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Title: THE WORLD IN TRANSITION


1
CHAPTER 37
THE WORLD IN
TRANSITION
By Shaunna- Kay Beckford World History Mr.
Linebarger
2
CONTENTS
  • SECTION 1- The End of the Cold
  • SECTION2- The Crumbling
  • SECTION 3- Toward A European Union
  • SECTION 4- National and Ethnic Conflict
  • SECTION 5- Global Interdependence


3
Section 1- THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  • Key terms
  • Trade deficits, budget deficit, glasnost,
    perestroika, privatization
  • People to Meet
  • Ronald Reagan, George Bush, Bill Clinton,
    Madeleine Albright, Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris,
    Yeltsin.
  • Objective
  • To find out what developments changed superpower
    relationships by the mid- 1990s.

4
THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  • INTRODUCTION
  • In the early 1980s, cold war tensions between the
    United States and the Soviet
  • Increased dramatically. However, the world
    had changed since the 1950s when the
  • superpowers had competed alone in the arena
    of the world affairs. Now other blocs of nations,
    with their own separated concerns, were
    influencing global developments. In addition, the
    two superpowers faced growing political and
    economical problems at home. Together, domestic
    and international changes would lead to the end
    of the cold war.

5
THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  • The United States
  • Lost its global dominance on the market.
  • They changed from a lending nation to a borrowing
    nation.
  • They experienced trade deficits, buying more from
    foreign nations than it sold in foreign markets
    .
  • A republican, Ronald Regan, won presidency in
    1980 and promised to reduce the budget deficit,
    or difference between the amount of money the
    government collects in revenues and what it
    spends.
  • President Reagan cut spending on social programs
    and lowered taxes to stimulate econ0omic growth.
  • During his two terms, inflation slowed and the
    economy improved.
  • President R. Reagan and his successor, George
    Bush, pushed the budget deficit to new heights by
    increased military spending.

6
THE END OF THECOLD WAR contd.
  • THE UNITED STATES contd.
  • In 1992, Democratic Bill Clinton was elected
    president.
  • He supported moderate deficit reduction and
    increase spending.
  • President Clinton and Congress worked out a plan
    to balance the budget and to move people from
    welfare to jobs.
  • Meanwhile new technology and increased efficiency
    boosted the American economy.
  • In 1998, the House of Representatives determined
    that Clinton had lied under oath and had
    obstructed justice in trying to cover improper
    behavior.
  • This resulted in the passing of two articles of
    impeachment on President Clinton.
  • In the early 1980s, tensions heightened between
    the United States and the Soviet Union.

7
THE END OF THECOLD WAR contd.
  • THE UNITED STATES contd.
  • The soviet union collapsed in 1991.
  • George Bush and Bill Clinton supported the growth
    of democracy in Russia and other former Communist
    nations.
  • The United States sought to develop a new foreign
    policy for the postwar in 1990s.
  • Cuts were made in defense spending, and both Bush
    and Clinton generally conducted foreign policy
    through diplomacy or by using economic pressures.
  • The United States joined the multinational
    military operations in trouble spots such as
    Haiti, Persian Gulf, Somalia, and the Balkans.
  • Madeleine Albright became the first woman to
    serve as Secretary of State in 1997.

8
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • THE UNITED STATES contd.
  • She supported United States efforts to strengthen
    democracy in Europe, advance peace in the Middle
    East and established effective partnerships with
    Latin American and Asian countries.
  • Meanwhile in America, the income gap between the
    rich and the poor became wider in1996 than any
    other time since the 1930s.
  • During this time they faced crime and violence.
  • A federal office was bombed in Oklahoma City in
    1995 claiming the life of 168 people.
  • There was an increased risk of AIDS in 1990s.
  • Immigration became a pressing issue in 1990s,
    when economic and political ills around the world
    brought a new tide of immigrants to the United
    States.
  • Many Americans blamed increased immigration for
    the loss of jobs and higher taxes.
  • The congress passed legislation that improved new
    restrictions on both legal and illegal
    immigrants.

9
PICTURES OF UNITED STATES FORMER PRESIDENTS
President Bill Clinton
President Ronald Reagan
President George Bush
10
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd
  • Gorbachevs USSR
  • Assumed power in 1985.
  • Permit freedom of expression for Soviet citizens
    under his policy of glasnost (meaning openness).
  • He pushed for the rebuilding of the Soviet
    economy, a policy the Soviets called perestroika.

Gorbachev met with U.S. President Ronald Reagan
in the late 1980s.
11
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • Gorbachevs USSR contd.
  • Allowed more decision making at local level.
  • He negotiate with president Reagan for the
    reduction of arms.
  • Gorbachev made large concessions to settle
    long-stalled treaty negotiations.
  • He offered too cancel nuclear tests and to
    withdraw Soviet missiles from Eastern Europe.
  • To further ease global tensions, he withdrew
    troops from Afghanistan.
  • He encouraged Eastern European Communist leaders
    to carry out reforms.
  • His policies inspired discontented majorities in
    these repressed countries.

