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Manufacturing Materials and Processes

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Title: Manufacturing Materials and Processes


1
CHAPTER 4
  • Manufacturing Materials and Processes

2
Learning Objectives
  • Define and describe given manufacturing
    materials, material terminology, numbering
    systems, and material treatment
  • Describe steel and aluminum material selection
    characteristics
  • Explain sustainability applications for steel and
    aluminum processing and manufacturing

3
Learning Objectives
  • Identify a variety of manufacturing processes
    used to create plastic products
  • Explain sustainability applications for plastics
    processing and manufacturing
  • Discuss casting processes and terminology

4
Learning Objectives
  • Explain the forging process and terminology
  • Describe manufacturing processes
  • Define and draw the representation of various
    machined features
  • Explain tool design and drafting practices
  • Draw a basic machine tool

5
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the statistical process quality control
    assurance system
  • Evaluate the results of an engineering and
    manufacturing problem
  • Explain the use of computer-aided manufacturing
    (CAM) in industry
  • Discuss robotics in industry

6
Ferrous Metals
  • Contain iron
  • Cast iron
  • Alloy containing 1.7 to 4.5 carbon
  • Varying amounts of silicon, manganese,
    phosphorus, and sulfur
  • Steel
  • Alloy containing 0.8 to 1.5 carbon

7
Gray Cast Iron
  • 1.7 to 4.5 carbon
  • 1 to 3 silicon
  • Easy to cast and machine
  • Popular for
  • Automotive cylinder blocks
  • Machine tools
  • Agricultural implements
  • Cast iron pipe

8
White Cast Iron
  • Extremely hard and brittle
  • Almost no ductility
  • Highly resistant to wear

9
Chilled Gray Cast Iron
  • Creates outer surface of white cast iron
  • Internal characteristics of gray cast iron
  • Surface advantage of white cast iron

10
Alloy Cast Iron
  • Nickel, chromium, molybdenum, copper, or
    manganese alloy
  • Increased
  • Strength
  • Wear resistance
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Heat resistance

11
Malleable Cast Iron
  • Heat-treated white cast iron
  • Strong
  • Ductile
  • Shock-resistant
  • Easy to machine

12
Nodular Cast Iron
  • Special casting process
  • Magnesium or cerium alloy
  • Strong
  • Ductile
  • Can be chilled

13
Mild steel (MS)
  • Less than 0.3 carbon
  • Cannot be hardened
  • Common for forged and machined parts

14
Medium Carbon Steel
  • 0.3 to 0.6 carbon
  • Harder than mild steel
  • Easy to forge and machine

15
High Carbon Steel
  • 0.6 to 1.50 carbon
  • Can be hardened by heat treating
  • Difficult to forge, machine, or weld

16
Hot-Rolled Steel (HRS)
  • Formed between rollers or forged when red-hot
  • Consistent grain structure
  • Strong
  • Ductile

17
Cold-Rolled Steel (CRS)
  • Additional forming after initial hot rolling
  • Smooth, clean surface
  • Ensures dimensional accuracy
  • Increases tensile strength

18
Steel Alloys
  • Chromium
  • Corrosion resistant
  • Wear resistant
  • Manganese
  • Strong
  • Wear resistant
  • Molybdenum
  • Strong
  • Wear resistant
  • Heat resistance
  • Tungsten
  • Hard for cutting tools
  • Carbon
  • Hard for cutting tools
  • Vanadium
  • Tough
  • Strong
  • Non-brittle

19
Steel Castings
  • Generally stronger and tougher than cast iron
  • Common for machine parts

20
Stainless Steel
  • Generally at least 10.5 chromium
  • Excellent corrosion resistance
  • Oxidation resistant
  • Heat resistant
  • Strong

21
Stainless Steel Applications
  • Restaurant and hospital equipment
  • Architectural and marine applications
  • Some aircraft applications
  • Consumer products

22
Steel Numbering Systems
  • American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
  • Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
  • Example SAE 1020
  • 10 type of steel
  • 20 approximate amount of carbon (0.20 carbon)
  • Added letter between the first and second pair of
    numbers

23
Heat Treating Steel
  • Heating followed by quenching hardens steel
  • Case hardening
  • Hardens the surface layer by carburization, often
    followed by quenching
  • Tempering
  • Annealing

24
Hardness Testing
  • Brinell test
  • Brinell Hardness Number (BHN)
  • Rockwell hardness test
  • Example note CASE HARDEN 58 PER ROCKWELL C
    SCALE.

