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Classification of Living Organisms

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Classification of Living Organisms Unit 7, Part 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * However, if a hunting cat is born with a variation of long claws, he may be more successful ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Living Organisms


1
Classification of Living Organisms
  • Unit 7, Part 1

2
Classification Of Organisms
  • Classification (grouping) of organisms is done in
    a general to specific method, which results in a
    unique classification for each different type of
    creature.
  • From most general to most specific, organisms are
    grouped by kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
    genus, species.

3
A Little Help
  • Kings (kingdom)
  • Play (phylum)
  • Cards (class)
  • On (order)
  • Fat (family)
  • Green (genus)
  • Stools (species)

4
An Example
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primates
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species sapiens

5
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Binomial nomenclature is a method of naming an
    organism using the last two words of its
    scientific classification, always Latin words.
  • For example, the scientific name of a human is
    Homo sapiens.
  • In binomial nomenclature, the name is always
    underlined or italicized and the genus name is
    capitalized while the species name is lower-case.

6
  • Biologists classify organisms into taxa in a
    process called taxonomy. Taxa are defined by
    their common traits. For example, animals
    belonging to the class Mammalia tend to have body
    hair, produce milk, and have live birth.

7
Why Classify?
  • Classification is used to bring order to the
    great diversity of species present on Earth.
  • It also serves as a basis for identifying newly
    discovered and unfamiliar organisms.
  • What is the importance of having the same naming
    system all over the world?
  • What is the difference between a panther, a
    jaguar, and a puma? Nothing, except for their
    common names - they all have the same scientific
    name.

8
Kingdoms
  • Scientists currently use a 5- or 6- kingdom
    system.
  • We will use the 5-kingdom system, which includes
    kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and
    Monera.
  • Every organism fits into one of these categories,
    which are the broadest and largest of the taxa.

9
Kingdom Monera
  • Examples of organisms from this kingdom include
    most bacteria and some unicellular organisms.
    Bacteria like coccus, spirilium, and bacillus
    fall into this category.

10
Kingdom Protista
  • Organisms from this kindgom include amoeba, some
    types of algae (like red algae), and Euglena.

11
Kingdom Fungi
  • Organisms from this kingdom include mushrooms,
    yeast, and penicillium.

12
Kindgom Plantae
  • Organisms in this kingdom include trees (like
    oak and pine), succulent plants (like cactus and
    aloe), flowering plants (like roses and tulips),
    vegetable- and fruit-producing plants (like
    carrots and bananas) and grasses (like wheat and
    bamboo).

13
Kingdom Animalia
  • Organisms in this kingdom include all types of
    fish, all types of birds, all types of reptiles,
    all types of mammals, and all types of insects.

14
Phylum
  • The second part of the scientific classification
    narrows down the groups considerably.
  • For humans, we fit into phylum Chordata. This
    includes all animals that have, or at one time
    during their life cycle, had, a tail bone.

15
Class
  • The third part of the classification is called
    Class. This step further narrows down the groups.
    As we progress down the ladder, we get more
    specific and there are more categories than the
    step before.
  • Again, for humans, we belong to class to
    Mammalia. This includes all animals that have
    body hair, give birth to their young rather than
    lay eggs, and produce milk.

16
Order
  • This is the next most specific branch.
  • Humans belong to order Primates. This includes
    all animals that have a certain size brain,
    facial structure, and specific organs.

17
Family
  • This step on the classification ladder breaks
    down the groups a little more.
  • We belong to family Hominidae. This group
    includes animals that stand up straight, walking
    on only two legs.

18
Genus
  • This group is included in the scientific name of
    an organism.
  • Humans belong to genus Homo. This is not the
    Greek form of the word meaning same, but the
    Latin form of the word meaning man.

19
Species
  • This is the most specific part of an organisms
    classification. Each type of organism fits into
    its own special niche.
  • For humans, its Sapiens.
  • Sapiens means thinking, therefore describing
    humans as thinking men.
  • Remember, the last two parts of the
    classification make up the scientific name.