12
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • Gorbachevs USSR contd.
  • Scattered demands for democracy grew into a wave
    of anti-Communist protest that eventually brought
    down the Iron Curtain.
  • He became popular in the Western countries
    because of his outlook and friendly personality.
  • However, he was increasingly criticized.
  • At the same time, economic problems continued,
    the conservative bureaucracy and military
    resisted change, fearing the loss of jobs and the
    weakening of the Soviet might.
  • To maintain control he zigzagged reformist and
    hard line positions, creating uncertainty
    throughout government and business.
  • By 1990, perestroikas slow pace had brought
    forward rivals to Gorbachevs leadership.

13
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • Gorbachevs USSR contd.
  • the most powerful of these challengers was Boris
    Yeltsin, a former Gorbachev ally.
  • He wanted to increase the pace of reforms.
  • He won the presidency of the Russian Republic by
    taking the side of the people.
  • He had a stronger base of support than Gorbachev
    did.
  • The Soviet Breakup
  • While Gorbachev faced mounting opposition from
    political rivals, nationalist and ethnic unrest
    began to sweep the Soviet Union.
  • The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
    was a union of 15 separate republics, or states.

14
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • The Soviet Breakup contd.
  • The largest was Russia, which include the Soviet
    capital Moscow.
  • The non- Russians republics resented the
    dominance of the Russians over their affairs.
  • A strong Soviet secret police and army had kept
    opposition and nationalist groups under control
    but in the relaxed atmosphere of glasnost they
    resurfaced.
  • There were strong demands for self rule
    throughout the republic and in 1990, Latvia,
    Lithuania, and Estonia became the first republic
    to declare independence.
  • Gorbachev began a roll back of glasnost in the
    early 1990s and adopted new hard-line positions
    to appease the conservatives who feared the
    breakup of the Soviet Union.

15
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • The Soviet Breakup contd.
  • His reform-mined political aides resigned in
    protest, and Soviet citizens, led by Yeltsin,
    called for Gorbachev to step down.
  • Hard-liners in the military and secret police
    staged a coup to remove Gorbachev from power and
    restore the old order.
  • Yeltsin became the real leader of the Soviet
    Union.
  • Communist party and secret police swept the land,
    the party dissolved, stature of party leaders
    were torn down, and many cities return to their
    pre-1917 names (example Leningrad changed back to
    its original name St. Petersburg.

16
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • Independent Republics
  • All Soviet republics announced their independence
    from the Soviet Union in late September.
  • In December 1991, the three Slavic republics-
    Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus- announced the
    formation of the Commonwealth of Independent
    States (CIS), a loose association of republics to
    take the place of the Soviet Union.
  • As a result, Gorbachev resigned his presidency.
  • After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Yeltsin
    moved to ensure the security of the Soviet
    nuclear arsenal.
  • He and the leaders of the other republics holding
    nuclear weapons- Ukraine, Belarus, and
    Kazakhstan- agreed that Russia would assume
    command of the weapons. Ukraine later declared
    itself a nuclear-free zone and dismantled its
    arsenal of nuclear warheads.
  • The United States and Russia agreed on a mutual
    reduction in the number of nuclear weapons that
    they each had. By 1997, they no longer targeted
    nuclear warheads at each other.

17
THE END OF THE COLD WAR contd.
  • Independent Republics contd.
  • At home Yeltsin introduced reforms to move
    Russias economy from government control to free
    enterprise.
  • These included removing price controls, closing
    inefficient factories, and promoting
    privatization, the setting up of privately owned
    businesses.
  • The result was an increase in both prices and
    unemployment, causing much discontent.
  • By the mid-1990s, some progress had been made in
    stabilizing prices, and new businesses and a new
    middle class were growing in the former Soviet
    republics.
  • In Russia, production fell sharply and the
    government lacked funds to meet its obligations
    due to mismanagement, corruption, and difficulty
    in collecting taxes.
  • Russia also faced social problems. Workers, the
    elderly, and the poor suffered economic
    hardships. Street violence, organized crime, and
    ethnic unrest increased public fears about the
    collapse of law and order. Pollution caused the
    Soviet-era industrialization presented a major
    health risk.
  • Nationalist and Communist in Russia tried to
    block Yeltsins reforms.
  • In 1996, he defeated his Communist rival in
    presidential elections.

18
Section 2-THE CRUMBLING WALL
  • Key terms
  • Autonomy
  • People to Meet
  • Pope Paul John II, Lech Walesa, Nicolae
    Ceausescu, Vaclav Havel, Aleksander Kwasniewski,
    Slobodan Milosevic
  • Objective
  • To find out how did the Soviet Communist controls
    come to an end in Eastern Europe.

19
THE CRUMBLING WALL
  • Introduction
  • During the 1980s, the Communist nations of
    Eastern Europe faced massive problems. Their
    government- controlled economies failed to
    produce high quality consumer goods and had
    fallen far behind the economies of the West. When
    the Soviet Union began to change and signaled
    that it would not object to changes in Eastern
    Europe, the Communist systems collapsed.

20
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • The rise of Solidarity
  • In Poland, the antigovernment movement had
    received a strong boost in 1978, when the Roman
    Catholic Church selected a Polish church leader,
    Karol Wojtyla as its pope.
  • The election of Pope Paul John II, a staunch
    anti-Communist, inspired confidence among the
    largely Catholic Poles and enabled them to take
    further steps toward liberation from Communist
    control.
  • In 1980 Polish workers in Baltic port of Gdansk
    organized a trade union called Solidarity. Lech
    Walesa was the founder and leader of Solidarity.
    It backed up demands for better living and
    working conditions with strikes.