25
Nonferrous metals
  • No iron content
  • Copper
  • Aluminum

26
Aluminum
  • Corrosion resistant
  • Lightweight
  • Easily cast
  • Conducts heat and electricity
  • Easily extruded
  • Very malleable

27
Aluminum Alloy Numbering
  • Various designations
  • Example 1030
  • 1 99 pure
  • 0 no control of specific impurities
  • 30 99.30 aluminum

28
Copper Alloys
  • Easily rolled and drawn into wire
  • Excellent corrosion resistance
  • Great electrical conductor
  • Better ductility than any metal except for silver
    and gold

29
Brass
  • Alloy of copper (about 90) and zinc (about 10
    zinc)
  • Corrosion resistant
  • Strong
  • Ductile

30
Bronze
  • Alloy of copper and tin
  • Tin increases
  • Hardness
  • Wear resistance
  • Phosphor bronze

31
Precious and Other Specialty Metals
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Platinum
  • Columbium
  • Titanium
  • Tungsten

32
Metallurgy
  • Practical use of metals and metalworking
  • Production of metal components for use in
    products
  • Alloy development
  • Material shaping
  • Heat treatment
  • Surface treatment

33
Plastics and Polymers
  • Polymerization
  • Often molded into shape
  • Machined for tight tolerance situations or when
    holes or other features are required
  • Gears
  • Pinions
  • Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. (SPI)
    identification coding system

34
Thermoplastics
  • Heated and formed by pressure to a desired shape
  • Reheating changes the shape
  • Used for most plastic products

35
Thermoplastics
  • Thousands of different thermoplastic combinations
    for specific applications
  • Common examples
  • Acrylic
  • Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)
  • Polyamide (nylon)
  • Polyethylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Polyesters

36
Thermosets
  • Heated and formed by pressure to a permanent
    shape
  • Cannot be altered by heating after curing
  • Used when heat exists
  • More rigid and harder than thermoplastics
  • About 15 of plastics
  • Expensive
  • Brittle
  • Cannot be reformed

37
Common Thermosets
  • Alkyds
  • Melamine formaldehyde
  • Phenolics
  • Unsaturated polyesters
  • Urea formaldehyde

38
Elastomers
  • Stretch at least equal to their original length
    and return to their original length
  • Rubber
  • Occurs naturally in a number of plants
  • Produced synthetically
  • Almost twice as many products as natural rubber

39
Common Elastomers
  • Many different elastomers for specific
    applications
  • Butyl rubber
  • Chloroprene rubber (Neoprene)
  • Nitrile rubber
  • Polyurethane
  • Silicones

40
Inorganic Materials
  • Carbon
  • Graphite
  • Can be molded by pressure
  • Low tensile strength
  • High compressive strength

41
Inorganic Materials
  • Ceramics
  • Hard
  • Brittle
  • Resistant to heat, chemicals, and corrosion

42
Inorganic Materials
  • Clay
  • Glass
  • Refractory
  • Used for high-temperature applications
  • Inorganic cements

43
Composites
  • Reinforced plastics
  • Polymers combined with reinforcing material
  • Glass
  • Graphite
  • Thermoplastic fibers
  • Cotton
  • Paper
  • Metal

44
Material Selection
  • Typically occurs during initial design or
    redesign
  • Requires knowledge of
  • Material properties, characteristics, cost, and
    availability
  • Manufacturing processes and costs
  • Part geometry
  • External and internal forces applied to the parts
    and the assembly
  • Product use and appearance
  • Environmental considerations and sustainability

45
Castings
  • The result of founding
  • A pattern is constructed that is the same shape
    as the desired finished product
  • A mold is made by packing sand or other material
    around the pattern
  • The pattern is removed from the mold and molten
    metal is poured into the hollow cavity

46
Sand Casting
  • Most commonly used method of making castings
  • Two general types
  • Green sand
  • Dry sand

47
Cores
  • Baked clean sand mixed with binders, or
  • Ceramic products
  • Reduce casting weight
  • Save on machining costs

48
Centrifugal Casting
  • No cores needed
  • Objects with circular or cylindrical shapes
  • Tubing
  • Pipes
  • Wheels

49
Die Casting
  • Nonferrous metal castings
  • Zinc alloy
  • Brass
  • Bronze
  • Aluminum
  • Quick and economic
  • Fine detail and smooth finish