20
Test Your Knowledge
  • Do you what the common names of these organisms
    are?
  • Canis familiaris
  • Felis catus
  • Ursus arctos
  • Latrodectus mactans
  • Gorilla gorilla

21
The Answers
  • Domesticated dog
  • House cat
  • Brown bear
  • Black widow spider
  • Gorilla

22
Natural and Artificial Selection
  • Unit 7, Part 2

23
Natural v. Artificial Selection
  • Natural selection is often referred to as
    survival of the fittest. This simply means that
    those organisms that are most able to survive
    under given conditions are the ones who will
    reproduce and pass on their genes.
  • An example of this would be a smaller or slower
    animal being eaten by a predator while its faster
    and larger family members escape.
  • Natural selection happens without human
    influence. It means that an organism with
    unsuitable characteristics will be wiped out
    naturally.

24
  • Artificial selection is when an organism is
    allowed to live based on its traits. This means
    that humans choose the traits that are most
    favorable to them.
  • An example of this is when people breed dogs for
    certain traits.
  • Another example is dating and marriage. You pick
    the person with traits that are desirable and
    ultimately, you pick which genes are passed on to
    the next generation.

25
The Theory of Natural Selection
  • Point 1
  • In nature, there is a tendency toward
    overproduction.
  • For example, mice, watermelons, ants, fish,
    dandelions, and mosquitoes are well-known
    overproducers.

26
  • Point 2
  • Not all offspring that are produced survive.
  • For example, many bacteria treated with
    antibiotics will die. Not all seeds from a
    watermelon will grow and thrive. Not all babies
    will make it through birth, or will die within
    the first year of life due to many factors.

27
  • Point 3
  • Variations exist in any population.
  • For example, some spadefoot toads mature faster
    than others. Some dogs have longer noses than
    others. Some kids have freckles or pale skin
    while others dont.

28
  • Point 4
  • Variations are inherited.
  • For example, the long fur of a cat will be passed
    on to the cats offspring. The color pattern of
    many insects are the same from generation to
    generation. A cleft chin will show up in many
    generations.

29
  • Point 5
  • Those individuals with variations that are
    suitable for their environment will live longer
    and leave more offspring on average than will
    individuals not having the variations. Thus,
    suitable variations will tend to be passed on and
    unsuitable ones lost.
  • For example, penicillin-resistant bacteria will
    survive and reproduce after treatment with this
    antibiotic.

30
  • Point 6
  • The resulting population as a whole will change
    as it becomes better adapted to its environment.
  • For example, mosquitoes can become resistant to
    certain pesticides or leopards with darker spots
    will become more numerous as they produce
    offspring that look like them.

31
Adaptations v. Variations
  • In many cases, adaptations and variations can
    lead to changes in the classification process.
  • This is why sometimes, an organisms scientific
    name will change.

32
  • Variation and adaptation do not mean the same
    thing. Variations lead to adaptation.
  • This means that a single organism may have a
    variation, but over time, the entire population
    adapts because of that variation.

33
  • Generally speaking, only variations that aid
    survival will be preserved by natural selection.
  • For example, a hunting cat that is born with an
    albino mutation has a variation. If he is unable
    to capture prey because he does not blend in, he
    will likely starve and not pass on that gene.
    Therefore, it does not become an adaptation for
    the future population.

34
  • However, if a hunting cat is born with a
    variation of long claws, he may be more
    successful at his job and will survive to produce
    more offspring with long claws. That is an
    adaptation.
  • The adaptation that comes from a beneficial
    variation will be a general characteristic of the
    entire population.

35
Keep In Mind
  • Adaptations do not arise all at once. They are
    the result of adaptive changes being passed down
    by many generations.
  • Natural selection does not invent new organisms.
    It only modifies what already exists for
    posterity.

36
Evolution Macro v. Micro
  • Macroevolution is a term used to describe
    evolution occurring on a large scale (like one
    species changing to another).
  • Microevolution refers to changes happening on a
    molecular (genetic) level, such as those changes
    that occur during natural or artificial
    selection, including mutations.

37
Something to think about
  • Why would it be a bad thing if all organisms of a
    certain species in a given region had no
    variations?

38
Advantages of Biodiversity
  • Aside from aesthetic reasons, diversity is
    important for preservation. All organisms
    interact with and rely on one another in some
    form.
  • Without the vast diversity of living organisms we
    have, we could not carry out our normal
    processes, nor could any other organism.
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