21
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • The rise of Solidarity
  • The strike led by Walesa at the Gdansk shipyards
    forced the Polish government to recognize
    Solidarity in 1980.
  • Under Walesas leadership, Solidarity demanded
    free elections and a voice for workers in forming
    government policy. The Polish government
    responded by demanding that strikes and other
    antistate activities to end. under pressure
    from the Soviet Union, Polish authorities
    outlawed the union 16 months later and jailed
    most of its leaders.
  • Walesa became a symbol of freedom and an
    international hero. He was awarded the Nobel
    Peace Prize in 1983.

Picture of Lech Walesa
Picture of Lenin shipyard in Gdanska
Picture of Pope John Paul II
22
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • 1989 A Year of Miracles
  • By the late 1980s, reduction production,
    decreases in labor productivity, high inflation,
    and trade deficits had virtually paralyzed the
    economies of Eastern Europe.
  • This caused fewer goods and higher prices.
  • The highly centralized economies, out of touch
    with consumer needs, caused widespread food
    shortages.
  • Dissent against Communist reached its peek in
    1989.
  • In a speech in 1989, Gorbachev announced that he
    had ordered a cut back of 500,000 troops in the
    Soviet army.
  • The troops had been put there to keep the Soviet
    satellites in line.
  • In march he pledged not to interfere with
    democratic reforms in Hungary.
  • He decided that most Eastern-bloc governments-
    which locked popular support- would continue to
    provoked opposition.
  • In 1989 Communist governments in Eastern Europe
    crumbled under the weight of staggering problems.

23
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • 1989 A Year of Miracles contd.
  • As economic and political instability increased,
    Communist regimes either resigned or were
    overturned in Eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia,
    Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria.
  • Throughout this remarkable year of 1989,
    Gorbachev astounded the world by not only
    refusing to intervene in democratic uprisings,
    but actually encouraging reform in the region.
  • In mid-1989 Hungary, which had been quietly
    moving toward democratic reform for more than a
    decade, opened its sealed borders. A flood of
    East German refugees poured through this new
    hole in the Iron Curtain, seeking sanctuary in
    the West. The exodus called attention to the
    failed government of East Germanys leader, Erich
    Honecker.

Eric Honecker
24
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd. 1989 A Year of
Miracles contd.
  • Amid mass demonstrations and calls for democratic
    reform, Honeckers government was toppled in
    October and replaced by a more moderate Communist
    administration.
  • The government lifted all travel restrictions
    between East and West.
  • On the November 9, 1989, the famous Gate at
    Berlin Wall was opened.
  • East and West Germans rushed throughout the night
    to see the wall. They swarmed over the wall,
    dancing and singing atop it. The next days people
    attacked the wall with picks and shovels, opening
    huge holes. As the gats opened, people got a
    chance to reunite with families and friends.

The Wall of Berlin
People celebrating after the gate was opened.
25
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • 1989 A Year of Miracles contd.
  • Nicolae Ceausescu ruled Romania for 24 years.
  • His methods had become increasingly brutal over
    the years, and his reaction to freedom protests
    in his country was violent.
  • Hundred were killed before the Romanians revolted
    and ousted the dictator in December 1989.
  • Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were tried and
    shot.
  • Throughout Europe and the West, crowds celebrated
    the fall of Ceausescu. They were also celebrating
    the end of the Soviet control in Eastern Europe
    and, in a larger sense, the end of the cold war.

26
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • New Leaders in a New Age
  • Following the downfall of Communist governments,
    reformers looked for new leaders to bring
    democracy and stability to their countries.
  • In East Germany, the fall of the Berlin Wall
    quickly led to calls of the reunification of
    Germany.
  • On December 2, 1990, Helmut Kohl, riding a wave
    of pro-unification sentiment, was elected in a
    landslide as the first chancellor of Germany.
  • Other countries looked to their national heroes
    to lead their new regimes.
  • Czechoslovakia elected a dissident playwright,
    Vaclav Havel, who had been in jail months before.
    Then, in 1992, Czech and Slovak agreed to split
    Czechoslovakia into two separate nations. The
    split was done on January 1993. They became known
    as The Czech Republic and the Republic of
    Slovakia. The countries maintained close economic
    and political ties.
  • In Poland Lech Walesa was elected president in
    1990.
  • Albania opened its sealed borders, allowed
    opposition parties to form, and held elections in
    1991.
  • Other nations, such as Romania, organized
    coalition governments from a multitude of
    political parties.

27
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • Facing Challenges
  • New Eastern European governments faced the task
    of shifting from communism to democracy and free
    enterprise.
  • State run economies were in shambles, and the new
    government inherited a host of problems. These
    included inefficient or outdated industries, huge
    national debts, work forces paid regardless of
    the quality of their work, artificially low
    prices for basic goods, and currencies considered
    worthless by the rest of the world.
  • In addition, little investment was available in
    Eastern Europe to modernize old industries or
    fund new ones. To attract foreign investment and
    financial aid, new governments had to reform
    their economies by cutting spending, balancing
    budgets, closing or selling off inefficient
    state-run firms, and training workers in new
    skills.
  • With strong industrial bases, the Czech Republic,
    Hungary, and Poland seemed the most likely to
    succeed in the transition from communism to
    capitalism. However, even in these lands,
    economic reforms imposed hardships on citizens,
    with many workers facing unemployment and
    reductions in social benefits.

