
  • major supporter of British imperialism I want
    the power!
  • founder of Rhodesia (present-day Zambia
  • attended Oriel College, Oxford
  • Rhodes Scholar (scholarships funded by his
  • right duty to bring technology progress to
    barbarian lands
  • supported apartheid
  • Goal?
  • civilize (aka Westernize) the colonies

(No Transcript)
cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in
Punch magazine after Rhodes announced plans for a
telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.
  • P.S.
  • A question for you
  • What major diamond mining corporation did Rhodes

  • That would be the De Beers company
  • which today markets 40 of the worlds
  • rough diamonds and at one time
  • marketed 90.
  • Ever heard of a monopoly?
  • What do we (the U.S.) do to monopolies today?

Rudyard Kipling (1865 1936)
  • born in Bombay, British India
  • British writer/journalist in South Africa
  • supporter of imperialism

White Mans Burden
  • British journalist in South Africa
  • Phrase used to indicate the duty of Europeans
    to westernize the rest of the world
  • Based on ideas of inferiority of other
  • Product of racism

The White Mans Burden
  • Take up the White Mans burden
  • Send forth the best ye breed
  • Go bind your sons to exile
  • To serve your captives need
  • Take up the White Mans burden
  • The savage wars of peace
  • Fill full the mouth of Famine,
  • And bid the sickness cease
  • And when your goal is nearest
  • (The end for others sought)
  • Watch sloth and heathen folly
  • Bring all your hope to nought.

- Rudyard Kipling
Why did Kipling consider imperialism to be
  • In 1907, he became the first Englishman to
    receive the noble peace prize for literature.
  • Question
  • What famous story did Kipling write?
  • Hint Disney made this story into a film.

The Jungle Book (1894)
Ethiopia Independence
  • successfully resisted European colonization
  • 1889 Emperor Menelik II
  • played Europeans against each other
  • bought modern weapons from France Russia (paid
    for with ivory)
  • hired Europeans to train army
  • modernized Ethiopia by hiring European experts
  • built modern roads bridges
  • set up western school system

(No Transcript)
Battle of Adowa (1896)
  • Ethiopians defeat invading Italians
  • Europeans sought formal diplomatic relations
  • inspired people of African descent all around the
  • only African nation, other
    than Liberia, to maintain
    its independence
  • side note a number of free
    blacks from the U.S. settled in
    Liberia (capital
  • Italians will get their
    revenge on Ethiopia under
    Mussolini in the 1930s

battle tapestry at Smithsonian
General effects of Imperialism in Africa
  • Africa becomes a continent of European colonies
    with its citizens second class to Europeans.
  • In some cases, health care, education, and better
    agricultural methods came with the Europeans.
  • Rich ores were mined and enriched European

(No Transcript)
Did you know The novel Heart of Darkness by
Joseph Conrad is set in Africa during the Age of
Imperialism. Marlowe, the narrator of the story,
leaves England to seek adventure in Africa. Like
others of this time, he is confident that
European civilization benefits the people of
Africa. But when he arrives at his companys
station near the mouth of the Congo, he is
shocked by what he finds. Through their mining,
industrialists have ravaged the countryside.
Africans are chained together, working and dying
so that Europeans can reap financial profits.
All that matters to the imperialists is
satisfaction of their personal greed.
Impact of Colonial Rule on Africa
  • Positive
  • Reduced local warfare
  • Improved sanitation
  • Hospitals, schools
  • Economic expansion
  • Railroads, dams
  • Telephone
  • Telegraph lines
  • Negative
  • Lost control of land
  • Lost independence
  • Spread of diseases
  • Famines
  • Loss of cultures
  • Loss of identity
  • Ongoing division of African societies

Now, on to
The Middle East
The Muslim World before
  • 3 major empires
  • Mughals (India) led by Babur Akbar (p. 269)
  • Ottomans (Middle East) led by Suleiman (p. 272)
  • Safavids (Iran) led by Shah Abbas the Great (p.
  • empires begin to decline
  • central government lost control over nobles,
    military, guilds
  • widespread corruption
  • some Muslim scholars religious leaders allied
    with the state, some helped to stir rebellions
    against the government
  • there was no consistency among the leaders

