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Phase Converter Simulator AKA Voltron

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Title: Slide 1 Author: User Last modified by: Ronnie Lalchan Created Date: 12/4/2009 8:07:23 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phase Converter Simulator AKA Voltron


1
Phase Converter Simulator AKA Voltron
  • Group 8
  • Anthony McCorvey
  • Ronnie Lalchan
  • Chris Beck
  • George Thompson

2
Problem
  • The power companies are converting the old
    mechanical meters to Smart meters.
  • Wireless Communication
  • Accurate Readings
  • KWH every hour
  • Power Factor
  • Connect/Disconnect
  • No jobs for meter readers
  • Hiring untrained contractors
  • Cheaper
  • Looking for a cost efficient method to train
    contractors

3
Goals
  • To design a product that the power companies can
    use for their renovations
  • Cost efficient
  • Safe
  • User Friendly
  • Test and Train

4
Design Requirements Hardware
  • Meter Cans
  • Potential Transformers
  • Variable Transformer
  • Toggle Switches/Relays
  • Fuses
  • Control Box

5
Thinking about the Design
  • 2 Phase Configurations
  • Delta
  • Wye
  • Single Phase
  • Three Phase
  • How can we convert single phase to three phase?
  • Rotary motors etc
  • Too expensive
  • Defeats our goal
  • Trick the Voltage
  • Thats when Simulator was added to the name

Phase Configuration Phase to Ground Phase 1 to Phase 2 Phase 2 to Phase 3 and Phase 3 to Phase 1 Power leg to Ground
Single Phase Delta 120 Volts 240 Volts 240 Volts
Three Phase Delta 120 Volts 240 Volts 240 Volts 208 Volts
Single Phase Wye 120 Volts 208 Volts
Three Phase Wye 120 Volts 208 Volts 208 Volts
6
Meter Cans
  • (2) Three Phase Meter Cans
  • 2 Wire Delta
  • Junction Meter
  • 3 Wire Delta
  • 3 Wire Wye
  • LED Lights
  • (3) Single Phase Meter Cans
  • 2 Wire Delta
  • 3 Wire Delta
  • 3Wire Wye
  • LED Lights (Safety Precautions)

7
Potential Transformers
  • 6 total potential transformers
  • 3 Step-down PTs Configuration
  • 11550 (Phase to Phase - Delta) and (Phase to
    Ground Delta and Wye)
  • 11580 (Stinger leg Delta)
  • 11542 (Phase to Phase Wye)

3 Step-Up PTs Multiplier 2.41
8
Step-Up PT Schematic
9
Voltage Calculations
  • Phase to Ground for Wye and Delta (11550)
  • 50 x 2.4 120 Volts
  • Power leg to Ground (Delta) (11580)
  • 80 x 2.4 192 Volts
  • Specific to needs
  • Found a solution
  • Phase to Phase for Wye to Delta
  • Subtractive Polarity
  • Delta
  • 50 x 2.4 120 volts
  • Different terminals
  • 120 lt0 120 lt180 240 Volts
  • Wye (11542)
  • 42 x 2.4 100.8 Volts
  • 100.8 lt0 100.8 lt180 201.6 Volts

10
Control Box
  • Variable Transformer
  • 4 Fuses
  • (1) 5 Amps
  • (3) 2 Amps
  • ON/OFF switch
  • Safety Precautions
  • 5 toggle switches for selection of configuration
  • 3PDT

11
Delta Switching Sequence
Delta Single Phase Switch 1 Switch 2 Switch 3 Switch 4 Switch 5
Phase 12 to Ground Up Up Up Up Down
Phase 1 to Phase 2 Up Up Up Up Down
Delta Three Phase
Phase 12 to Ground Up Up Up Up Down
Power Leg to Ground Up Up Up Up Up
Phase 1 to Phase 2 Up Up Up Up Down
Phase 1 to Power Leg Up Up Up Down Down
Phase 2 to Power Leg Up Up Up Down Down
12
Wye Switching Sequence
Wye Single Phase Switch 1 Switch 2 Switch 3 Switch 4 Switch 5
Phase 12 to Ground Up Down Up Down Down
Phase 1 to Phase 2 Down Down Down Up Down
Wye Three Phase
Phase 1,2,3 to Ground Up Down Up Down Down
Phase 1 to Phase 2 Down Down Down Up Down
Phase 1 to Phase 3 Down Down Down Down Down
Phase 2 to Phase 3 Down Down Down Down Down
13
Phase Converter Simulator Hardware 1
14
Changing Switches to Relays
  • Mechanically changes configurations
  • Allows microcontroller to control switching
  • A lower voltage device can now control the
    voltages of the meter cans
  • Eliminates need for the user to know list of
    combinations