28
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • Facing Challenges contd.
  • In Hungary and Poland, dissatisfied voters in the
    mid-1990s returned ex-Communists to power.
  • Eastern Europe reformed communists, however,
    supported democracy and favored their countries
    joining the NATO, although they wanted a slower
    pace to privatization and opposed radical cuts in
    social welfare programs.
  • In 1997,Solidarity and other non-Communists
    candidates triumphed over their ex-Communists
    opponents in Polands parliamentary elections.
  • The post-Communist era not only brought economic
    hardships but political stability and wide spread
    violence to the countries in the southern parts
    of Eastern Europe.
  • There, democratic traditions were not as strong,
    and economies had only been recently
    industrialized.
  • In Bulgaria, ex-Communist leaders poorly managed
    the state-run economy and rejected any reforms
    until the country was hit by a grain shortage and
    severe inflation. In 1997, citizen protests
    forced the government to call elections, which
    brought anti-Communists to power. Bulgarias new
    leaders promised to introduced free enterprise
    and won international financial help.

29
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • Facing Challenges contd.
  • In Albania, Eastern Europes poorest country,
    democracy and free enterprise were nearly
    engulfed in chaos. During the early 1990s, almost
    every Albanian family invested money in schemes,
    which abruptly collapsed in 1997. With their
    savings gone, they rioted the throughout the
    country, blaming the government for the collapse
    and demanding payment.
  • Rebel groups took control of southern Albania,
    and many Albanians in other areas with weapons
    looted from the countrys arsenals.
  • A UN peacekeeping force restored order and new
    elections were held.

30
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • War in the Balkans
  • After communisms fall, Eastern Europe
    experienced a rebirth of nationalist feeling.
  • The most serious outbreak of nationalist conflict
    occurred in Yugoslavia.
  • Multiparty elections were held after the death of
    Josip Broz Tito. Non-Communist parties won seats
    in the parliaments of Bosnia-Herzegovina,
    Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia.
  • In Serbia and Montenegro, the former Communist
    parties, renamed as Socialist parties, won
    majorities. The leader of Serbia, Slobodan
    Milosevic, renounced communism but was intent on
    expanding his power.
  • After the elections, the most industrialized
    republics- Croatia and Slovenia- charged that
    Serbia sought to dominate the rest of the
    country. In 1991, when Serbia opposed any
    restructuring of Yugoslavia that would give the
    other republics more autonomy, or self-rule,
    Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence.
  • Fighting then broke out between the Croat army
    and ethnic Serbs who refused to be under Croat
    rule.
  • Serbia and Montenegro, which together became
    Yugoslavia, backed the ethnic Serbs of Croatia.
    With this aid, Serb forces gained control of
    one-third of Croatias territory.

31
THE CRUMBLING WALL contd.
  • War in the Balkans contd.
  • In the fall of 1991, Macedonia declared its
    independence.
  • The following year, the Muslim population and the
    Croats Bosnia-Herzegovina voted for its
    independence from Serb-controlled Yugoslavia.
    Ethnic Serbs living in Bosnia-Herzegovina opposed
    the election and its outcome. Fighting broke out
    between the two sides.
  • In 1994, the exhausted Bosnian Muslims and Croats
    formed a federation, and the United States asked
    the ethnic Serbs to end the fighting and joined
    as well.
  • After military pressure from Croatias land
    forces and NATO air strikes, the Bosnian Serbs
    accepted and ceased fire and American-sponsored
    peace talks.
  • In 1995, the leaders of Bosnia-Herzegovina,
    Yugoslavia, and Croatia met at Dayton, Ohio, and
    agreed to set up a Bosnian state divided into
    separate Croat-Muslim and Serb regions.
  • Dissatisfaction with Slobodan Milosevic led to
    discord in Serbia. In 1996, Milosevic tried to
    block opposition wins in local elections.

32
SECTION 3- TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION
  • Keywords
  • Referendum, collective security
  • People to Meet
  • Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair,
    Francois Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac, Helmut Kohl,
    Juan Carlos I, Felipe Gonzalez, Andreas
    Papandreou
  • Objective
  • To find out what steps have Western European
    nations taken to unify their governments and
    economies.

33
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION
  • Introduction
  • Since the 1970s, Western European nations have
    faced economic recession, budget deficits, and
    high unemployment. However, they also worked to
    modernize their societies and to balance economic
    growth with the social needs of their peoples.

34
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • Great Britain
  • In 1979, voters, dissatisfied with economy, high
    taxes, and trade union strikes, brought the
    Conservative party into a long period of power.
  • Great Britains first woman prime minister,
    Conservative party leader Margaret Thatcher
    aggressively introduced free market measures. She
    privatized state-owned industries, scaled back
    welfare programs, and limited trade union powers.
    Although her policies aided business growth, they
    created high unemployment.
  • Thatchers successor, John Major, led a
    Conservative party increasingly divided over
    Great Britains ties to Europe.
  • During the 1990s, the British economy continued
    to grow, with falling unemployment and relatively
    low inflation.
  • 18 years after the Conservative rule, voters
    wanted a change and in 1997 brought the Labor
    party to power.
  • Tony Blair was elected as the new prime minister.
    He moved away from Labor's traditional socialism
    and favored low taxes, tightly controlled social
    spending, and closer ties to Europe.
  • The most innovative of Blairs plans was the
    reform of British government. In response to
    growing nationalism in Scotland and Wales, he
    favored home rule for these parts of Great
    Britain.
  • In 1997, Scottish voters approved creation of
    their own parliament to tax and legislate on
    local issues.

