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Unit Eleven: Manifest Destiny


... (a person who is little known) James K. Polk over Martin Van Buren. Just Who is James K. Polk? Two other third party candidates were ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit Eleven: Manifest Destiny

Unit Eleven Manifest Destiny
  • Mexican American War

The Election of 1840
  • The Election of 1840 was between Democrat Martin
    Van Buren and Whig William Henry Harrison.
  • The main issue of the campaign was the Panic of
    1837 with the Whigs calling Van Buren Martin Van
    Ruin, in return the Democrats called Harrison a
    yokel who only needed a log cabin and hard cider.
  • The Whigs used this to create the Log Cabin
    Campaign to make Harrison seem as one of the
    people. (They used log cabins as rally points and
    passed out Hard Cider (apple liquor) to the
    people with the slogan Tippecanoe and Tyler
    too. The strategy worked and Harrison won.

Log Cabin Campaign
Click above to hear Tippecanoe and Tyler too
Van Buren
Whose President?
  • A third party developed during the election
    called the Liberty Party (abolition/Antislavery)
    which nominated James G. Birney but received few
  • When Harrison took the oath of office he was 68
    years old and gave one of the longest
    inauguration speeches on a cold wet day catching
    a cold that resulted one month into his
    administration in him dying from pneumonia.
  • Harrison was the first President to die in
    office, which led to the question as to whom
    should now be President, since at this time the
    U.S. Constitution said nothing about it.

Im President
  • Debates in Congress, among Harrisons Cabinet,
    and the Vice President raged, but
    Harrisons Vice President John Tyler
    simply assumed the power and took over
    the responsibility of President.
  • Tyler was a democrat who switched to the Whigs
    because of his dislike for Jacksons polices, was
    a states rights man, and extremely pro-slavery
    which brought him at odds with the Whig Party.
  • The Whig Party ran by Henry Clay tried to pass
    legislation to create a third BUS, a higher
    tariff, and distribute surplus money to states,
    which Tyler disagreed with most of these actions.

Im President
  • At this point all of the Presidential Cabinet
    (but Webster) resigned and Tyler was read out
    (kicked out) of the Whig Party, at this point
    they called him His Accidency. (first President
    without a Party)
  • The biggest legislation passed by Tyler and
    Congress was the Pre-emption Act of 1841 that
    allowed people called Squatters/Preemptors
    (settle on public land) the ability to purchase
    public lands in the West directly from the
    government before it was surveyed.
  • This law encouraged people to move West to settle
    the land and expand the country. (was also seen
    as an attempt to expand slavery)

Tyler Administration
  • Tyler also supported annexation of Texas, but the
    Senate rejected a bill allowing it. (The issue
    was over slavery)
  • In 1841-1842 Tyler had to deal with an event
    called the Dorr Rebellion led by Thomas Dorr in
    Rhode Island for universal suffrage which failed.
  • In 1843 the House of Representatives tried to
    bring the first charges of impeachment (to charge
    a public official of misconduct) against an
    acting President, it did not pass.
  • In the last year of his term, Tyler also was
    almost killed when the cannon on the USS
    Princeton blew up while firing. (two cabinet
    members were killed)

Election of 1844
  • In the Election of 1844 Tyler tried to run as a
    third party candidate called the National
    Democratic Tyler, but dropped out of the race and
    returned to his plantation renamed Sherwood
  • The Whigs chose to run Henry Clay even though had
    been defeated twice before for the job.
  • The Democrats chose to run the
    dark horse candidate (a person
    who is little known) James K. Polk
    over Martin Van Buren.

Just Who is James K. Polk?
  • Two other third party candidates were James G.
    Birney of the Liberty Party and Joseph Smith Jr.
    a Mormon independent candidate who ran until he
    was assassinated in an Illinois prison.
  • The main issue that developed during the election
    was the annexation of Texas as a state.
  • Polk won the election of 1844 and in 1845 Texas
    became the 28th State, Florida was also added
    before Texas as the 27th State.