European Threats
  • Ottoman Empire
  • economic problems corruption caused decay
  • lost many areas to revolts
  • very multi-ethnic empire
  • Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians (Balkans)
  • Arabia, Lebanon, Armenia (tried but suppressed)
  • France had an eye for the territory
  • Egypt slipped out of Ottoman control
  • Bosporus the Dardanelles
  • Russia schemed to gain control (needed warm water
    ports access to the Mediterranean Sea)
  • Britain tried to thwart the attempt as it needed
    access to the Mediterranean Sea
  • Germany wanted a RR from Berlin-to-Baghdad
  • an example of something called geopolitics

What is Geopolitics?
  • the interest in taking land for its strategic
    location or products
  • Ottoman Empire
  • controlled access to Atlantic Ocean the
    Mediterranean Sea
  • Crimean War (1853-1856)
  • peninsula on the Black Sea
  • war broke out when Russia tried to seize Ottoman
    lands along the Danube River
  • Ottomans, British, French vs. Russia
  • ended in Russian defeat, showed the backwardness
    of the country

Crimean War
Efforts to Westernize Ottoman Empire
  • reorganized the bureaucracy
  • reorganized the system of tax collection
  • built railroads
  • improved education
  • better medical care farming techniques
  • used European officers to train the military
  • sent men to the West to study new sciences
  • they came back with ideas about democracy

Unfortunately, there were mixed blessings
  • adoption of western ideas about government
    increased tensions
  • officials objected changes inspired by a foreign
  • repressive sultans rejected reform increased
    their power
  • better living conditions ? population boom
  • competition for land ? unrest tension
  • officials rejected Western ideas, tried to
    suppress their people

Young Turks
  • 1889 liberals formed new movement
  • reform was the only way to save empire
  • 1908 overthrew Sultan Abdul Hamid II
  • before reforms could be established, the Ottoman
    empire was drawn into WWI in 1914

Changes in Egypt
  • Muhammad Ali (1769 1849)
  • not the boxer
  • 1805 governor of Egypt
  • known as the
    Father of Modern Egypt
  • breaks away from Ottoman Empire
  • gained control of Syria, Sudan, Arabia
  • goal was the modernization of Egypt
  • But how???

Modernization of Egypt
  • Improved tax collection
  • Reorganized land system
  • Irrigation projects to increase farm output
  • Western military expert trained the army
  • Participated in world trade (economy)
  • Expanded cotton production encouraged the
    development of local industry
  • Made Egypt a major Middle Eastern power

Suez Canal (1869)
  • 100-mile waterway that connects the Red Sea to
    the Mediterranean Sea
  • runs from Port Said in north to Gulf of Suez in
  • begun in 1859 by French entrepreneur, Ferdinand
    de Lesseps (Suez Canal Company)
  • shortened sea route from Europe to S E Asia
  • French money, Egyptian labor (30,000 people)
  • part of Egypts modernization efforts
  • irrigation project, communication network
  • Egypt could not pay 450 million debt to France
  • ruler Ismail Pasha forced to sell shares in canal
  • bought by British PM Benjamin Disraeli

Port Said
Great Bitter Lake
Gulf of Suez
Significance of the Suez Canal
  • 1875 Britain gained controlling interest in the
    canal occupied Egypt
  • faster British access (by sea) to African Asian
  • cut the journey from England to India by 4000
  • Lifeline of the Empire
  • Egypt becomes a British protectorate after a
    failed revolt by Egyptian nationalists in 1882
  • governor of Egypt is still technically an
    official of the Ottoman Empire but follows
    British-dictated policies
  • Egypt continues to modernize, but nationalists
    are angry ?
  • The canal is owned today by the Suez Canal
  • Authority of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Look how much time is saved using the canal.
Next is.
British Policies
  • 1600s British East India Company won trading
  • mid-1800s controlled 3/5ths of India
  • exploited diversity of land (divide conquer)
  • people with different traditions languages
    couldnt unite
  • Britain encouraged competition disunity among
    rival princes when that
    didnt work

British East India Co.
  • main goal was to make money got very rich from
    it, but they did good things like
  • they improved roads, preserved peace, reduced
  • introduced western education law
  • converted Indians to Christianity (social
  • worked to end slavery the caste system
  • outlawed sati to help improve status of women

Indian Revolt of 1857
  • Sepoy an Indian soldier in British Colonial
  • could be a Hindu or a Muslim Indian
  • required to serve in any British territory
  • overseas travel was an offense to religion for
    high-caste Hindus
  • resented religious presence of Christians
  • saw a Christian conspiracy to undermine faith
  • Was this an attempt to force conversions?