35
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • Ireland
  • A major European issue from the 1990s was the
    status of Northern Ireland, the British-ruled
    province torn by divisions between Protestants
    and Catholic.
  • As clashes between the two communities increased,
    the British government sent troops to Northern
    Ireland and imposed direct rule during the 1970s.
  • The outlawed Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought
    British rule by attacking British military forces
    and civilians in the province and Great Britain.
  • After violence in the 1980s, Northern Irish
    agreed to cease fire and in 1998, made a peace
    agreement that continued British rule and also
    set up an elected assembly and an executive
    council made up of Protestants and Catholics.

Picture of Ireland
36
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
F Mitterrand
  • France
  • France enjoyed political stability from the 1970s
    to 1990s.
  • In 1981 French voters elected Francois Mitterrand
    as Frances first Socialist president.
  • Mitterrand nationalized major industries and
    funded new social programs.
  • His measures, however, increased inflation, and
    he eventually was forced to make cutbacks.
  • By mid-1990s, Mitterrand also had to work with a
    largely conservative legislature.
  • In 1995 Jacques Chirac, the conservative mayor of
    Paris, was elected president of France. Chirac
    promised a referendum, or popular vote, on France
    future relationships with a united Europe.
  • He also tried to balance the budget by further
    cuts in government spending.
  • In 1997, a majority of voters rebuffed Chirac and
    elected Socialist and other leftist legislature.

J Chirac
37
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • Germany
  • During the 1970s West Germany, under Chancellor
    Willy Brandt and his successor, Helmut Schmidt,
    enjoyed prosperity.
  • After a month of inflation and unemployment,
    Helmut Kohl came to power. In 1990 he presided
    over the reunification of Germany following the
    collapse of communism.
  • He made preparations for the transfer of the
    German capital from Bonn to Berlin by the year
    2000.
  • Eastern Germanys economic rebuilding required
    vast expenditures, and Germans in the west had to
    pay higher taxes.
  • In eastern Germany, the closing of inefficient
    industries unemployment , although economic
    rebuilding in the long term provide eastern
    Germany with most modern technology in Europe.
  • By 1997, unemployment was at its highest level
    throughout Germany since 1930s.
  • Social and political unrest accompanied economic
    difficulties throughout Germany. Neo-Nazis and
    other right-wing protested against immigration
    from southern Europe to the Middle East. Because
    of Germans protests, the German parliament in
    1993 amended the constitution to reduce the flow
    of immigrants into Germany.
  • The same year, Germany highest court ruled that
    German troops could take part in international
    peacekeeping missions.

38
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • Germany contd.
  • Until then, the constitution had banned all
    military activities expect those related to
    collective security, or point agreement by
    nations to protect themselves from attack.
  • Mediterranean Europe
  • Mediterranean Europe made great strides in
    political and economical development from the
    1970s to 1990s.
  • Dictators fell and democracies arose in Spain and
    Portugal.
  • However, economic recessions hurt the
    Mediterranean countries.
  • From the 1970s to 1990s, a variety of economic,
    social, and political problems plagued Italy,
    including uneven distribution of wealth between
    the north and south, an inefficient government
    bureaucracy, and constantly changing governments.

39
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • During the 1970s Italy had the largest Communist
    party which was popular because it promoted a
    less authoritarian view of communism. It shared
    power of ruling with conservative Christian
    Democrats.
  • Christian Democrats, later renamed the Populists,
    controlled the government during the 1980s-90s.
    During this time, the leftist parties- Communists
    and Socialists- suffered from political disputes
    and political scandals.

Map of Italy
40
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • Mediterranean Europe
  • After 35 years of dictatorship under Francisco
    Franco, Spain in the late 1970s entered a new era
    of democracy guided by its new king, Juan Carlos
    I. Spain democratic government was in the hands
    of Felipe Gonzalez in most of the 1980s-90s.
  • In 1996 Spanish voters replaced the Socialists
    with a conservative government under Jose Maria
    Aznar.
  • Since the restoration of democracy, the Spanish
    government has granted the Basque Provinces and
    other regions of Spain increased self-rule.
    Nevertheless, it has been unable to stop
    terrorist attacks wanting full independence for
    their region.
  • Spain joined the NATO and European Community in
    the 1980s.
  • A turn toward democracy also occurred in
    Portugal. There, dictatorship ended with a
    military coup in 1974, and 2 years later the
    nation held its first free election in 50 years.
    They freed most African and Asian colonies and
    joined the European Community in 1986.
  • Greece was ruled by a military government from
    mid-1960s-70s.
  • Democracy was restored in 1974.
  • In 1981 the Socialists under Andreas Papandreou
    brought Greece into the European Community.

