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Give Me Liberty!

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 7
Give Me Liberty! An American History
by Eric Foner
2
North America in 1783
3
I. Articles of Confederation
  • A. A treaty for mutual defense
  • 1. Origins 1777
  • a. Drafting
  • b. Ratification
  • 2. Structure-federal government was an agent of
    the state
  • 3. Extent and limits of powers
  • war, foreign policy, make treaties
  • B. Disposition of the West
  • 1. Competing agendas
  • a. Indians
  • b. Settlers
  • c. Land companies and speculators

FEDERALISM defined relationship
John Jay treaty with Spain over ports
4
I. Articles of Confederation
  • B. Disposition of the WestMOST important
    accomplishment
  • 2. Congressional measures
  • a. Acquisition of Indian lands
  • i. Northern
  • ii. Southern
  • b. Ordinance of 1784-stages of
    self-government
  • c. Ordinance of 1785-regualted land sales
    education
  • d. Sale of frontier lands to private groups
  • e. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • i. Plan for future 3-5 states
  • ii. Recognition of Indian claim to land
  • iii. Prohibition of slavery in region

5
Western Land Cessions, 1782-1802
6
The Northwest Territory and the Rectangular Survey
7
Land Ordinance of 1785
8
I. Articles of Confederation
  • C. Confederation lacked the authority to
    discharge debt
  • 1. Points of controversy (no resources, power to
    tax, amend)
  • a. Unredeemed wartime bonds
  • b. Glut of imported goods
  • c. State tariffs
  • d. State debt relief measures
  • e. State issuance of paper money
  • 2. Shays Rebellion (Mass.)
  • a. Objectives and spirit
  • b. Suppression
  • c. Upper-class alarm
  • 3. Newburgh Conspiracy

9
I. Articles of Confederation
  • C. Confederation government under fire
  • 3. Nationalist impulse
  • a. Concerns
  • i. Lack of national economic policy
  • ii. Popular infringement on property rights
  • iii. Social disorder
  • b. Leading figures
  • i. James Madison
  • ii. Alexander Hamilton
  • c. Main sources of support
  • i. Bondholders
  • ii. Large landholders
  • iii. Merchants
  • iv. Urban artisans
  • d. Initial mobilization

1786-Annapolis Convention
10
II. A new constitution
  • Delegates to Constitutional Convention-1787
  • 1. Elite backgrounds-55 men
  • 2. Shared experience in struggle for
    independence
  • 3. Shared aims
  • a. Stronger national authority
  • b. Curbs on excesses of democracy
  • c. Address nations problems

11
II. A new constitution
  • B. Structure of government
  • 1. Points of agreement
  • a. Creation of legislative, executive, and
    judicial branches
  • b. Congressional power to raise revenue
  • c. Protection of property rights from state
    infringement
  • d. Middle ground between excessive central
    power and excessive democracy
  • 2. Debate over structure of Congress
  • a. Underlying issues
  • i. Balance between state and federal power
  • ii. Balance between large and small state
    interests
  • b. Competing proposals
  • i. Virginia plan (bicameral, lower elected
    house, appointed executive and judicial)
  • ii. New Jersey plan (one house, equal
    representation, expanded Congressional powers)
  • c. Solution GREAT COMPROMISE

12
II. A new constitution
  • C. Extent and limits of democracy
  • 1. Expansions of democracy
  • a. Popular election of House of
    Representatives
  • b. Absence of property qualifications for
    voting
  • 2. Limits of democracy
  • a. Small size of House of Representatives
    (65)
  • b. Indirect election of Senate
  • c. Indirect election of president and
    vice-president
  • d. Life appointments to Supreme Court

13
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • Division of powers
  • federalism
  • 1. Expanded national authority
  • a. Presidential powers
  • b. Congressional powers
  • c. Supremacy of national over state
    legislation
  • 2. Remaining areas of state power
  • E. Separation of powers checks and balances

14
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • F. The slavery question
  • 1. Controversy over
  • 2. Outcomes
  • a. Absence of mention in constitution
  • b. Slave trade clause-1808
  • c. Fugitive slave clause
  • d. Three-fifths clause
  • G. Conclusion of Constitutional Convention
  • 1. Approval of final draft
  • 2. Transmission to states for ratification

15
Ratification of Constitution
Web
16
Ratification was NOT certain
  • A. Federalists
  • 1. Mobilization
  • a. Leadership of Madison, Hamilton, Jay The
    Federalist
  • b. Support among urban and commercial
    agricultural interests
  • 2. Positions
  • a. Strong national government as guarantor of
    liberty
  • b. Urgency of balancing democracy and
    property rights
  • c. Securing rights by extending the sphere
  • d. Liberal self-interest over republican
    virtue

17
Ratification debate
  • B. Anti-Federalists
  • 1. Mobilization
  • a. Diffuse leadership
  • b. Support among small farmers, state
    politicians
  • 2. Positions
  • a. Strong national government as threat to
    liberty
  • i. Specter of domination by elite interests
  • ii. Specter of denial of rights
  • b. Locally based democracy over extended
    sphere
  • C. Ratification By 1788, 9 states had ratified

18
Bill of Rights
  • D. Impetus behind
  • 1. Key provisions
  • 1. 6.
  • 2. 7.
  • 3. 8.
  • 4. 9.
  • 5. 10.
  • unalienable rights
  • 2. Significance and legacy

19
National identity- We the People
  • A. Ethnic vs. civil criteria
  • B. Indians in the new nation
  • 1. Conflicting approaches of white Americans
  • a. Exclusion
  • b. Incorporation
  • 2. Early national policies
  • a. Marginalization of Indians in constitution
  • b. Appropriation of Indian lands under treaty
    system
  • c. Ohio Valley conflicts and Treaty of
    Greenville
  • i. Indian relinquishment of Ohio and Indiana
    lands
  • ii. Establishment of annuity system
  • d. Program to encourage American-style
    agriculture
  • i. Prescriptions for male and female
    labor
  • ii. Widespread rejection by tribes

20
IV. National identity
  • C. Blacks in the new nation
  • 1. Access to rights of citizenship
  • a. Ambiguous status of free blacks
  • b. Unambiguous exclusion of enslaved blacks
  • c. Explicit denial of black eligibility for
    naturalization
  • 2. Growing view of blacks as inassimilable
  • a. Hector St. John Crèvecoeurs Letters from
    an American Farmer-melting pot,1/5 black
  • b. Thomas Jeffersons Notes on the State of
    Virginia

21
Discussion Questions
  • Analyze the Articles of Confederation. What
    issues did they fail to address?
  • Examine the causes and consequences of Shays
    Rebellion.
  • How did the Northwest Ordinance affect the lives
    of natives and Americans?
  • Compare the plans presented at the Constitutional
    Convention. What compromise was finally adapted?
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