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DEFINITION

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INTRODUCTION * * * * * * * * * Admissibility of Evidence The Frye v. ... forensic entomology, forensic psychiatry, forensic odontology, computer science, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DEFINITION


1
INTRODUCTION
2
DEFINITION
  • Forensic science is the application of science to
    criminal and civil laws enforced by police
    agencies in a criminal justice system.

3
Forensic Science Timeline
  • Orfila (1814) father of forensic toxicology
  • Bertillon (1879) father of criminal
    identification (anthropometry)
  • Galton (1892) first to study and classify
    fingerprints
  • Landsteiner (1901) discovered A,B,O blood types
  • Lattes (1915) developed a simple technique for
    identifying blood group of dried blood stains

4
1814 - Mathieu Bonaventure Orfila
  • In 1814, published the first scientific study of
    the effects of poisons on animals
  • Father of forensic toxicology
  • In 1840, gave expert testimony in a French
    arsenic poisoning murder case

5
1879 - Alphonse Bertillon
  • Considered the Father of criminal identification
  • Developed the science of measurement called
    Anthropometry
  • Based on taking a specific series of body
    measurements as a means of personal identification

6
Anthropometry
  • There were eleven measurements
  • Height
  • Stretch Length of body from left shoulder to
    right middle finger when arm is raised
  • Bust Length of torso from head to seat, taken
    when seate
  • Length of head Crown to forehead
  • Width of head Temple to temple
  • Length of right ear
  • Length of left foot
  • Length of left middle finger
  • Length of left cubit Elbow to tip of middle
    finger
  • Width of cheeks
  • Length of left pinky

7
1892 - Francis Galton
  • First definitive study of fingerprints.
  • Developed a method for classifying fingerprints
    for filing purposes
  • Published the book
  • Finger Prints in 1892
  • First statistical proof that fingerprints could
    be used as a unique identification system

8
1901 - Karl Landsteiner
  • Discovered that blood could be grouped into
    different categories
  • The blood categories are now known as the A, B,
    AB, and O blood types

9
Leone Lattes 1915
  • A professor of Forensic Medicine at University of
    Turin, Italy.
  • Discovered a method to test for the A,B,O blood
    groups on dried bloodstains.

10
1887 - Sherlock Holmes
  • Fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan
    Doyle
  • First novel A Study in Scarlet
  • Holmes was the first person to apply many of
    modern forensic principles to solve a crime
    before any police department used them

11
Forensic Science Timeline
  • Goddard (1925) microscopic bullet to firearm
    comparison
  • Osborn (1910) published Questioned Documents
  • McCrone (1946) developed advanced microscopic
    technology
  • Gross (1893) published Criminal Investigation
  • Locard (1910) founder, director of Institute of
    Criminalistics at the University of Lyons, France

12
1925 - Calvin Goddard
  • Forensic Scientist
  • Colonel in U.S. Army
  • Medical doctor
  • Published the first reference on ballistics
  • Professor of political science at Northwestern
    University

13
1910 - Albert S. Osborn
  • Developed fundamental principles of document
    examination
  • Responsible for use of documents as scientific
    evidence
  • Published the first text Questioned Documents

14
1946 - Walter C. McCrone
  • The first recognized world-wide expert in
    microscopy
  • Started a research foundation devoted to
    microscopy in 1960
  • Famous for his forensic analysis of the Shroud
    of Turin

15
1893 - Hans Gross
  • Public prosecutor and judge in Graz, Austria
  • Advocate for scientific method in forensics
  • Published first book that explained how police
    could utilize the fields of microscopy,
    chemistry, physics, mineralogy, zoology, botany,
    anthropometry and fingerprinting in criminal
    investigations

16
1910 - Edmond Locard
  • Set up the first crime lab in an attic in
    Lyons, France in 1910
  • Basic forensic science Locards Exchange
    Principle
  • Whenever any two
  • objects come in contact
  • with each other there is an
  • exchange of material
  • between the two objects

17
U.S. Forensic Science Timeline
  • Los Angeles (1923) August Vollmer established the
    oldest forensic laboratory in the U.S.
  • UC Berkeley (1948) Paul Kirk, first head of the
    first U.S. school of Criminology
  • FBI (1932) J. Edgar Hoover established the first
    national forensic science laboratory
  • FBI (1981) established the Forensic Science
    Research and Training Center

18
Full-Service Crime Laboratory
  • BASIC SERVICES SUPPLIED
  • PHYSICAL SCIENCE UNIT
  • BIOLOGY UNIT
  • FIREARMS UNIT
  • DOCUMENT EXAMINATION UNIT
  • PHOTOGRAPHY UNIT

19
Physical Science Unit
  • Applies principals and techniques of chemistry,
    physics and geology to the identification and
    comparison of crime-scene evidence
  • Evidence can be drugs, glass, paint, explosives
    and soil