41
TOWARD A EUROPEAN NATION contd.
  • A United Europe
  • During the 1980s and 1990s, the Common Market
    broadened its activities to include political and
    financial affairs and became known as the
    European Community.
  • In 1992 European Community members met in
    Maastricht, the Netherlands, and signed the
    Treaty of Maastricht.
  • In 1993 the Single Europe Act ended most
    obstacles to trade among EU members.
  • Two years later, seven EU nations allowed their
    citizens to freely travel from one member country
    to another without a passport.
  • The year 1995 also saw the admission of Austria,
    Finland, and Sweden to the EU.

42
SECTION 4- NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS
  • Key terms
  • Ethnic cleansing, atrocity, enclave, embargo
  • People to Meet
  • Slobodan Milosevic, Alija Izetbegovic, Franjo
    Tudjman, the Chechens, the Ossetians, the
    Abkhazians, the Kurds, the Sinhalese, the Tamils,
    Brian Mulroney, Jean Chretien
  • Objective
  • To find out what areas of the world have been in
    ethnic discord since the end of the cold war.

43
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS
  • Introduction
  • The end of the cold brought about communisms
    fall and triumph of democracy. The superpower
    rivalry was over, each issue stood on its own
    terms, and predictability and stability had given
    way to uncertainty and confusion. During the
    1990s, long hidden and ethnic rivalries flared
    into violence in various parts of the world. The
    threats to peace included not only fighting but
    also human tragedies such as starvation and the
    flow of refugees. Often, the global community,
    throughout the UN and other organizations, seemed
    helpless in dealing with these crisis.

44
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS
  • Fighting in Bosnia
  • The most serious ethnic fighting took place in
    Bosnia-Herzegovina, where the creation of an
    independent state led to conflict among Croats,
    Muslims, and Serbs in the early 1990s.
  • Bosnian Serbs conquered most of
    Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • In April of 1992, they began a siege of Sarajevo,
    the Bosnian capital, which was controlled by
    Muslims.
  • The Serbs followed a policy called ethnic
    cleansing and ruthlessly expelled rival ethnic
    groups from the areas they had taken by army.

Map of Bosnia
45
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
  • Fighting in Bosnia contd.
  • The Croats and the Muslims carried out
    atrocities, or cruel acts against Serbs.
  • The UN imposed an embargo, a ban on trade, on
    Serbia in 1992, hoping to get the Serbs to stop
    supplying the ethnic Serbs in Bosnia.
  • The United States and other UN members reported
    human rights abuses in Bosnia. The reports
    indicated that Bosnian Serbs had tortured and
    killed Bosnian Muslims and Croats in detention
    camps.
  • In 1995an international court charged Bosnian
    Serb leaders with genocide for operating
    thousands of Nazi-style concentration camps and
    ruthlessly attacking civilian populations.
  • In 1994 Serbia called on Bosnian Serbs to cease
    fighting.
  • The United States offered a peace plan that
    prospered dividing Bosnia between Serbs and a new
    Muslim-Croat federation.

46
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
  • Fighting in Bosnia contd.
  • When Bosnian Serbs stepped up their attacks on
    Sarajevo, NATO responded with air attacks around
    the city.
  • In November 1995, three presidents- Slobodan
    Milosevic of Serbia, Alija Izetbegovic of
    Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Franjo Tudjman of
    Croatia- met in Dayton, Ohio, and agreed to the
    partition of Bosnia into distinct Serb and
    Muslim-Croat areas.
  • In December Dayton treaty was signed in Paris,
    ending the Bosnian conflict.
  • To safeguard the peace, a 60,00-strong NATO-led
    force arrived in Bosnia to replace the exhausted
    UN troops.
  • In 1996 Bosnian voters elected Muslim, Serb, and
    Croat leaders to serve on three-person panel that
    would govern the country.
  • In 1997 as conflicts erupted between moderate and
    extremist Bosnian Serbs, NATO forces began
    attacks against positions held by the war
    criminals and their supporters.
  • The conflict caused the death of 200,000 people
    and forced the removal of 3 million people from
    their homes.

47
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
Serbian Flag
Serbia MontenegroAir Force
  • Fighting in Bosnia contd.

                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                         
Destruction caused by air attacks
Serbia MontenegroAir Force
ethnic cleansing
Victims from the war
Map of Serbia
Destruction caused by air attacks
48
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
  • Unrest in the CIS
  • With the collapse of communism, fierce ethnic
    hatreds boiled to the surface in Russia and the
    other CIS republics.
  • During the Soviet era, the Russian-dominated
    government in Moscow had repressed the
    nationalism of non-Russian ethnic groups. This
    policy increased resentment among many peoples.
  • After the Soviet collapse, relationships among
    the Commonwealth republics were strained.
  • Russia was the most powerful nation.
  • Ukraine and other European republics were
    reluctant to concede their hard-won independence
    to a Russian-dominated federation.
  • Russia worked to improve the relationships with
    these countries in order to offset NATOs
    eastward expansion.
  • In 1997 Russia and Ukraine signed a treaty that
    recognized Ukrainian rule over the Crimea and
    divided the disputed Black Sea naval fleet
    between them. Russia and Belarus forged a close
    union allowing citizens of both country to move
    freely into each others countries, own property
    in either country, and vote in each others local
    elections.
  • Wary of Russia, the Central Asian republics and
    those Caucasus region balance ties between Russia
    with new links to Middle Eastern and Western
    countries.
  • Although Commonwealth ties were often weak, the
    CIS remained intact as member nations worked
    together to resolve conflicts between them and
    within their countries.