Indian Revolt of 1857
  • 1857 new Enfield rifles were given to the
  • cartridges sealed with beef/pork fat
  • had to bite off cartridge seal to use the bullet
  • Hindus consider cow sacred
  • Muslims do not eat pork
  • 85 90 of sepoys refused to load rifles
  • the British did see their folly ordered new
    cartridges but the die was cast
  • soldiers sent home without pay or were jailed

Indian Revolt of 1857
  • May 10, 1857 angry sepoys rebel
  • rebellion spreads through northern central
  • some marched to Delhi, the old Mughal capital
  • wanted old ruler to take power again
  • brutality occurs by both sides (teacher book, p.
  • sepoys massacre British citizens in India
  • British retaliate by torching Indian villages
    killing thousands of unarmed people
  • the British defeat the rebels
  • July 8, 1858 peace treaty signed

(No Transcript)
The Sepoy Rebellion
Aftermath of Indian Revolt of 1857
  • 1858 Britain ends the rule of the BEIC - direct
    colonial rule begins
  • increased troop presence in India
  • taxed Indians to pay costs (sound familiar?)
  • fueled racist attitudes of British
  • increased distrust among colonizer colonized
  • India is at the mercy of the British crown

Jewel in the Crown
  • India most valuable of all Britains colonies
  • major market supplier of raw materials
  • for factories in England elsewhere
  • produced goods for British manufacturing
  • forced to buy cheap British finished goods
  • railroad transport increased Indias economic
    value to Great Britain
  • tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, opium
  • Britain thought they were helping India
  • modernization westernization of technology
  • civilizing effect western culture (Its the
  • REMEMBER Everything favored the British!

Benefits of British Rule
  • restored peace order (for the most part)
  • revised the legal system
  • promote justice regardless of class or caste
  • transportation
  • built roads railroads
  • communication
  • telegraph lines postal system
  • India develops a sense of national unity
  • wealthy send sons to British schools
  • Indian landowners get rich from exporting cash

  • What does the picture suggest about the cotton
    industry in India?
  • In the 1880s, British officials encouraged
    Indian farmers to grow cash crops rather than
    food crops. Today, India is one of the worlds
    largest producers of cotton.
  • How did British policy contribute to famine in

Note Write in your notes. Be sure to answer the
Different Views on Culture
  • Indian attitudes
  • Upper-class wanted to westernize
  • others wanted to stay with their Hindu Muslim
  • Ram Mohun Roy (1774 1833)
  • great scholar of Sanskrit, Persian,
    Arabic, English, Greek, Latin works
  • felt India could learn from the West
  • revitalized reformed traditional Indian
    culture, yet condemned some traditions
  • rigid caste distinctions, child marriage, sati
  • set up educational societies to help
    revive pride in Indian culture
  • founder of Indian nationalism

Western Attitudes
  • Western attitudes
  • some Brits respected India for its heritage
  • theology, philosophy, classics, ancient heritage,
    Hinduism and Buddhism
  • Western writers borrowed from Hinduism Buddhism
  • others dismissed the culture with contempt from a
    lack of knowledge
  • A single shelf of a good European library is
    worth the whole native literature of India and
  • - Thomas
  • Shouldnt a historian avoid bias?

Indian Nationalism
  • a class of western-educated Indians emerges to
    lead a nationalist movement
  • Indian National Congress (1885)
  • aka Congress party
  • professional business leaders who believed in
    peaceful protest to gain their ends
  • called for greater democracy
  • wanted self-rule but supported Western-style
  • Muslim League (1906)
  • resented Hindu domination of the Congress party
  • worried about the oppression of Muslims
  • formed their own party to pursue their own goals
  • supported a separate Muslim state (Pakistan)