50
Permanent Casting
  • Similar to sand casting and die casting
  • The mold can be used many times
  • Good finished qualities

51
Investment Casting
52
Forgings
  • Hot or cold materials
  • Material retains original grain structure
  • Strong and ductile

53
Forging Methods
  • Hand forging
  • Smithing
  • Blacksmithing
  • Machine forging
  • Upset
  • Swaging
  • Bending
  • Punching
  • Cutting
  • Welding

54
Metal Stamping
  • Uses a punch press
  • Holes created by punching through material
  • Mass production
  • Example
  • Automobile body panels

55
Hydroforming
  • Tube hydroforming
  • Sheet hydroforming
  • High strength-to-weight ratios
  • Can be more economical than metal stamping

56
Powder Metallurgy (PM)
  • Uses metal-alloyed powders
  • Compacted under pressure in a die
  • Sintered
  • Metal Injection Molding (MIM)
  • Powder Forging (PF)
  • Quality, precision parts
  • Mass production

57
Machine Processes
  • Machining
  • Used to manufacture metal and some plastic
    products
  • Machine tools
  • Machinist

58
Drilling Machine (Drill Press)
  • Machine-drill holes
  • Reaming
  • Boring
  • Counterboring
  • Countersinking
  • Tapping

59
Grinding Machine
  • Grinding
  • Honing
  • Lapping

60
Lathe
  • Cut material by turning cylindrically shaped
    objects

61
Screw Machine
  • Type of lathe
  • Mass-production
  • Variety of small turned parts
  • Screws
  • Threaded parts

62
Milling Machines
  • Horizontal mill
  • Vertical mill
  • Work fastened to a table
  • Rotary cutting tool removes material
  • Large variety of milling cutters
  • End milling cutters

63
Milling Machines
64
Milling Machines
  • Universal Milling Machine
  • Table action includes x-, y-, and z-axis movement
    plus angular rotation
  • Multiaxis Milling Machines
  • CNC tools that move in four or more directions

65
Saw Machines
  • Power hacksaw
  • Band saw
  • Circular abrasive or metal cutting wheels
  • Cut material to length
  • Machining operations
  • Kerf

66
Water-Jet Cutting
  • Cut almost any material
  • Cut material as thick as 12 in. (305 mm) or more
  • Hold fine tolerances
  • Do not produce a heat-affected zone

67
Shaper
  • Horizontal, vertical, or angular flat surfaces
  • Being replaced by milling machines
  • Slow
  • Cuts only in one direction

68
Chemical Machining
  • Uses chemicals to remove material accurately
  • Electrochemical machining (ECM)
  • Electrodischarge machining (EDM)
  • Electron beam (EB) cutting and machining
  • Ultrasonic machining
  • Laser machining

69
Drill Features on a Drawing
70
Ream Features on a Drawing
71
Bore Features on a Drawing
72
Counterbore Features on a Drawing
73
Countersink Features on a Drawing
74
Counterdrill Features on a Drawing
75
Spotface Features on a Drawing
76
Chamfer Features on a Drawing
77
Fillet and Round Features on a Drawing
78
Key, Keyseat, Keyway on a Drawing
79
Threads on a Drawing
  • Many different forms of threads
  • Fasteners to hold parts together
  • Adjust parts in alignment
  • Transmit power

80
Knurl on a Drawing
81
Surface Texture (Surface Finish)
  • Roughness
  • Waviness
  • Lay
  • Flaws

82
Additional Features
  • Boss
  • Lug
  • Pad
  • Dovetail
  • Kerf
  • Neck
  • Spline
  • T-slot

83
Injection Molding Process
  • Most common process for creating thermoplastic
    products

84
Extrusion Process
  • Continuous shapes moldings, tubing, bars, angles

85
Blow Molding Process
  • Hollow products bottles, containers

86
Calendering Process
  • Thermoplastic or thermoset plastics pass through
    a series of heated rollers
  • Sheet products
  • Vinyl flooring
  • Gaskets

87
Rotational Molding Process
  • Polymer pellets in a heated, rotating metal mold
  • Rotation forms a thin coating against the sides
    of the mold
  • Large hollow objects
  • Tanks
  • Containers
  • Floats

88
Solid Phase Forming Process
  • Detailed shapes containers, electrical housings,
    automotive parts

89
Thermoforming of Plastic
  • Similar to solid phase forming, but does not use
    a die
  • Thin-walled shapes
  • Containers
  • Guards
  • Fenders

