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## ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [INTELLIGENT AGENTS PARADIGM]

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### Title: WHY WOULD YOU STUDY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? (1) Author: MELNIS Last modified by: janis Created Date: 1/20/2002 11:33:39 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [INTELLIGENT AGENTS PARADIGM]

1
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEINTELLIGENT AGENTS
EXPERT SYSTEMS BASEDON FIRST-ORDER LOGIC
• Professor Janis Grundspenkis
• Riga Technical University
• Faculty of Computer Science and Information
Technology
• Institute of Applied Computer Systems
• Department of Systems Theory and Design
• E-mail Janis.Grundspenkis_at_rtu.lv

2
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
EXPERT SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
3
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
EXPERT SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE (continued) An
inference procedure I can be described by the
sentences that it can derive. KB I? means that
the sentence ? is derived from KB by I.
4
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
• MODUS PONENS
• Problems description
• Anyone who is lucky wins the lottery.
• Anyone who wins the lottery is happy.
• At least one who is happy studies at the
university.
• Anyone who studies at the university can pass all
his examsinations.
• Anyone who pass all his examination graduates
from the university.

5
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
• MODUS PONENS (continued)
• Logical Sentences
• ?X(lucky(X) ? win(X, lottery))
• ?X(win(X, lottery) ? happy(X))
• ?X(happy(X) ? study(X))
• ?X?Y(study(X) ? pass(X, Y))

6
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued) Facts 6. George is
lucky. lucky(george) 7. George passed his
Mathematical Logic and Artificial Intelligence
(MLAI) examination. pass(george, mlai)
7
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
8
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
User Interface
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
Q Is George lucky?
A Yes
Working Memory
9
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george)

10
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S1 lucky(X)?win(X, lottery) F1
lucky(george) Unification george/X
User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george)
11
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george, lottery)
12
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S2 win(X, lottery) ? happy(X) F2 win(george,
lottery) Unification george/X
User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george, lottery)
13
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george, lottery) F3
happy(george)
14
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S3 ?X(happy(X) ? study(X) F3
happy(george) Unification george/X After
dropping ?X S3 happy(george) ?study(george)
User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george, lottery) F3
happy(george)
15
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george)
16
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S4 study(X) ? pass(X, Y) F4
study(george) Unification george/X
Unification for Y? There is not any knowledge
User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george)
17
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
User Interface
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S4 study(X) ? pass(X, Y) F4 study(george) Unifi
cation george/X Unification for Y?
Q Did George pass all his exams?
A Yes, George passed his Mathematical Logic and
Artificial Intelligence exam
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george)
18
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S4 study(X) ? pass(X, Y) F4
study(george) Unifications george/X
Unification for Y?
User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george) F5
pass(george, mlai)
19
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S4 study(X) ? pass(X, Y) F4
study(george) Unifications george/X mlai/Y

User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george) F5
pass(george, mlai)
20
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S5 pass(X, Y) ? graduate(X) F5 pass(george,
mlai) Unifications george/X mlai/Y
User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george) F5
pass(george, mlai)
21
Expert Systems Basedon First-order Logic
MODUS PONENS (continued)
KB
Inference Engine Modus Ponens
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

User Interface
Working Memory
F1 lucky(george) F2 win(george,
lottery) F3 happy(george) F4 study(george) F5