Impact of Imperialism on India
  • Positive
  • 3rd largest RR network
  • modern economy
  • modern road network
  • telephone/telegraph lines
  • dams, bridges, irrigation, canals
  • sanitation/public health
  • schools/colleges
  • literacy increased
  • ended local warfare
  • Negative
  • British political economic power
  • hurt Indian industry
  • ex hand-weaving
  • loss of autonomy
  • famines
  • loss of religious/ social customs
  • threat to way of life

Ch 25 5
Turn of Century China
  • self-sufficient economy
  • food, mines, silks, cottons, fine porcelain
  • dont need, or care, to trade with others
  • healthy agricultural economy
  • better nutrition ? HUGE population boom

The Trade Issue
  • Canton System placed strict limits on foreign
  • European merchants could only trade in southern
    China (Hong Kong, Macao, Canton)
  • China sold Europeans silk, porcelain, tea
  • China received gold silver
  • China enjoyed a trade surplus
  • exporting more than it imported
  • Europeans experienced a trade deficit
  • purchasing more from China than they sold to
    China (not good)

Tea Exporting Business
Tea-Opium Connection
  • How to fix Europes trade deficit with China?
  • trade opium from India for Chinese tea
  • medicine used by Chinese physicians
  • abuse of narcotic plant nation of junkies
  • (1835) 12 million Chinese addicted
  • silver flows out of China to pay for drug
  • economy of China declines
  • decline in Chinas standard of living
  • deterioration of public services
  • massive peasant uprisings
  • opium is outlawed by govt. drug dealers
    are executed

British East India Co. Opium Warehouse
Opium Drying Room
Chinese Opium Smokers
by Thomas Allom
British motivations?
  • I have heard that smoking opium is strictly
    forbidden in your country. Why do you let this
    evil drug be sent to harm people in other
  • Chinese officials complaint to Queen Victoria
  • Great Britain refused to stop selling the
    drug, insisting on their right to free trade.

Random Trivia Question
  • What famous British literary character,
    well-known for his mysterious sleuthing
    characteristics, also suffered from an opium

Sherlock Holmes
character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Opium War (1839)
  • began as a clash between British merchants
    Chinese warships (Qing dynasty)
  • mainly sea battles
  • Chinese outgunned by technologically advanced
    British navy (bigger, better guns)
  • Chinese had outdated weapons fighting methods
  • results in an easy Chinese defeat
  • China forced to sign the treaty

Chinese warships attacking British merchants at
Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
  • Britain receives an indemnity
  • payment for losses in the war (21 million)
  • 6 million silver for confiscated opium
  • 3 million for debts owed the British
  • 12 million for costs of war
  • gave Britain Hong Kong in perpetuity
  • 5 Chinese ports opened to foreign trade
  • Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, Shanghai
  • extraterritoriality
  • exemption from foreign laws (Britain could trade
    with anyone they wished)
  • the right to live under British laws and be tried
    in their British courts
  • first in a series of unequal treaties
  • more concessions made to Western powers
  • China opened up to more trade missionaries

The signing of the Treaty of Nanjing
Hong Kong
  • 1842 ceded to Britain in Treaty of Nanjing
    ending the 1st Opium War
  • under Convention of Peking (after 2nd Opium War),
    Hong Kong ( other areas) leased to Britain for
    99 years, beginning July 1, 1898
  • 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration promising
    Hong Kong would maintain its capitalistic system
    lifestyle under the One country, Two Systems
    policy of Deng XiaoPing
  • July 1, 1997 Hong Kong returned

  • Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
  • Established in 1865 to finance the growing trade
    between China and Europe
  • The HSBC Group now comprises a large range of
    banks and financial service providers around the

Internal Problems
  • 1800s Qing dynasty in decline
  • irrigation systems canals
  • poor maintenance
  • massive flooding of Huang He (destroyed farmland)
  • population explosion
  • not enough food to feed people
  • extravagant (expensive) court
  • heavy taxation on people who had no money
  • tax evasion by rich
  • government corruption
  • civil service system ? a system of bribes?

Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
  • internal problems caused peasants to rebel
  • considered the most devastating peasant revolt in
  • Hong Xiuquan (howng shyoo CHWAHN)
  • leader of the rebellion (claimed to be brother of
    Jesus Christ)
  • wanted to create a heavenly kingdom of great
    peace the Taiping (tie PIHNG)
  • endorsed social ideas Chinese leaders saw as
  • land reform, equality of men women, community
    ownership of property
  • called for an end to the Qing dynasty (hated by
    Chinese peasants)

Hong Xiuquan (1814 1864)
Taiping soldier
Taiping Rebellion, cont
  • rebels won large sections of China (held on to
    for 14 years) but
  • rebellion is crushed by aid from regional
    governors generals ( better guns)
  • estimated Chinese dead 20-30 million
  • Qing government survives, but shares power with
    regional commanders
  • Europeans still after China trading rights
  • Russia seized lands in northern China (sneaky
    little Russians ?)

  • What were the estimated figures for the Holocaust
  • (Keep in mind, however, that the Taiping
    Rebellion was a civil matter.)

Self-Strengthening Movement (c. 1861 1895)
  • imported western technology
  • most important goal development of military
  • built arsenal factories to produce weapons
  • shipyards/naval yards, railroads, mining,
    small-scale industry
  • western works translated into Chinese
  • science, government, the economy
  • government did not support movement so little
    progress was made

Foreign Influence in China
  • Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) revealed Chinese
  • western economic pressure forced China to open
    to foreign trade spheres of influence
  • British took the Yangzi River area
  • French took the colony of Indochina
  • Germany Russia gained areas in northern China
  • U.S. stayed out fearing European powers might
    shut out American merchants if they claimed
  • Open Door Policy (1898)
  • Chinas doors opened to all merchants on an equal
  • protected American trading rights
  • China protected from imperialism

Spheres of Influence in China
Who are these people? What is happening?
Chinese mandarin
Czar Nicholas II
Marianne of France
Kaiser William II
Queen Victoria
Japanese samurai
They are stabbing into a plate with the word
Chine (China in French) written on it. WHY?
Whats happening here? Who do the animals
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
  • campaign against foreign privileges in China
    (remember extraterritoriality?)
  • Righteous Harmonious Fists ? Boxers
  • secret society formed in 1899
  • GOAL Death to the Foreign Devils (slogan)
  • drive foreigners out of China
  • westerners were polluting their land with
    un-Chinese ways (customs), strange buildings
    telegraph lines
  • 1900 attacked foreigners across China

FYI The term boxer was given to the Chinese by
Westerners who had watched the men train in
martial arts.
Chinese Boxers, 1900
Boxer Rebellion cont
  • Eight-Nation Alliance
  • multinational force defeats Boxers
  • Western powers Japan
  • rescued foreigners besieged in Beijing
  • rebellion failed
  • China forced to westernize
  • admitted women to schools
  • students sent abroad to study
  • created government responsive to needs
  • economic expansion
  • mining, shipping, railroads, banking, cash crops
  • created a sense of Chinese nationalism

Eight-Nation Alliance
Italy,    United States,   France,  
Austria-Hungary, Japan,   Germany,
Great Britain,   Russia
Sun Yixian (1866-1925)(soon yee SHAYAHN)
  • supporter of a Chinese republic
  • studied in the West
  • organized the Revolutionary Alliance
  • GOAL to rebuild China on Three Principles of
    the People
  • 1. Nationalism
  • free China from Western domination
  • 2. Democracy
  • representative government
  • 3. Livelihood
  • economic security for all Chinese
  • 1911-Sun Yixian becomes president of the new
    Chinese republic
  • China spends next 37 years in chaos war

Sun Yixian
Commodore Matthew Perry
  • arrived off Japanese coast on July 8, 1853
  • met by representatives of the Tokugawa shogunate
  • told to go to Nagasaki, where there was limited
    trade with the Dutch was the only Japanese port
    open to foreigners at that time
  • carried a letter from US president Fillmore
    threatening force if he was denied
  • Japan did not have the capability to defend
    itself against a naval bombardment, so they
  • Japan must open ports to diplomatic commercial
    exchange with the West

  • Matthew
  • Calbraith
  • Perry (1794 - 1858)
  • photographed 1852
  • 1840 made Commodore
  • of the US Navy
  • fought in Mexican-American War
  • read many books on Japan to
  • prepare for his mission
  • made two visits to Japan
  • given 20,000 by Congress for
  • his work in opening up Japan
  • died March 4, 1858 from liver
  • cirrhosishe was an alcoholic
  • his mother was a descendant of
  • William Wallace
  • his brother was Oliver Hazard