20
Biology Unit
  • Biologists and biochemists identify and perform
    DNA profiling
  • DNA can be extracted from bloodstains, body
    fluids, hairs
  • Compare and identify hairs and fibers, wood,
    plants and other botanical materials

21
Firearms Unit
  • Examines firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge
    cases, shotgun shells and ammunition of all types
  • Examine garments and other objects that might be
    exposed to gunshot residue and target distance
  • Also examine tool marks

22
Document Examination Unit
  • Studies handwriting, typewriting on questioned
    documents
  • Determines authenticity and or certifies source
    of document
  • Analyzes paper, ink, writing depressions,
    obliterations, erasures, and burned or charged
    documents

23
Photography Unit
  • Examines records and records physical evidence
  • Uses digital imaging, infrared, ultraviolet and
    X-ray photography
  • Make invisible information visible

24
Optional Crime Laboratory Services
  • THESE SERVICES ARE FOUND IN
  • CENTRALIZED LABORATORIES
  • TOXICOLOGY UNIT
  • LATENT FINGERPRINT UNIT
  • POLYGRAPH UNIT
  • VOICEPRINT ANALYSIS UNIT
  • CRIME-SCENE INVESTIGATION UNIT

25
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26
Toxicology Unit
  • Examines body fluids and organs to determine the
    presence or absence of drugs or poisons

27
Latent Fingerprint Unit
  • Processes and examines evidence for latent (or
    non-visible) fingerprints or palm prints

28
Polygraph Unit
  • Polygraph (lie detector) technology is usually
    used by criminal investigators
  • Technicians are trained in interrogation
    techniques

29
Voiceprint Analysis
  • Believed that speech patterns are unique to an
    individual
  • Analysis of telephoned threats or taped messages
  • Uses sound spectrograph, that transforms speech
    into a visual graphic display called a voiceprint

30
Crime-scene Investigation Unit
  • Specially trained personnel that travel to a
    crime scene to collect and preserve physical
    evidence
  • Must be able to distinguish between physical
    evidence that is valuable and that which is not

31
Functions of a Forensic Scientist
  • Applies physical and natural science techniques
    to analyze the many types of physical evidence
  • (Only physical evidence is free of error or
    bias)
  • Subjects all physical evidence to principals of
    Scientific Method
  • Explain the significance of the results in a
    court of law as an expert witness

32
Scientific Method
  • Formulate a question worthy of investigation.
  • Formulate a reasonable hypothesis to answer the
    question.
  • Test the hypothesis through experimentation.
  • Upon validation of the hypothesis, it become
    suitable as scientific evidence

33
Role of an Expert Witness
  • An expert witness is an individual whom the court
    determines possesses knowledge relevant to the
    trial that is not expected of the average person.
  • The expert witness is called on to evaluate
    evidence based on specialized training and
    experience that the court lacks the expertise to
    do.
  • The expert will then express an opinion as to the
    significance of the findings.
  • Forensic scientists also participate in training
    law enforcement personnel in the proper
    recognition, collection, and preservation of
    physical evidence.

34
Admissibility of Evidence
  • The Frye v. United States decision set guidelines
    for determining the admissibility of scientific
    evidence into the courtroom.
  • To meet the Frye standard, the evidence in
    question must be generally accepted by the
    scientific community.
  • 1993 case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow
    Pharmaceutical, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court
    asserted that the Frye standard is not an
    absolute requirement for the admissibility of
    scientific evidence.
  • Trial judges were said to be ultimately
    responsible as gatekeepers for the
    admissibility and validity of scientific evidence
    presented in their courts, as well as all expert
    testimony.

35
Daubert Evidential Criteria
  • Whether the scientific technique or theory can
    be tested.
  • Whether the technique has been subject to peer
    review and publication.
  • The techniques potential rate of error.
  • Existence and maintenance of standards .
  • Whether the scientific theory or method has
    attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant
    scientific community.

36
Special Forensic Services
  • A number of special forensic science services are
    available to the law enforcement community to
    augment the services of the crime laboratory.
  • These services include forensic pathology,
    forensic anthropology, forensic entomology,
    forensic psychiatry, forensic odontology,
    computer science, and forensic engineering.

37
Special Forensic Services
  • Forensic Psychiatry is an area in which the
    relationship between human behavior and legal
    proceedings is examined.
  • Forensic Odontology involves using teeth to
    provide information about the identification of
    victims when a body is left in an unrecognizable
    state. Also investigates bite marks.
  • Forensic Engineering is concerned with failure
    analysis, accident reconstruction, and causes and
    origins of fires or explosions.
  • Forensic Computer Science involves the
    examination of digital evidence.
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