49
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
  • Unrest in the CIS
  • The Chechens are among the ethnic groups of
    Russia. Chechnya lies in southern Russia and near
    the Caspian Sea.
  • In 1994 the Chechens declared their independence
    from Russia. Boris Yeltsin feared the breakup of
    Russia so he sent Russian troops into Chechnya.
  • In 1996, when Chechen forces took back their
    capital from Russia, Yeltsin sent his aide
    General Alexander Lebed to Chechnya to work out
    an agreement to end the conflict.
  • In the Caucasus region, Armenia and Azerbaijan
    both claimed ownership of the enclave of
    Nagorno-Karabakh. An enclave is a small territory
    entirely surrounded by another territory.
  • Nagorno-Karabakh lies entirely within Azerbaijan,
    but its majority population of Armenians it to
    separate from Azerbaijan and join Armenia.

Armenia and Azerbaijan soldiers at war
Map of Nagorno-Karabakhs location
50
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
  • In 1993 Armenia and Azerbaijan went to war over
    Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • Neighboring Georgia has faced separatist
    uprisings by minority ethnic groups, such as the
    Ossetians and the Abkhazians.
  • In1994 the Abkhazians declared their region an
    independent republic.
  • Africa and Asia
  • During the 1900s, ethnic conflicts erupted in
    various parts of Africa and Asia.
  • In Africa, fighting broke out between Hutu and
    Tutsi peoples in the East African republics of
    Rwanda and Burundi.
  • In the Middle East, one of the most divisive
    ethnic disputes was between the Kurds and the
    government of Iraq and Turkey.
  • The 20 million Kurds, are Sunni Muslims and live
    mostly in Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey,
    wanted their freedom.
  • In the 1980s and 1990s, the Kurds of Turkey and
    Iraq carried out separate revolts against their
    representative governments.
  • Before and after the Persian Gulf War, Iraqi
    forces used bombings and poison gas to put down
    Kurdish uprisings, which left over 1 million
    Kurds as refugees.
  • Sri Lanka was also torn by ethnic discord. Its
    people belong to two groups, namely the Sinhalese
    and the Tamils. The Sinhalese were Buddhist and
    the Tamils were Hindus.
  • Fighting broke out between the Tamils and the
    Sinhalese in 1983.

51
NATIONAL AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS contd.
  • The fighting continued into the 1990s, killing
    40,000people and causing hundreds of Tamil
    refugees fled to India.
  • Canadas Fragile Unity
  • Many French people of Quebec wanted independence
    from English-speaking Canada.
  • When Quebec voters in 1980 narrowly defeated an
    independence proposal, the Canadian federal
    government worked to strengthen national unity
    while respecting regional differences.
  • Canadian constitution was enacted that granted
    more power to the provinces and guaranteed the
    language and cultural rights of all Canadians.
  • Quebec rejected the constitution because it did
    not allow individual provinces to veto future
    amendments.
  • Prime Minster Brain Mulroney tried to get
    English-speaking Canada to accept a special
    status for Quebec.
  • Jean Chrétien became prime minister 10 years
    after Brian. He opposed Quebec separatism.
  • 1n 1995 Quebec voters again turned down
    independence for the province, but only by margin
    of little over 1 percent.
  • In June 1997 Canadian voters elected a new
    parliament, splitting their votes along regional
    lines. Prime Minster Jean Chrétien's Liberal
    party won 19 seats and the Reform party came
    second.

52
SECTION 5- GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE
  • Key terms
  • Interdependence, developing nations, developed
    nations, deforestation, Internet, genetic
    engineering
  • People to Meet
  • Neil Armstrong, Jean Paul Sartre, Mother Teresa
  • Objective
  • To find out how have recent advances in
    technology affected the worlds cultures.

53
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE
  • Introduction
  • In the 1900 little people new about people of
    distant places. As the year 2000 approaches,
    people are able to communicate with distant
    people and access information at their finger
    tips. Today, a technological and communications
    revolution made us increasingly interdependent,
    or reliant on each other.

54
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE
  • The Global Community
  • Todays nations have become more interdependent
    throughout world trade.
  • Since World War II, technological advances and
    the removal of tariff and other barriers to free
    trade have led to a tremendous increase in global
    exchange in goods and services.
  • The worlds economic superpowers include the
    United States, the European Union, and Japan.
    These areas along with South Korea, Taiwan, and
    other countries of Asias Pacific Rim, are the
    leading competitors in international markets.
  • A major global issue involving nations is the gap
    between rich and poor countries.
  • Developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin
    America are newly industrializing countries.
    These developing countries are dependent on
    developed nations, such as the United States.
  • To raise standard of living, developing nations
    often try to diversify, or increase the variety
    of, the goods they supply to the world. This
    enables them to avoid relying on one single crop
    or product.
  • Developing countries often rely often rely on
    outside lending forces for funding (for example
    The World Bank and the International Monetary
    Fund).

