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CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM)

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Title: CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) Author: Machicky Mayestino Last modified by: Machicky Mayestino Created Date: 11/19/2011 2:22:36 AM Document ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM)


1
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM)
  • Machicky Mayestino Triono Soendoro, ST., MMT.
  • Universitas Narotama Surabaya

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PENDAHULUAN
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Teknologi
  • UU ? Teknologi adalah
  • cara/metode serta proses /produk
  • dihasilkan dari pemanfaatan berbagai disiplin
    ilmu pengetahuan
  • menghasilkan nilai bagi pemenuhan kebutuhan,
    kelangsungan dan peningkatan mutu kehidupan
    manusia

15
Information Technology
  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Information technology (IT) is the acquisition,
    processing, storage and dissemination of vocal,
    pictorial, textual and numerical information by a
    microelectronics-based combination of computing
    and telecommunications.1 The term in its modern
    sense first appeared in a 1958 article published
    in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors
    Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new
    technology does not yet have a single established
    name. We shall call it information
    technology."2
  • 1 Longley Shain 1985, p. 164
  • 2 "information technology (subscription
    required)", Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.),
    Oxford University Press, 1989, http//dictionary.o
    ed.com/, retrieved 20 November 2010

16
Information and communications technology
  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Information and communications technology or
    information and communication technology,1
    usually called ICT, is often used as an extended
    synonym for information technology (IT) but is
    usually a more general term that stresses the
    role of unified communications and the
    integration of telecommunications (telephone
    lines and wireless signals), intelligent building
    management systems and audio-visual systems in
    modern information technology. ICT consists of
    all technical means used to handle information
    and aid communication, including computer and
    network hardware, communication middleware as
    well as necessary software. In other words, ICT
    consists of IT as well as telephony, broadcast
    media, all types of audio and video processing
    and transmission and network based control and
    monitoring functions.2 The expression was first
    used in 19973 in a report by Dennis Stevenson
    to the UK government4 and promoted by the new
    National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000.

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ICT References
  • 1 Sometimes used with technologies in the
    plural. Originally, only information and
    communications technology (with communications in
    the plural) was considered correct since ICT
    refers to communications (in the sense of a
    method, technology, or system of sending and
    receiving information, specifically telephone
    lines, computers, and networks), not
    communication (the act of sending or receiving
    information by speaking, writing, phoning,
    emailing, etc. or a message containing such
    information), and the older form (information and
    communications technology) is still the only one
    recorded in professionally edited reference works
    (e.g. Oxford Dictionaries Online, Computer
    Desktop Encyclopedia, Webopedia, and Encarta
    World English Dictionary) and preferred by many
    style guides (e.g. Editorial Style Guide of the
    Republic of South Africa. Nevertheless, the form
    information and communication technology is
    becoming increasingly common and is now used in
    about half the books that can be searched using
    Google Books and is for example also used by the
    2 International Telecommunication Union.
  • 3 http//foldoc.org/InformationandCommunicatio
    nTechnology 4http//specials.ft.com/lifeonthe
    net/FT3NXTH03DC.html The Independent ICT in
    Schools Commission (1997) Information and
    Communications Technology in UK Schools, an
    independent inquiry. London, UK. Author chair
    Dennis Stevenson

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Management information systemFrom Wikipedia, the
free encyclopedia
  • A management information system (MIS) is a system
    that provides information needed to manage
    organizations effectively.1 Management
    information systems are regarded to be a subset
    of the overall internal controls procedures in a
    business, which cover the application of people,
    documents, technologies, and procedures used by
    management accountants to solve business problems
    such as costing a product, service or a
    business-wide strategy. Management information
    systems are distinct from regular information
    systems in that they are used to analyze other
    information systems applied in operational
    activities in the organization.2 Academically,
    the term is commonly used to refer to the group
    of information management methods tied to the
    automation or support of human decision making,
    e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems,
    and Executive information systems.2

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MIS to ERP and beyond
  • The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of
    applications, which were developed to provide
    managers with information about sales,
    inventories, and other data that would help in
    managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used
    broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but
    is not limited to) decision support systems,
    resource and people management applications,
    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain
    Management (SCM), Customer Relationship
    Management (CRM), project management and database
    retrieval applications.