  • James K. Polk was an expansionist, who wanted to
    expand the boarders of America from the coast to
  • Polk stated in his inauguration address that he
    would serve only one term and that he would lower
    the tariff and settle all the land disputes in
    the West.
  • During the 1830s and 40s many Americans had moved
    into Western lands outside of the jurisdiction of
    the United States and wanted their settlements to
    become part of the U.S., which led to issues with
    Britain and Mexico over Oregon, California, Utah,
    and the new state of Texas.

Fifty-four Forty or Fight
  • For many years the Oregon Country
    was a disputed land between Russia,
    Spain, United
    States, and Brittan.
  • In 1828 Brittan and the United States
    agreed to a co-ownership of the Oregon Country,
    but in the 1840s disputes developed over where
    the line between them was.
  • From 1844 to 1846 Americans ran the slogan
    Fifty-Four Forty or Fight meaning that they
    wanted all of the Oregon territory or war would
    be declared, Polk used this as a bluff to
    work out a deal, which split the Oregon
    Country along the 49th north latitude
    at its current

California and New Mexico
  • Both Jackson and Tyler had tried to purchase
    California from Mexico.
  • In 1842 Commodore Thomas Jones actually had taken
    over the port city of Monterey raising the
    American flag, but found out America and Mexico
    were not war and gave it back with an apology.
  • In 1843 John C. Fremont had explored California
    and gave report on what he found making many
    expansionists want this area too especially with
    the growing issues over Texas.

Texas Dispute
  • To handle the issue Polk sent John Slidell with a
    special envoy to Mexico City to purchase
    California and New Mexico and handle the border
    dispute with Jose Joaquin Herrera, but the
    Mexican President refused to meet with Slidell
    out of fear of revolution in Mexico due to
    anti-American sentiment.
  • Texas became a disputed land, when America
    annexed Texas as a state, the Mexican government
    refused to recognize the treaty and broke
    diplomatic relations with America.

Texas Dispute
  • Also the boundary between Texas and Mexico came
    under dispute with Texas and America recognizing
    the Rio Grande and the Mexicans recognizing
    Nueces River which was further north.
  • In response to these issues Polk sent General
    Zachary Taylor (old rough and ready) with 3,000
    troops to encamp on the Rio Grande and wait
    until orders from him or Mexican aggression.
  • The Mexican government saw this as an act of
    aggression sent an army to encamp on the other
    side and wait for American aggression. (Mexican

The Mexican- American War
  • While Taylor waited the call for volunteers went
    out, which many Americans joined to fight. (most
    were unruly, and Taylor instituted harsh
    punishment and training to bring the militias
    under control)
  • Taylor sent 70 scouts to overlook the area to see
    if the Mexican Army had crossed the Rio Grande,
    while looking into a hacienda the scouts were
    attacked known as the Thornton Affair.

The Mexican- American War
  • Shortly after Polk asked for a declaration of war
    from Congress and the Mexican-American War began
    in 1846. (American blood, on American soil)
  • The war from the beginning was split in
    popularity with the southern states in favor and
    the New England states against it calling it Mr.
    Polks War to expand the nation and slavery.
  • Congressmen Abraham Lincoln even offered the
    spot resolution in Congress asking if the spot
    Americans died was American soil or did they
    entice the Mexicans.

The Mexican- American War
  • As war broke out John C. Fremont
    moved into California aiding a group
    of settlers led by William B. Ide who
    took the town of Sonoma and
    established the Republic of California in the
    called the Bear Flag Revolt.
  • The military strategy for the war was a three
    prong attack 1.) March from Rio Grande and
    secure Northern Mexico, 2.) March from Fort
    Leavenworth (Kansas) and take New Mexico (Santa
    Fe), 3.) March from Santa Fe and take California.