Comm. Perry Carrying the Gospel of God to the
Heathen, 1853
Perrys Visit cont
  • Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)
  • ended 200 years of virtual exclusion from foreign
  • opened two Japanese ports (Shimoda Hakodate),
    to US trade
  • increased diplomatic relations with the U.S.
  • unequal treaty forced on Japan by the superior
    strength of Perrys navy
  • followed by Harris Treaty (1858)
  • allowed establishment of foreign concessions
  • extraterritoriality for foreigners
  • minimal import taxes for foreign goods
  • most favored nation status
  • marked the beginning of Japanese modernization

Townsend Harris(1804 - 1878)
  • first American consul
  • to Japan
  • credited as the
  • diplomat who first opened
  • the Empire of Japan to
  • foreign trade culture in
  • the Edo period
  • Townsend in later
  • life

A depiction of  Commodore Matthew Perry,  by a
Japanese artist.
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Cdre. Perrys flag was displayed at the Japanese
surrender ceremonies officially ending WWII.
(Sept. 2, 1945)
Who is this?
  • 1867-discontented daimyo samurai led a revolt
  • removed shogun from power (November 9, 1867)
  • restored emperor to power
  • 15 year-old Mutsuhito becomes Emperor Meiji on
    February 3, 1867
  • moved the capital from Kyoto to Edo renamed it
    Tokyo (the eastern capital)
  • FYI
  • The movie, The Last Samurai, is loosely based on
  • the samurai, Saigo Takamori, who led the last
  • samurai rebellion in 1877.


Saigo Takamori, seated in Western uniform,
surrounded by his officers
in samurai attire, during the
1877 Satsuma rebellion.
Samurai warrior c. 1860
samurai Nasu no Yoichi
Emperor Meiji moving from Kyoto to Tokyo
former capital
new capital renamed Tokyo
Just for Fun The Last Samurai
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Notice any modernization in this picture of 1860s
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Japan followed the model of Western powers by
industrializing and expanding its foreign
Meiji Restoration (1868 1912) (MAY jee)
  • ruled by Emperor Meiji (15 year-old Mutsuhito)
  • meiji enlightened rule
  • A rich country, a strong military (motto)
  • focused on Japanese pride/nationalism
  • opposed Western imperialism
  • attempted to modernized Japan
  • thought by modernizing, they could rid themselves
    of unequal treaties

How to Modernize?
  • learn foreign ways
  • set out to change image
  • replaced old way of dressing with the western
  • emperor appeared publicly in western-style
    military uniforms
  • modernize navy
  • universal public education
  • industrialize
  • by 1900 as modern as Europeans
  • shipbuilding
  • weapons
  • railroads
  • factories

Emperor Meiji in western-style military uniform
Japanese Reforms Under the Meiji
  • ended feudalism set up under the Kamakura
    shogunate in 1192
  • increased world trade based on a modern
    industrial economy
  • introduction of capitalism
  • a democratic constitution (German model)
  • a national education system

Government Reform
  • strong central government
  • 1889 Meiji Constitution
  • based on German model
  • all citizens are equal before the law
  • granted the Emperor absolute power
  • this is how the German constitution differs from
    the US Constitution
  • created a Diet (legislature)
  • upper house appointed by the emperor from the
    peerage (royal family hereditary peers)
  • included a prime minister cabinet (this cabinet
    did not answer to the Diet, but to the emperor
  • lower house elected to advise government
  • limited voting rights (lt5 of adult male pop. w/
    property could vote)

Government Reform, Part II
  • department system (bureaucracy)
  • finance
  • army navy
  • education
  • ended samurai privileges (demise of feudalism)
  • all men were subject to military service
  • formerly, only the samurai were warriors
  • conscripted army with western technology

Economic Reforms
  • business class used western methods
  • banking system
  • railroads, telegraphs, modernized ports
  • created a postal system
  • government built factories, then sold to wealthy
    business families
  • zaibatsu
  • powerful banking industrial families
  • Kawasaki (Japan), Krupps (Germany), Rockefellers

Effects of the Economic Reforms
  • industry BOOMS!!
  • silk manufacturing soars (modern machines)
  • Japan becomes an industrial leader
  • shipyards
  • copper coal mining
  • steel making
  • population grows
  • peasants go to the cities looking for work
    (Heard of this before?)