90
Free-Form Fabrication (FFF) of Plastic
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Stereolithography
  • 3-D Printing

91
Casting Thermoset Plastics
  • Similar to permanent casting of metals

92
Compression Molding and Transfer Molding
  • Common for thermosets
  • Uses a mold, specific amount of heated material,
    additional heat, and pressure

93
Foam Molding and Reaction Injection Molding
  • Similar to casting, but uses an expanding foam
    material

94
Vulcanization Process
  • Rubber products such as tires

95
Manufacturing Composites
  • Layering process
  • Compression molding of composites
  • Resin transfer molding
  • Vacuum bag forming

96
Rapid Prototyping (RP)
  • Stereolithography (SLA)
  • Computer controlled ultraviolet laser beam
    hardens a photo-curable liquid resin
  • Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
  • CNC extruder-head squeezes a fine filament of
    melted thermoplastic through a nozzle
  • 3-D printing
  • Print head dispenses a thermoplastic material in
    layers

97
Tool Design
  • Machining operations require special tools to
    hold the workpiece or guide the machine tool
  • Jig
  • Fixture
  • Kinematics

98
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
  • Computer and software controls most, if not all,
    portions of manufacturing
  • Brings together
  • Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD)
  • Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)
  • Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
  • Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
  • Computer-Aided Quality Control (CAQC)
  • Robotics

99
CAD/CAM integration
  • A direct link between the design and manufacture
    of a product
  • CAD used to create product geometry
  • 2-D multiview drawings
  • 3-D models
  • CAM generates instructions for CNC machine tools
  • Stamping
  • Cutting
  • Burning
  • Bending
  • Other operations

100
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
101
Glossary
  • Alloy
  • Mixture of two or more metals.
  • Annealing
  • Using heating and cooling conditions and
    techniques to soften material.
  • Boring
  • The process of enlarging an existing hole.

102
Glossary
  • Boss
  • A circular pad on forgings or castings that
    projects out from the body of the part.
  • Carburization
  • A process where carbon is introduced into the
    metal by heating to a specified temperature range
    while in contact with a solid, liquid, or gas
    material consisting of carbon.
  • Centrifugal casting
  • A mold is revolved very rapidly while molten
    metal is poured into the cavity.

103
Glossary
  • Chamfer
  • The cutting away of the sharp external or
    internal corner of an edge.
  • Composites
  • Two or more materials that are bonded together by
    adhesion. Adhesion is a force that holds together
    the molecules of unlike substances when the
    surfaces come in contact.
  • Core
  • A hole or cavity is desired in the casting to
    help reduce the amount of material removal later
    or to establish a wall thickness.

104
Glossary
  • Counterbore
  • Used to enlarge the end(s) of a machined hole to
    a specified diameter and depth.
  • Counterdrill
  • A combination of two drilled features.
  • Countersink
  • A conical feature in the end of a machined hole.

105
Glossary
  • Die casting
  • The injection of molten metal into a steel or
    cast iron die under high pressure.
  • Dovetail
  • A slot with angled sides that can be machined at
    any depth and width.
  • Drill
  • A tool used to machine new holes or enlarge
    existing holes in material.

106
Glossary
  • Dry sand
  • Sand that does not have any moisture content.
  • Ductility
  • The ability to be stretched, drawn, or hammered
    thin without breaking.
  • Elastomers
  • Polymer-based materials that have elastic
    qualities not found in thermoplastics and
    thermosets.

107
Glossary
  • End milling cutters
  • Milling cutter designed to cut on the end and the
    sides of the cutting tool.
  • Extruding
  • Shaping the metal by forcing it through a die.
  • Fillet
  • A small radius formed between the inside angle of
    two surfaces.

108
Glossary
  • Forging
  • A process of shaping malleable metals by
    hammering or pressing between dies that duplicate
    the desired shape.
  • Founding
  • The pouring of molten metal into a hollow or
    wax-filled mold.
  • Free-form fabrication (FFF)
  • The term used to describe the techniques for
    fabricating parts directly from 3-D CAD models.

109
Glossary
  • Green sand
  • Specially refined sand that is mixed with
    specific moisture, clay, and resin, which work as
    binding agents during the molding and pouring
    procedures.
  • Grinding
  • Generally used when a smooth, accurate surface
    finish is required.
  • Heat treating
  • A process of heating and cooling steel using
    specific controlled conditions and techniques.