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MIS References
  • 1 http//www.occ.treas.gov/handbook/mis.pdf
  • 2 OBrien, J (1999). Management Information
    Systems Managing Information Technology in the
    Internetworked Enterprise. Boston Irwin
    McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071123733.

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Oleh karenanya adalah sangat penting bagi
produsen untuk mengetahui hal-hal kunci
tentang siapa (who) apa (what) di mana
(where) bilamana (when) bagaimana
(how) mengapa (why) menyangkut segala
sistem yang berhubungan dengan sistemnya sendiri.
?
?
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  • Penelitian Sybase Customer Asset Management
    Solution oleh www.sybase.com
  • menunjukkan hal-hal yang menarik sebagai berikut
  • Memerlukan biaya enam (6) kali lipat untuk
    menjual sesuatu kepada
  • konsumen baru daripada kepada konsumen lama.
  • Konsumen tertentu yang tidak puas akan suatu
    produsen akan menyebarkan
  • berita tentang ketidakpuasannya ini ke sekitar
    8-10 orang lain.
  • Suatu perusahaan dapat meningkatkan keuntungan
    niaganya sebanyak
  • 85, dengan biaya 5, guna pengelolaan hubungan
    dengan konsumennya
  • untuk mempertahankan kesetiaan konsumen
    tersebut.
  • Kemungkinan (probabilitas) penjualan kepada
    konsumen baru sukses
  • adalah 15, kemungkinan hal yang sama terhadap
    konsumen lama adalah
  • 50.
  • Sebanyak 70 konsumen yang tidak puas akan
    bersedia meneruskan
  • hubungan niaga itu dengan membeli produk atau
    layanan yang sama atau
  • lainnya, bila keluhan itu ditanggapi dengan
    cepat.
  • Lebih dari 90 perusahaan di dunia, tidak
    memiliki sistem penjualan dan
  • pelayanan terpadu yang dapat mendukung
    E-Commerce (perniagaan yang

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SYSTEM ANALYSIS
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INPUT Man Machine Money Material Methodology (5
M) Information Time Etc.
OUTPUT Finished Goods Services Waste Etc.
PROCESS/ PRODUCTION BLACK BOX
Feeding Back System
Closed Loop I P O System Wayne C Turner Joe
H Mize - Kenneth E Case Introduction to
Industrial and Systems Engineering
26

Porters Five Competitive Forces
DEMOGRAFI
LINGKUNGAN UMUM
SOSIAL BUDAYA
POLITIK HUKUM
LINGKUNGAN PASAR BERSAING
A
PERSAINGAN (Rivalry)
B
LINGKUNGAN INDUSTRI
MAKRO EKONOMI
TEKNOLOGI
LINGKUNGAN PERUSAHAAN
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Tarek M Khalills Management of Technology, based
on Porters Five Competitive Forces, 1980
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Aktivitas Value Chain Michael Porter Sumber
M.E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, New York,
Free Press 1985
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Michael Porters Generic Strategy Theory Sumber
M.E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, New York,
Free Press 1985
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EB EC BI CRM SCM ERP
Komponen rumusan E-Business Strauss-Frost
EB SCM CRM SeCM KT ERP EP
Komponen rumusan E-Business Kalakota-Robinson
EB E-Business EC E-Commerce BI Business
Intelligence CRM Customer Relationship
Management SCM Supply Chain Management SeCM
Selling Chain Management KT Knowledge Tone ERP
Enterprise Resource Planning EP E-Procurement
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ASPEK PASAR DAN PEMASARAN
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Kondisi Makro Ekonomi
  • Pertimbangan tingkat pertumbuhan penduduk
  • Pertimbangan tingkat suku bunga
  • Pertimbangan nilai tukar mata uang
  • Pertimbangan pertumbuhan ekonomi
  • Pertimbangan tingkat pendapatan
  • Pertimbangan tingkat perkembangan pasar