Social Changes
  • equality of people
  • no legal distinctions, but class distinctions
    still existed
  • government created schools universities
  • westerners hired to teach modern technology
  • 1870s role of women changes
  • lives generally improved
  • received some education
  • reformers wanted full partnership in
    nation-building, but
  • relegated to a secondary position in society
  • 1898 government changes
  • forbidden to have political participation
  • legally rights were the same as minors (children)

Social Changes, Part II
  • Homogeneous society
  • A common culture and language that gave it a
    strong sense of identity
  • Helped Japan modernize
  • Also came from learning from the experiences of
    other societies (China)

Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
  • provoked by a dispute over control of Korea
  • Korea was considered an independent state, but
  • China wanted to reassert influence
  • 1894 Tonghak Rebellion
  • China sends in troops to suppress rebellion
  • Japan sees this as a violation of Convention of
  • Japan invaded Korea 1st then China
  • seized the royal palace, emperor, occupied
  • Japan won due to superior weapons
  • April 17, 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki
  • Korea becomes a Japanese protectorate
  • gains four ports in China right to operate on
    Yangzi R.
  • receives Taiwan Pescadores Islands
  • joins the race (with Europeans) to create an

Sino-Japanese War The Fierce Battle on the
Floating Bridge at Jiuliancheng by
Kobayashi Toshimitsu, October 1894
Battle of the Yalu Riverby Kobayashi Kiyochika
Inoue Kichijirô
Surrender of Chinese to Japanese after the defeat
at Weihaiwei, 1895
Who is who?
Whats happening here?
Russo-Japanese War (1904 - 1905)
  • fought over rights in Manchuria Korea
  • Manchuria (land under Chinas rule)
  • recognize Russian rights in Manchuria (they
    wanted a warm-water port at Port Arthur near
    Korea) if Russians would stay out of Korea
  • Russians refused (they are an imperialist nation
    after all)
  • February 8, 1904Japan declares war
  • attacked Russian troops to protect interests
  • Russian was defeated
  • Pacific Baltic fleets destroyed
  • numerous battle defeats on land sea (Port
    Arthur, Manchuria, Yalu River)

Battlefields of the Russo-Japanese War, 1904
Yalu River
the capital
Bombardment during the Siege of Port Arthur,
August 10, 1904
Russian cruiser, Pallada under fire at Port Arthur
Russian soldiers retreating after the Battle of
Mukdun, 1904
Russian soldiers looking down at trench filled
with dead Japanese soldiers after Battle of
Port Arthur
Treaty of Portsmouth
  • signed September 5, 1905
  • first time in modern history an Asian power
    defeats a European power
  • both agree to leave Manchuria give it back to
  • Japan gets captured territories
  • Liaodong Peninsula (Port Arthur Talien)
  • Russian rail system in southern Manchuria
  • Sakhalin Island from Russia
  • control of Korea (from an earlier treaty with the
    US Taft-Katsura Agreement, July 1905)
  • 1st time in modern history an Asian nation
    defeated a European power
  • fuels future ambitions of conquest

Negotiating the Treaty
Random Trivia
  • What US president mediated
  • the Treaty of Portsmouth
  • negotiations in 1905?

That would be Theodore Roosevelt. He was awarded
the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for his work on
this treaty.
Theodore Roosevelt the 26th President of the
United States of America in office from
September 14, 1901 to March 4, 1909
Japanese Aggression
  • Korea the Hermit Kingdom
  • interest of Russia, China, Japan
  • forced to accept unequal treaties
  • initially becomes a Japanese protectorate
    but annexed to the Japanese empire
    in 1910
  • Japan modernizes Korea
  • Is this a European tactic?
  • harsh rule, set out to erase the Korean language
  • led to nationalistic movements in Korea
  • March 1,1919 (March First Movement)

Where is Korea?
Geopolitical necessity for which countries?
Transnational Businesses
  • The global nature of trade and production
    contributed to the proliferation of large-scale
    transnational business
  • The United Fruit Company (Banana Republics)
  • The HSBC

US Imperialism
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