55
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE contd.
  • Population Growth
  • The number of people on Earth affects human
    well-being and the environment.
  • Developed nations point to the rapid growth of
    population in developing countries as a major
    case in straining world resources.
  • 97 percent of the worlds population growth
    occurs in the developing world.
  • At the present rate of growth, the worlds
    population is expected to increase from 5.8
    billion to 6 billion by 2000 and about 12 billion
    by 2050.
  • People in developing countries consume far less
    per person than people do in developed countries.
    However, the large populations in the developing
    world are exhausting the resources of many areas.
  • Throughout the developing world, millions of
    people leave the countryside each year and crowd
    into cities in hope of improving their lives.
    Urban growth has been so rapid that cities cannot
    keep up with needs for food, shelter, and jobs.

56
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE contd.
  • The Environment
  • The abundance of earths resources have been
    taken for granted for many years. Today, however,
    human use and abuse of resources- especially the
    high consumption of resources in the developed
    world- has reached such levels that the planet
    may no longer be able to heal itself.
  • Damage to the atmosphere, land, water and air,
    has an impact on all living things.
  • Vast areas of the earths land have been
    destroyed by overgrazing, pesticides, and
    deforestation, the widespread clearing of forest
    for logging or farming.
  • Between 1970 and 1990, developing countries lost
    40 percent of their farmland.
  • The oceans and freshwater are also being abused.

57
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE contd.
  • The Environment contd.
  • Coastal waters are heavily polluted with
    chemicals and waters. The bulk of contamination
    comes from poisonous industrial wastes, municipal
    sewage, and runoffs of fertilizers, pesticides,
    and salts.
  • The demand for freshwater as grown in countries
    such as southwestern United States, the Middle
    East, and North Africa.
  • Since the 1970s, the worlds people have become
    aware of environmental issues, and a number of
    international gatherings have stressed the
    urgency of dealing with the environmental crisis.

58
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE contd.
  • The Environment contd.
  • In 1987 delegates from 46 countries met in
    Montreal, Canada, and signed the Montreal
    Protocol, which called for reductions in the use
    of chemicals damaging the earths atmosphere.
  • Other important gatherings were the 1992 Earth
    Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the
    follow-up 1997 Earth Summit5 in New York City.
  • The Technological Revolution
  • Since 1945, the world has undergone a
    technological revolution as significant as the
    Industrial Revolution of the early 1800s.
    Computer are at the heart of this transformation.
  • They process information that can analyze a
    nations economy, forecast the weather, interpret
    public opinion polls, or calculate the flight
    path of a rocket.
  • The applications of computer technology are
    varied. The brain driving the computer is the
    microchip, a mesh of circuits etched on a silicon
    wafer.
  • Doctors use these chips to power the limbs worn
    by people who need them.
  • Industrial robots programmed to assemble machines
    and perform tasks such as welding and painting
    represent another application of microchip
    technology.
  • Computers are playing an important role in the
    expansion of global communications. The most
    dramatic leap in communications has been the
    internet, a massive number of computers linked
    together through a worldwide, high-speed,
    telecommunications network.

59
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE contd.
  • The Technological Revolution
  • Computer and other new technologies have also
    made space exploration possible. Since the Soviet
    launch of Sputnik, the first satellite into
    orbit, in 1957, the Americans and Russians have
    sent hundreds of satellites into outer space.
  • In July 1969 American astronaut Neil Armstrong
    became the first man to step on the moons
    surface.
  • Medical sciences have also benefited from
    technological progress. Lasers, or devices that
    emit narrow, powerful beams of light, allow
    doctors to perform delicate surgeries with
    minimal discomfort to patients.
  • Current medicines can correct chemical imbalances
    in the brain, thereby treating the severe
    depression that can cripple some peoples lives.
  • Organ transplant have become possible with new
    technologies. Kidneys and livers are among the
    most commonly transplanted organisms.
  • Recent DNA technology has led to the new field of
    genetic engineering, a process that involves the
    alteration of cells to produce new life-forms.

60
GOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE contd.
  • The Global Culture
  • Technological advances have hastened the growth
    of global culture.
  • Jet travel, television, and communications
    satellites have spread ideas and practices from
    one part of the globe to another. Today the
    cultures of various regions meet and blend.
  • After World War II, the French thinker Jean Paul
    Sartre stated a viewpoint known as existentialism
    that became popular among intellectuals in the
    West. According to Sartre, each person is
    essentially alone, but free to choose his or her
    path of life.
  • Religious individuals and groups have sought to
    meet societys needs.
  • The Roman Catholic nun Mother Teresa inspired
    many people with her care of the needy in the
    slums of Calcutta, India. Also the Dalai Lama,
    Tibets Buddhist leader, and Desmond Tutu, South
    African Anglican archbishops, spoke out for human
    rights.
  • In recent decades, the issue of human right has
    captured world attention. According to human
    rights groups, despite democratic advances since
    the 1980s, many governments still imprison and
    abuse people for speaking their minds. Among the
    countries accused of human rights violations are
    China, Indonesia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia,
    Afghanistan, and Myanmar. Other, such as Iran,
    Iraq, Cuba, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria
    have also been charged with sponsoring terrorist
    acts outside their borders.
  • In 1948 the United States adopted what has become
    the most important human-rights document of the
    postwar years- the Universal Declaration of Human
    Rights.
  • Addressing social, economic and political rights,
    the Declaration is a statement not of the way
    things are, but the way they should be.

61
  • THE END!
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