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Pasar dan Market Share
  • Jangan menjual produk yang dapat kamu buat,
    tetapi buatlah produk yang dapat kamu jual. Ini
    tentang apa yang dapat kita jual, bukan apa yang
    dapat kita buat
  • Pasar, adalah seluruh potensi konsumen yang ada
    yang dapat menyerap produk yang dijual
  • Market share, adalah persentase total penjualan
    pasar suatu perusahaan untuk suatu jenis produk
    tertentu (pangsa pasar)

37
Penentuan Pelanggan
  • Perilaku konsumen (consumer behavior), yaitu
    studi dari proses keputusan mengapa konsumen
    dapat membeli dan mengkonsumsi produk-produk
  • Faktor-faktor personal dan kebiasaan perilaku
    membeli, yaitu faktor psikologis, personal,
    sosial, dan kultural

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Segmenting
  • Segmentasi akan difokuskan atas dasar psikologis
    konsumen, dengan melibatkan satu atau beberapa
    variabel perilaku, yang berupa manfaat produk
    terhadap konsumen
  • merupakan tindakan mengidentifikasi dan membentuk
    kelompok pembeli yang terpisah-pisah yang mungkin
    membutuhkan produk dan bauran pemasaran
    tersendiri
  • Segmentasi Geografi, Demografi, Psikografi,
    Perilaku

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Targeting
  • Targeting, teori tentang bagaimana menentukan
    target pasar yang akan dimasuki, dan target
    seharusnya dimasuki
  • tindakan memilih salah satu atau lebih segmen
    pasar untuk dimasuki.
  • Ukuran dan Pertumbuhan Segmen, Daya Tarik
    Struktural Segmen, Sasaran dan Sumber Daya
    Perusahaan (matriks Pasar-Produk)

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Positioning
  • Positioning, teori tentang bagaimana posisi
    produk yang dianalisa relatif terhadap pesaing
  • Tindakan membangun dan mengkomunikasikan manfaat
    dan kelebihan produk di dalam pasar
  • Penentuan posisi menurut atribut, manfaat,
    pemakai, pesaing, kualitas, produk

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Kegunaan STP
  • Ketiga point tersebut sangat berguna dalam
    menentukan strategi persaingan suatu produk,
    yaitu mengenai
  • Segmen mana yang seharusnya dimasuki, dengan
    melihat peta persepsi konsumen terhadap
    masing-masing produk.
  • Memilih pesaing
  • Bagaimana memposisikan yang terbaik dalam segmen
    yang dipilih

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Penentuan Persaingan
  • Analisis pesaing, yaitu mengenali tujuan,
    strategi, kekuatan dan kelemahan, serta reaksi
    pesaing
  • Strategi bersaing, yaitu menyeimbangkan orientasi
    pelanggan dan pesaing
  • Red Ocean Strategy (win-loss, me-too, head to
    head)
  • Blue Ocean Strategy (win-win, innovation,
    diferrentiation)

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Pemasaran
  • Adalah proses perencanaan dan pelaksanaan
    konsepsi, penetapan harga, promosi, dan
    distribusi dari gagasan, barang, dan jasa untuk
    menciptakan pertukaran yang memuaskan tujuan
    perseorangan dan organisasi.
  • Bauran pemasaran, adalah gabungan strategi
    produk, penetapan harga, promosi, dan distribusi
    yang digunakan untuk memasarkan produk-produk.

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Bauran Pemasaran
  • Bauran Pemasaran (marketing mix, 4 P Product,
    Price, Place, Promotion)
  • Keputusan produk (bauran produk, lini produk,
    merk)
  • Keputusan harga (penetapan harga, perubahan
    harga)
  • Keputusan lokasi (penentuan jaringan distribusi,
    tempat usaha)
  • Keputusan promosi (penentuan strategi promosi,
    media promosi)

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Keputusan Pemasaran
  1. Berapa pasar potensial yang ada.
  2. Berapa pangsa pasar yang akan diraih.
  3. Keputusan strategi Pemasaran yang akan
    diterapkan.
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