The Mexican- American War
  • Taylor marched south winning the Battle of Palo
    Alto, Battle of Resaca de la Palma, and the
    Battle of Monterrey the key to Northern Mexico.
  • During this time Santa Anna was allowed past
    General Winfield Scotts Blockade and returned to
    Mexico to negotiate a peace treaty, but instead
    took back over Mexico.
  • After this Santa Anna met Taylor at
    the Battle of Buena Vista which the
    Americans won forcing Santa Anna
    to retreat back to Mexico City.

The Mexican- American War
  • While Taylor marched south General Stephan W.
    Kearny marched toward Santa Fe taking the town
    and control of New Mexico (without a shot fired),
    at this time he split his forces in half to take
    California and the other to reinforce Taylor.
  • Kearny with a force of 300 men helped Commodore
    John D. Sloat take San Diego, Los Angles, and
    Monterey forcing the Mexican army out of Alta
  • With California, New Mexico, and Northern Mexico
    under control the focus was turned to Mexico City
    and Santa Anna.

Who to Chose?
  • After the victory of Buena Vista Taylor received
    major press and became a popular war hero in
    America, fearing that he would use this to run as
    a Whig Presidential candidate, Polk chose to halt
    Taylor and allow General Winfield Scott Ol Fuss
    and Feathers finish the War. (Scott was a
  • In 1847 General Winfield Scott made a naval
    amphibious landing taking the port city of Vera
    Cruz, then marched down the coast line finally in
    the Battle for Mexico City defeating Santa Anna
    ending the war. (He followed the same path Cortez
    had taken to conquer the Aztec)

The Mexican-American War
Zachery Taylor
Winfield Scott
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the
    Mexican-American War which included these terms
    1.) Mexico gave up claim to Texas up to Rio
    Grande, 2.) U.S. got California and New Mexico,
    3.) U.S. paid Mexico 15 million dollars, 4.) U.S.
    took over 3.5 million in debt Mexico owed U.S.
    citizens. (one and two are known as the Mexican
  • Even though some wanted to take all of Mexico and
    others did not like it because of the possibility
    of the expansion of slavery, the Senate ratified
    the Treaty in 1846.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Polks Legacy
  • When Polk left office in 1849 he left a legacy of
    expanding the American borders from Coast to
    Coast and carving out mostly the present borders
    of the U.S.
  • In 1848 Polk even tried to purchase Cuba for up
    to 40 million dollars from Spain, but they
  • To round the Southwest in 1853 ambassador James
    Gadsden purchased the southern part of Arizona
    and New Mexico from Mexico for 10 million dollars
    known as the Gadsden Purchase. (completed the
    present borders)
  • For the Senate to ratify the purchase a proviso
    (amendment) was added by David Wilmot called the
    Wilmot Proviso that prohibited the expansion of
    slavery in any lands gained by the Mexican War.

Pokes Legacy
California Gold Rush
  • Shortly after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was
    signed John Sutter discovered gold at his lumber
    town called Sutters Mill in 1848.
  • News of the gold strike led massive numbers of
    usually young single men in 1849 (forty-niners)
    to make it rich off the California Gold Strike.
    (the people who actually got wealthy were the
    merchants and saloon owners (casino/bar))
  • These men called prospectors panned for gold and
    then would use it to purchase things in the local
    Boomtown (town that sprang up quickly).
  • When a gold strike went bust the people moved
    making the town a ghost town because all the
    building were left intake.

New Life in the West
  • The gold strike brought many people out west,
    even an influx of Chinese immigrants into
    California, even though many headed back East
    some stayed and settled.
  • Two of the biggest problems in the West were
    water rights and law and order.
  • In the West a law of prior appropriation was
    established giving water rights to the first
    person to discover it or to dig a well. (big
  • In Western boom towns law and order was
    established by groups of settlers known as
    vigilante committees (citizens taking the law
    into their own hands).

San Francisco at the start of the Gold Rush
Sutters Mill
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