15
Relays
Type Impedance Input voltage Voltage Required to operate Current Required
Triple pole double throw (3PDT) 120 O 6 240 VAC 8 - 14V Min of .2 A
  • -

16
Schematic of Relay Connection
17
Testing
  • Tested relays by realizing the schematic
  • For the microcontroller, we applied a steady
    voltage.
  • Connected to relays to microcontroller.
  • Replaced switched with relays.

18
Building
  • First attempt
  • Diode parallel with relay
  • Purpose
  • Protect circuit from feedback current when relay
    switched
  • Diode shorted out the transistors
  • Solution
  • Remove diode

19
Building
  • Second attempt
  • 1K resistor
  • Limited current to microcontroller
  • Too much impedance on breadboard
  • Switch to 100 ohms
  • Blew transistors 2n2222
  • 2n2222 didnt have a high enough rating
  • Solution
  • Changed transistor to TIP120

20
Software Objective
  • Create a Interface to compliment the Training
    Simulation
  • To allow the user to interact with the system.
  • To give a visual reference to the user of his or
    her actions
  • Control Relays for Configuration Purposes
  • Approve or Decline Users Certification

21
Software Components
  • Microcontroller
  • Voltmeter Circuit
  • LCD Screen 2 line X 20 characters

22
LCD System Flow Chart
Push Button
Voltmeter Circuit
23
Switches to Switching Relays
  • Microcontroller changes configurations
  • Eliminates need for the user to know switch
    combination
  • Configurations can switch when required or
    prompted automatically

24
LCD/system Code
25
Voltmeter Circuit(Feedback)
  • Input Voltage (120-240)
  • Probes
  • Transformer
  • Full Wave Rectifier w/ Capacitor
  • Voltage Divider
  • A/D converter(microcontroller)
  • Problems.

26
A/D Converter
-5(A/D) Voltage 5(A/D)
115V-.284V(53) 120V 125V-.385V(77)
203V-1.85V(379) 208V 213V-1.87V(385)
235V-1.88V(388) 240V 245V-1.91V(397)
27
PCB
  • 2 Layer PCB
  • .10 Traces
  • Ground Plane
  • Using PCB Express
  • Schematic
  • PCB Board

28
Schematic
29
PCB Board
30
Microcontroller Vs. FPGA
  • PIC16F876A ATmega168
    FPGA Basys

31
ATmega168
Features ATmega168
I/0 Pins 23
Memory Type FLASH
Program Memory (KB) 16
EEPROM (Bytes) 512
SRAM (KB) 1
Operating Voltage 5.5 Volts
32
PIC16F876A
Features PIC16F876A
I/0 Pins 22
Memory Type FLASH
Program Memory (KB) 14
EEPROM (Bytes) 256
SRAM (KB) 0.359
Operating Voltage 5.5 Volts
33
FPGA Basys
Features FPGA Basys
I/0 Pins 24
Memory Type FLASH
Program Memory (KB) 72
EEPROM (Bytes) -
SRAM (KB) 72
Operating Voltage 3.3 Volts
34
Microcontroller Vs. FPGA
Features ATmega168 PIC16F876A FPGA Basys
I/0 Pins 23 22 24
Memory Type FLASH FLASH FLASH
Program Memory (KB) 16 14 72
EEPROM (Bytes) 512 256 -
SRAM (KB) 1 0.359 72
Operating Voltage 5.5 Volts 5.5 Volts 3.3 Volts
  • ATmega168

35
Budget
Part Development Immediate Cost Prototype
Switches 10 10 10
Fuses 10 10 10
Enclosure 30 30 30
Three Phase Meter Box 140 140 140
Single Phase Meter Box 75 75 75
Potential Transformer 60 60 60
Wiring 0 30 30
Microcontroller 60 60 60
Interface 60 60 60
Volt Meter 30 30 30
A/D converter 40 40 40
Variable Transformer 0 100 100
User Interface 50 50 50
Keyboard 0 30 30
Total 565.00 725.00 725.00
36
Budget Analysis
37
Budget
  • Current Cost 550
  • Development Budget 565
  • Prototype Budget 725

38
Thanks
  • Family
  • Faculty
  • Friends
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