110
Glossary
  • Honing
  • A fine abrasive process often used to establish a
    smooth finish inside cylinders.
  • Hydroforming
  • A process by which high pressure hydraulic fluid
    is applied to ductile metals to form a specified
    shape.
  • Kerf
  • A narrow slot formed by removing material while
    sawing or using some other machining operation.

111
Glossary
  • Key
  • A machine part used as a positive connection for
    transmitting torque between a shaft and a hub,
    pulley, or wheel.
  • Keyseat
  • A groove or channel cut in a shaft.
  • Keyway
  • A shaft and key are inserted into a hub, wheel,
    or pulley where the key mates with a groove
    called a keyway.

112
Glossary
  • Kinematics
  • The study of motion without regard to the forces
    causing the motion.
  • Knurling
  • A cold forming process used to roughen a
    cylindrical or flat surface uniformly with a
    diamond or straight pattern.
  • Lapping
  • The process of creating a very smooth surface
    finish using a soft metal impregnated with fine
    abrasives, or fine abrasives mixed in a coolant
    that floods over the part during the lapping
    process.

113
Glossary
  • Layering process
  • Combines alternating layers of polymer resin with
    reinforcing material such as glass.
  • Lug
  • A feature projecting out from the body of a part,
    usually rectangular in cross section.
  • Machine tools
  • Power-driven tools, such as a lathe, drill, mill,
    or other tools discussed in the following content.

114
Glossary
  • Machining
  • A general term used to define the process of
    removing excess or unwanted material with machine
    tools for rough or finish turning, boring,
    drilling, milling, or other processes.
  • Machinist
  • A person who specializes in machining.
  • Malleable
  • The ability to be hammered or pressed into shape
    without breaking.

115
Glossary
  • Metallurgy
  • The part of materials science that studies the
    physical and chemical behavior of metals and
    alloys.
  • Neck
  • The result of a machining operation that
    establishes a narrow groove on a cylindrical part
    or object.
  • Pad
  • A slightly raised surface projecting out from the
    body of a part.

116
Glossary
  • Phosphor bronze
  • Phosphorus added to bronze to increase its
    casting ability and aid in the production of more
    solid castings, which is important for thin
    shapes.
  • Plastic
  • Any complex, organic, polymerized compound
    capable of being formed into a desired shape by
    molding, casting, or spinning.
  • Polymerization
  • A process of joining two or more molecules to
    form a more complex molecule with physical
    properties that are different from the original
    molecules.

117
Glossary
  • Quenching
  • Cool suddenly by plunging into water, oil, or
    other liquid.
  • Rapid prototyping
  • A manufacturing process by which a solid physical
    model of a part is made directly from 3-D CADD
    model data, without any special tooling.
  • Reamer
  • The tool used in the reaming process. The reamer
    is used to enlarge or finish a hole that has been
    drilled, bored, or cored.

118
Glossary
  • Refractory
  • A non-metallic material that retains its strength
    under high temperatures.
  • Round
  • A small-radius outside corner formed between two
    surfaces.
  • Sintering
  • A heating process used in plastic molding and
    powder metallurgy (PM), which forms a bond
    between the plastic or metal powder particles.

119
Glossary
  • Spline
  • A gear like surface on a shaft and in a mating
    hub.
  • Spotface
  • A machined, round surface on a casting, forging,
    or machined part on which a bolt head or washer
    can be seated.
  • Stamping
  • A process that produces sheet metal parts by the
    quick downward stroke of a ram die that is in the
    desired shape.

120
Glossary
  • Statistical process control (SPC)
  • A method of monitoring a process quantitatively
    and using statistical signals to either leave the
    process alone, or change the process.
  • Surface texture (surface finish)
  • The intended condition of the material surface
    after manufacturing processes have been
    implemented.
  • Sustainability
  • Something that can last or is able to be
    maintained for long periods of time without
    damaging the environment, or without depleting
    resources.

121
Glossary
  • Tempering
  • A process of reheating normalized or hardened
    steel through a controlled process of heating the
    metal to a specified temperature, followed by
    cooling at a predetermined rate to achieve
    certain hardening characteristics.
  • Tensile strength
  • Ability to be stretched.
  • T-slot
  • A slot of any dimension that is cut to resemble a
    T.

122
Glossary
  • Vacuum bag forming
  • Uses vacuum pressure to force a thin layer of
    sheet-reinforced polymer around a mold.
  • Water-jet cutting
  • A cutting tool that uses a high velocity stream
    of water combined with an abrasive substance to
    cut through various materials.
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